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应用于弱光探测的热敏超导谐振器

周品嘉 王轶文 韦联福

应用于弱光探测的热敏超导谐振器

周品嘉, 王轶文, 韦联福
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  • 近几十年来,超导单光子探测技术被越来越广泛的应用于量子保密通信与线性光量子计算等重要领域中. 其中,基于超导共面波导谐振器的单光子技术以其结构简单,高探测效率及可分辨光子数目等特性吸引了人们越来越多的关注. 随着科研工作者对样品制备工艺的不断改进,对选用超导薄膜材料的不断优化,以及对相关背景理论的深入研究,共面波导谐振器单光子探测技术在近几年中取得了巨大的突破. 本文将从共面波导谐振器单光子探测器的工作原理,相关理论研究,样品参数设计等方面出发,结合本实验室近期测试得到的实验结果,对共面波导谐振器单光子探测技术的发展近况进行简要的综述.
    • 基金项目: 国家重点基础研究计划项目(批准号:2010CB923104)、国家自然科学基金(批准号:91321104,61301031,11174373)和国家高技术研究发展计划(批准号:2010CB923104)资助的课题.
    [1]

    Devoret M H, Schoelkopf R J 2013 Science 339 1169

    [2]

    Xiang Z L, Ashhab S, You J Q, Nori F 2013 Rev. Mod. Phys. 85 623

    [3]

    Zhao N, Liu J S, Li T F, Chen W 2013, Acta Phys. Sin. 62 010301 (in Chinese) [赵娜, 刘建设, 李铁夫, 陈炜2013 物理学报62 010301]

    [4]

    Day P K, Leduc H G, Mazin B A, Vayonakis A, Zmuidzinas J 2003 Nature 425 817

    [5]

    Hiskett P A, Rosenberg D, Peterson C G, Hughes R J, Nam S, Lita A E, Miller A J, Nordholt J E 2006 New J. Phys. 8 193

    [6]

    Knill E, Laflamme R, Milburn G J 2001 Nature 409 46

    [7]

    Wang H P, Wang G L, Ni H Q, Xu Y Q, Niu Z C, Gao F Q 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 194205 (in Chinese)[王红培, 王广龙, 倪海桥, 徐应强, 牛智川, 高凤岐2013 物理学报62 194205]

    [8]

    Yin W H, Han Q, Yang X H 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 248502 (in Chinese) [尹伟红, 韩勤, 杨晓红2012 物理学报 61 248502]

    [9]

    Sun Z B, Ma H Q, Lei B, Yang H D, Wu L A, Zhai G J, Feng J 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 5790 (in Chinese)[孙志斌, 马海强, 雷鸣, 杨捍东, 吴令安, 翟光杰, 冯稷2007 物理学报56 5790]

    [10]

    Watanabe K, Yoshida K, Aoki T Kohjiro S 1994 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33 5708

    [11]

    Baselmans J, Barends R, Hovenier J N, Gao J R, Hoevers H, Korte P, Klapwijk T M 2005 Bulletin de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege 74 5

    [12]

    Mattis D C, Bardeen J 1958 Phys. Rev. 11 2

    [13]

    Gao J S, Daal M, Vayonakis A, Kumar S, Zmuidzinas J, Sadoulet B, Mazin B A, Day P K, Leduc H G 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 152505

    [14]

    Gao J, Vissers M R, Sandberg M O, Silva F C S, Nam S W, Pappas D P, Wisbey D S, Langman E C, Meeker S R, Mazin B A, Leduc H G, Zmuidzinas J, Irwin K D 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 101 142602

    [15]

    Zhang L B, Kang L, Chen J, Zhao Q Y, Jia T, Xu W W, Cao C H, Jin B B, Wu P H 2011 Acta. Phys. Sin. 60 038501 (in Chinese) [张蜡宝, 康琳, 陈健, 赵清源, 郏涛, 许伟伟, 曹春海, 金飚兵, 吴培亨2011 物理学报60 038501]

    [16]

    Zhou Y, Zhang L B, Jia T, Zhao Q Y, Gu M, Qiu J, Kang L, Chen J, Wu P H 2012 Acta. Phys. Sin. 61 208501 (in Chinese)[周渝, 张蜡宝, 郏涛, 赵清源, 顾敏, 邱健, 康琳, 陈健, 吴培亨2012 物理学报61 208501]

    [17]

    Tsman G N, Okunev O, Chulkova G, Lipatov A, Semenov A, Smirnov K, Voronov B, Dzardanov A, Williams C, Sobolewski R 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 705

    [18]

    Lita A E, Miller A J, Nam S W 2008 Opt. Express 16 3032

    [19]

    Fujii G, Fukuda D, Numata T, Yoshizawa A, Tsuchida H, Inoue S 2012 J. Low. Temp. Phys. 10 1007

    [20]

    Nielsen M A, Chuang I L 2000 Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambrige: Cambrige University Press)

    [21]

    Sadleir J E, Smith S J, Robinson I K, Finkbeiner F M, Chervenak J A, Bandler S R, Eckart M E, Kilbourne C A 2011 Phys. Rev. B 84 184502

    [22]

    Friedrich S, Funk T, Drury O, Labov S E, Cramer S P 2002 Rev. Sci. Inst. 73 1629

    [23]

    Irwin K D, Hilton G C 2005 Chr. Enss (2 Ed.): Cryogenic Particle Detection, Topics Appl. Phys. 99 63

    [24]

    Martin D D E, Verhoeve P 2010 Superconducting tunnel junctions

    [25]

    Natarajan C M, Tanner M G, Hadfield R H 2012 Superconductor Science and Technology 25 063001

    [26]

    Mazin B A 2004 Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (California: California Institute of Thechnology)

    [27]

    Calvo M 2008 Development of Kinetic Inductance Detectors for the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (Roma: Sapienza University)

    [28]

    Chambers R G 1952 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 215 481

    [29]

    London F 1936 Nature 137 991

    [30]

    Pippard A B 1953 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 216 547

    [31]

    Mattis D C, Bardeen J 1958 Phys. Rev. 111 412

    [32]

    Glover R E, Tinkham M 1957 Physical Review 108 243

    [33]

    Zmuidzinas J 2012 Annu. Rev. Condens.Matter Phys. 3 169

    [34]

    Gao J, Zmuidzinas J, Mazin B A, Leduc H G, Day P K 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 102507

    [35]

    Gao J, Daal M, Martinis J M, Vayonakis A, Zmuidzinas J, Sadoulet B, Mazin B A, Day P K, Leduc H G 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 212504

    [36]

    Anderson P W, Halperin B I, Varma C M 1972 Philos. Mag. 25 1

    [37]

    Phillips W A 1972 J. Low Temp. Phys. 7 351

    [38]

    Li J S, Yin M, Wang J X, He D Y 2005 Chinese Physics Letters 22 3130

    [39]

    Gao J S 2008 The Physics of Superconducting Microwave Resonators (Califonia: California Institute of Technology)

    [40]

    Kumar S, Day P, LeDuc H, Mazin B, Eckart M, Gao J, Zmuidzinas J 2006 Santa Barbara: APS March Meeting Abstract B38 2

    [41]

    Barends R, Baselmans J J A, Hovenier J N, Gao J R, Yates S J C, Klapwijk T M, Hoevers H F C 2007 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17 263

    [42]

    Pozar D M 1998 Microwave Engineering, 2nd New York

    [43]

    Doyle S, Mauskopf P, Zhang J, Withington S, Goldie D, Glowacka D, Roesch M 2009 In AIP Conference Proceedings 1185 156

    [44]

    Simons R 2001 Coplanar Waveguide Circuits, Components and Systems. Wiley-Interscience

    [45]

    Gevorgian S S 1994 Electro. Lett. 30 15

    [46]

    Sergeev A, Mitin V, Karasik B 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 817

    [47]

    Beenakker C Schnenberger C 2003 Phys. Today 5 37

    [48]

    Kozorezov A G, Volkov A F, Wigmore J K, Peacock A, Poelaert A, Hartog R den 2000 Phys. Rev. B 61 11807

    [49]

    Fano U 1947 Phys. Rev. 72 26

    [50]

    Zhang X, Zhang D L 2007 Chin. Phys. 16 2656

    [51]

    Li H J, Wang Y W, Wei L F, Zhou P J, Wei Q, Cao C H, Fang Y R, Yu Y, Wu P H 2013 Chi. Sci. Bull. 58 1

    [52]

    Ponchak G E, Papapolymerou J, Tentzeris M M 2005 IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 53 713

    [53]

    Lindstrom T, Healey J E, Colclough M S, Muirhead C M, Tzalenchuk A Ya 2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 132501

    [54]

    Wisbey D S, Gao J, Vissers M R, Silva F C S, Kline J S, Vale L, Pappas D P 2010 J. Appl. Phys. 108 093918

    [55]

    Wang Y W, Zhou P J, Wei L F, Li H J, Zhang B H, Zhang M, Wei Q, Fang Y R, Cao C H 2013 J. Appl. Phys. 114 153109

    [56]

    De Visser P J, Withington S, Goldie D J 2010 J. Appl. Phys. 108 114504

    [57]

    Gao J, Mazin B A, Daal M, Day P, LeDuc H, Zmuidzinas J 2006 In Proc. SPIE 6275 627509

    [58]

    McHugh S, Mazin B A, Serfass B, Meeker S, O’Brien K, Duan R, Rakanti R, Werthimer D 2012 Review of Scientific Instruments 83 044702

    [59]

    Sandberg M, Vissers M R, Kline J S, Weides M, Gao J, Wisbey D S, Pappas D P 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 262605

    [60]

    Quaranta O, Cecil T W, Miceli A 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercon. 23 3

    [61]

    Vissers M R, GaoJ, Sandberg M, Duff S M, Wisbey D S, Irwin K D Pappas D P 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 232603.

    [62]

    Moore D C, Golwala S, Bumble B, Cornell B, Mazin B A, Gao J, Day P K, LeDuc H G, Zmuidzinas J 2012 J. Low, Temp. Phys. 167 329

  • [1]

    Devoret M H, Schoelkopf R J 2013 Science 339 1169

    [2]

    Xiang Z L, Ashhab S, You J Q, Nori F 2013 Rev. Mod. Phys. 85 623

    [3]

    Zhao N, Liu J S, Li T F, Chen W 2013, Acta Phys. Sin. 62 010301 (in Chinese) [赵娜, 刘建设, 李铁夫, 陈炜2013 物理学报62 010301]

    [4]

    Day P K, Leduc H G, Mazin B A, Vayonakis A, Zmuidzinas J 2003 Nature 425 817

    [5]

    Hiskett P A, Rosenberg D, Peterson C G, Hughes R J, Nam S, Lita A E, Miller A J, Nordholt J E 2006 New J. Phys. 8 193

    [6]

    Knill E, Laflamme R, Milburn G J 2001 Nature 409 46

    [7]

    Wang H P, Wang G L, Ni H Q, Xu Y Q, Niu Z C, Gao F Q 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 194205 (in Chinese)[王红培, 王广龙, 倪海桥, 徐应强, 牛智川, 高凤岐2013 物理学报62 194205]

    [8]

    Yin W H, Han Q, Yang X H 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 248502 (in Chinese) [尹伟红, 韩勤, 杨晓红2012 物理学报 61 248502]

    [9]

    Sun Z B, Ma H Q, Lei B, Yang H D, Wu L A, Zhai G J, Feng J 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 5790 (in Chinese)[孙志斌, 马海强, 雷鸣, 杨捍东, 吴令安, 翟光杰, 冯稷2007 物理学报56 5790]

    [10]

    Watanabe K, Yoshida K, Aoki T Kohjiro S 1994 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33 5708

    [11]

    Baselmans J, Barends R, Hovenier J N, Gao J R, Hoevers H, Korte P, Klapwijk T M 2005 Bulletin de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege 74 5

    [12]

    Mattis D C, Bardeen J 1958 Phys. Rev. 11 2

    [13]

    Gao J S, Daal M, Vayonakis A, Kumar S, Zmuidzinas J, Sadoulet B, Mazin B A, Day P K, Leduc H G 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 152505

    [14]

    Gao J, Vissers M R, Sandberg M O, Silva F C S, Nam S W, Pappas D P, Wisbey D S, Langman E C, Meeker S R, Mazin B A, Leduc H G, Zmuidzinas J, Irwin K D 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 101 142602

    [15]

    Zhang L B, Kang L, Chen J, Zhao Q Y, Jia T, Xu W W, Cao C H, Jin B B, Wu P H 2011 Acta. Phys. Sin. 60 038501 (in Chinese) [张蜡宝, 康琳, 陈健, 赵清源, 郏涛, 许伟伟, 曹春海, 金飚兵, 吴培亨2011 物理学报60 038501]

    [16]

    Zhou Y, Zhang L B, Jia T, Zhao Q Y, Gu M, Qiu J, Kang L, Chen J, Wu P H 2012 Acta. Phys. Sin. 61 208501 (in Chinese)[周渝, 张蜡宝, 郏涛, 赵清源, 顾敏, 邱健, 康琳, 陈健, 吴培亨2012 物理学报61 208501]

    [17]

    Tsman G N, Okunev O, Chulkova G, Lipatov A, Semenov A, Smirnov K, Voronov B, Dzardanov A, Williams C, Sobolewski R 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 705

    [18]

    Lita A E, Miller A J, Nam S W 2008 Opt. Express 16 3032

    [19]

    Fujii G, Fukuda D, Numata T, Yoshizawa A, Tsuchida H, Inoue S 2012 J. Low. Temp. Phys. 10 1007

    [20]

    Nielsen M A, Chuang I L 2000 Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambrige: Cambrige University Press)

    [21]

    Sadleir J E, Smith S J, Robinson I K, Finkbeiner F M, Chervenak J A, Bandler S R, Eckart M E, Kilbourne C A 2011 Phys. Rev. B 84 184502

    [22]

    Friedrich S, Funk T, Drury O, Labov S E, Cramer S P 2002 Rev. Sci. Inst. 73 1629

    [23]

    Irwin K D, Hilton G C 2005 Chr. Enss (2 Ed.): Cryogenic Particle Detection, Topics Appl. Phys. 99 63

    [24]

    Martin D D E, Verhoeve P 2010 Superconducting tunnel junctions

    [25]

    Natarajan C M, Tanner M G, Hadfield R H 2012 Superconductor Science and Technology 25 063001

    [26]

    Mazin B A 2004 Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (California: California Institute of Thechnology)

    [27]

    Calvo M 2008 Development of Kinetic Inductance Detectors for the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (Roma: Sapienza University)

    [28]

    Chambers R G 1952 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 215 481

    [29]

    London F 1936 Nature 137 991

    [30]

    Pippard A B 1953 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 216 547

    [31]

    Mattis D C, Bardeen J 1958 Phys. Rev. 111 412

    [32]

    Glover R E, Tinkham M 1957 Physical Review 108 243

    [33]

    Zmuidzinas J 2012 Annu. Rev. Condens.Matter Phys. 3 169

    [34]

    Gao J, Zmuidzinas J, Mazin B A, Leduc H G, Day P K 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 102507

    [35]

    Gao J, Daal M, Martinis J M, Vayonakis A, Zmuidzinas J, Sadoulet B, Mazin B A, Day P K, Leduc H G 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 212504

    [36]

    Anderson P W, Halperin B I, Varma C M 1972 Philos. Mag. 25 1

    [37]

    Phillips W A 1972 J. Low Temp. Phys. 7 351

    [38]

    Li J S, Yin M, Wang J X, He D Y 2005 Chinese Physics Letters 22 3130

    [39]

    Gao J S 2008 The Physics of Superconducting Microwave Resonators (Califonia: California Institute of Technology)

    [40]

    Kumar S, Day P, LeDuc H, Mazin B, Eckart M, Gao J, Zmuidzinas J 2006 Santa Barbara: APS March Meeting Abstract B38 2

    [41]

    Barends R, Baselmans J J A, Hovenier J N, Gao J R, Yates S J C, Klapwijk T M, Hoevers H F C 2007 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17 263

    [42]

    Pozar D M 1998 Microwave Engineering, 2nd New York

    [43]

    Doyle S, Mauskopf P, Zhang J, Withington S, Goldie D, Glowacka D, Roesch M 2009 In AIP Conference Proceedings 1185 156

    [44]

    Simons R 2001 Coplanar Waveguide Circuits, Components and Systems. Wiley-Interscience

    [45]

    Gevorgian S S 1994 Electro. Lett. 30 15

    [46]

    Sergeev A, Mitin V, Karasik B 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 817

    [47]

    Beenakker C Schnenberger C 2003 Phys. Today 5 37

    [48]

    Kozorezov A G, Volkov A F, Wigmore J K, Peacock A, Poelaert A, Hartog R den 2000 Phys. Rev. B 61 11807

    [49]

    Fano U 1947 Phys. Rev. 72 26

    [50]

    Zhang X, Zhang D L 2007 Chin. Phys. 16 2656

    [51]

    Li H J, Wang Y W, Wei L F, Zhou P J, Wei Q, Cao C H, Fang Y R, Yu Y, Wu P H 2013 Chi. Sci. Bull. 58 1

    [52]

    Ponchak G E, Papapolymerou J, Tentzeris M M 2005 IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 53 713

    [53]

    Lindstrom T, Healey J E, Colclough M S, Muirhead C M, Tzalenchuk A Ya 2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 132501

    [54]

    Wisbey D S, Gao J, Vissers M R, Silva F C S, Kline J S, Vale L, Pappas D P 2010 J. Appl. Phys. 108 093918

    [55]

    Wang Y W, Zhou P J, Wei L F, Li H J, Zhang B H, Zhang M, Wei Q, Fang Y R, Cao C H 2013 J. Appl. Phys. 114 153109

    [56]

    De Visser P J, Withington S, Goldie D J 2010 J. Appl. Phys. 108 114504

    [57]

    Gao J, Mazin B A, Daal M, Day P, LeDuc H, Zmuidzinas J 2006 In Proc. SPIE 6275 627509

    [58]

    McHugh S, Mazin B A, Serfass B, Meeker S, O’Brien K, Duan R, Rakanti R, Werthimer D 2012 Review of Scientific Instruments 83 044702

    [59]

    Sandberg M, Vissers M R, Kline J S, Weides M, Gao J, Wisbey D S, Pappas D P 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 262605

    [60]

    Quaranta O, Cecil T W, Miceli A 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercon. 23 3

    [61]

    Vissers M R, GaoJ, Sandberg M, Duff S M, Wisbey D S, Irwin K D Pappas D P 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 232603.

    [62]

    Moore D C, Golwala S, Bumble B, Cornell B, Mazin B A, Gao J, Day P K, LeDuc H G, Zmuidzinas J 2012 J. Low, Temp. Phys. 167 329

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  • 收稿日期:  2013-12-08
  • 修回日期:  2013-12-19
  • 刊出日期:  2014-04-05

应用于弱光探测的热敏超导谐振器

  • 1. 西南交通大学, 物理科学与技术学院, 量子光电实验室, 成都 610031;
  • 2. 中山大学, 物理科学与工程学院, 光电材料与技术国家重点实验室, 广州 510275
    基金项目: 

    国家重点基础研究计划项目(批准号:2010CB923104)、国家自然科学基金(批准号:91321104,61301031,11174373)和国家高技术研究发展计划(批准号:2010CB923104)资助的课题.

摘要: 近几十年来,超导单光子探测技术被越来越广泛的应用于量子保密通信与线性光量子计算等重要领域中. 其中,基于超导共面波导谐振器的单光子技术以其结构简单,高探测效率及可分辨光子数目等特性吸引了人们越来越多的关注. 随着科研工作者对样品制备工艺的不断改进,对选用超导薄膜材料的不断优化,以及对相关背景理论的深入研究,共面波导谐振器单光子探测技术在近几年中取得了巨大的突破. 本文将从共面波导谐振器单光子探测器的工作原理,相关理论研究,样品参数设计等方面出发,结合本实验室近期测试得到的实验结果,对共面波导谐振器单光子探测技术的发展近况进行简要的综述.

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