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高效率钙钛矿太阳电池发展中的关键问题

杨旭东 陈汉 毕恩兵 韩礼元

高效率钙钛矿太阳电池发展中的关键问题

杨旭东, 陈汉, 毕恩兵, 韩礼元
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  • 钙钛矿太阳电池的迅速发展为解决未来能源问题带来一线曙光. 但是, 钙钛矿太阳电池在高效率电池器件的可重现性、稳定性以及性能评估等方面还面临着很多问题, 严重制约其今后的发展. 本文综述了钙钛矿太阳电池面世以来发生的重要进展, 以及存在的几个关键性问题. 从器件基本结构和基本工作原理出发, 本文重点讨论了光吸收层的光谱和形貌等性质对器件性能和可重现性的影响, 阐明了电子传输层和空穴阻隔层的重要作用, 论述了空穴传输层的相关进展以及其对器件稳定性的影响. 通过对以上关键问题的讨论和总结, 本文对钙钛矿太阳电池未来的研究发展进行了展望.
    • 基金项目: 上海交通大学211三期工程项目(批准号: WS3116205009)资助的课题.
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    [2]

    Im J H, Lee C R, Lee J W, Park S W, Park N G 2011 Nanoscale 3 4088

    [3]

    Kim H S, Lee C R, Im J H, Lee K B, Moehl T, Marchioro A, Moon S J, Humphry-Baker R, Yum J H, Moser J E, Grätzel M, Park N G 2012 Scientific Reports 2 7

    [4]

    Lee M M, Teuscher J, Miyasaka T, Murakami T N, Snaith H J 2012 Science 338 643

    [5]

    Liu M Z, Johnston M B, Snaith H J 2013 Nature 501 395

    [6]

    Burschka J, Pellet N, Moon S J, Humphry-Baker R, Gao P, Nazeeruddin M K, Grätzel M 2013 Nature 499 316

    [7]

    Stranks S D, Eperon G E, Grancini G, Menelaou C, Alcocer M J P, Leijtens T, Herz L M, Petrozza A, Snaith H J 2013 Science 342 341

    [8]

    Xing G C, Mathews N, Sun S Y, Lim S S, Lam Y M, Grätzel M, Mhaisalkar S, Sum T C 2013 Science 342 344

    [9]

    Zhou H P, Chen Q, Li G, Luo S, Song T B, Duan H S, Hong Z R, You J B, Liu Y S, Yang Y 2014 Science 345 542

    [10]

    Mei A Y, Li X, Liu L F, Ku Z L, Liu T F, Rong Y G, Xu M, Hu M, Chen J Z, Yang Y, Grätzel M, Han H W 2014 Science 345 295

    [11]

    Luo J, Im J H, Mayer M T, Schreier M, Nazeeruddin M K, Park N G, Tilley S D, Fan H J, Graetzel M 2014 Science 345 1593

    [12]

    Wojciechowski K, Saliba M, Leijtens T, Abate A, Snaith H J 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 1142

    [13]

    Liu D Y, Kelly T L 2014 Nat. Photonics 8 133

    [14]

    Pellet N, Gao P, Gregori G, Yang T Y, Nazeeruddin M K, Maier J, Grätzel M 2014 Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit. 53 3151

    [15]

    Amat A, Mosconi E, Ronca E, Quarti C, Umari P, Nazeeruddin M K, Grätzel M, De Angelis F 2014 Nano Lett. 14 3608

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    Hanusch F C, Wiesenmayer E, Mankel E, Binek A, Angloher P, Fraunhofer C, Giesbrecht N, Feckl J M, Jaegermann W, Johrendt D, Bein T, Docampo P 2014 J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5 2791

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    Koh T M, Fu K W, Fang Y N, Chen S, Sum T C, Mathews N, Mhaisalkar S G, Boix P P, Baikie T 2014 J. Phys. Chem. C 118 16458

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    Baikie T, Fang Y N, Kadro J M, Schreyer M, Wei F X, Mhaisalkar S G, Graetzel M, White T J 2013 J. Mater. Chem. A 1 5628

    [19]

    Stoumpos C C, Malliakas C D, Kanatzidis M G 2013 Inorg. Chem. 52 9019

    [20]

    Eperon G E, Stranks S D, Menelaou C, Johnston M B, Herz L M, Snaith H J 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 982

    [21]

    Lv S L, Pang S P, Zhou Y Y, Padture N P, Hu H, Wang L, Zhou X H, Zhu H M, Zhang L X, Huang C S, Cui G L 2014 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16 19206

    [22]

    Lee J W, Seol D J, Cho A N, Park N G 2014 Adv. Mater. 26 4991

    [23]

    Kim H B, Choi H, Jeong J, Kim S, Walker B, Song S, Kim J Y 2014 Nanoscale 6 6679

    [24]

    Hsu H L, Chen C P, Chang J Y, Yu Y Y, Shen Y K 2014 Nanoscale 6 10281

    [25]

    Eperon G E, Burlakov V M, Docampo P, Goriely A, Snaith H J 2014 Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 151

    [26]

    Dualeh A, Tetreault N, Moehl T, Gao P, Nazeeruddin M K, Grätzel M 2014 Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 3250

    [27]

    Chen Q, Zhou H P, Hong Z R, Luo S, Duan H S, Wang H H, Liu Y S, Li G, Yang Y 2014 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136 622

    [28]

    Jeon N J, Noh J H, Kim Y C, Yang W S, Ryu S, Il Seol S 2014 Nat. Mater. 13 897

    [29]

    Wu Y Z, Islam A, Yang X D, Qin C J, Liu J, Zhang K, Peng W Q, Han L Y 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 2934

    [30]

    Conings B, Baeten L, De Dobbelaere C, D'Haen J, Manca J, Boyen H G 2014 Adv. Mater. 26 2041

    [31]

    Qiu J H, Qiu Y C, Yan K Y, Zhong M, Mu C, Yan H, Yang S H 2013 Nanoscale 5 3245

    [32]

    Gao X F, Li J Y, Baker J, Hou Y, Guan D S, Chen J H, Yuan C 2014 Chem. Commun. 50 6368

    [33]

    Bi D Q, Boschloo G, Schwarzmuller S, Yang L, Johansson E M J, Hagfeldt A 2013 Nanoscale 5 11686

    [34]

    Seo J, Park S, Kim Y C, Jeon N J, Noh J H, Yoon S C, Sang S I 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 2642

    [35]

    Wu Y, Yang X, Chen H, Zhang K, Qin C, Liu J, Peng W, Islam A, Bi E, Ye F, Yin M, Zhang P, Han L 2014 Applied Physics Express 7 4

    [36]

    Zheng L L, Chung Y H, Ma Y Z, Zhang L P, Xiao L X, Chen Z J, Wang S F, Qu B, Gong Q H 2014 Chem. Commun. 50 11196

    [37]

    Zhang F Q, Yang X C, Wang H X, Cheng M, Zhao J H, Sun L C 2014 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6 16140

    [38]

    Li W Z, Li J L, Wang L D, Niu G D, Gao R, Qiu Y 2013 J. Mater. Chem. A 1 11735

    [39]

    Noh J H, Jeon N J, Choi Y C, Nazeeruddin M K, Graetzel M, Seok S I 2013 J. Mater. Chem. A 1 11842

    [40]

    Heo J H, Im S H, Noh J H, Mandal T N, Lim C S, Chang J A, Lee Y H, Kim H J, Sarkar A, Nazeeruddin M K, Grätzel M, Seok S I 2013 Nat. Photonics 7 487

    [41]

    Bi D Q, Boschloo G, Hagfeldt A 2014 Nano 9 7

    [42]

    Liu J, Wu Y, Qin C, Yang X, Yasuda T, Islam A, Zhang K, Peng W, Chen W, Han L 2014 Energy & Environmental Science 7 2963

    [43]

    Etgar L, Gao P, Xue Z S, Peng Q, Chandiran A K, Liu B, Nazeeruddin M K, Grätzel M 2012 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 17396

    [44]

    Aharon S, El Cohen B, Etgar L 2014 J. Phys. Chem. C 118 17160

    [45]

    Xu Y, Shi J, Lv S, Zhu L, Dong J, Wu H, Xiao Y, Luo Y, Wang S, Li D, Li X, Meng Q 2014 Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 6 5651

    [46]

    Abu Laban W, Etgar L 2013 Energy Environ. Sci. 6 3249

    [47]

    Shi J J, Luo Y H, Wei H Y, Luo J H, Dong J, Lv S T, Xiao J Y, Xu Y Z, Zhu L F, Xu X, Wu H J, Li D M, Meng Q B 2014 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6 9711

    [48]

    Yang X D, Yanagida M, Han L Y 2013 Energy & Environmental Science 6 54

    [49]

    Snaith H J, Abate A, Ball J M, Eperon G E, Leijtens T, Noel N K, Stranks S D, Wang J T W, Wojciechowski K, Zhang W 2014 J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5 1511

    [50]

    Unger E L, Hoke E T, Bailie C D, Nguyen W H, Bowring A R, Heumueller T, Christoforo M G, McGehee M D 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 3690

    [51]

    Hao F, Stoumpos C C, Cao D H, Chang R P H, Kanatzidis M G 2014 Nat. Photonics 8 489

    [52]

    Noel N K, Stranks S D, Abate A, Wehrenfennig C, Guarnera S, Haghighirad A A, Sadhanala A, Eperon G E, Pathak S K, Johnston M B, Petrozza A, Herz L M, Snaith H J 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 3061

  • [1]

    Kojima A, Teshima K, Shirai Y, Miyasaka T 2009 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 6050

    [2]

    Im J H, Lee C R, Lee J W, Park S W, Park N G 2011 Nanoscale 3 4088

    [3]

    Kim H S, Lee C R, Im J H, Lee K B, Moehl T, Marchioro A, Moon S J, Humphry-Baker R, Yum J H, Moser J E, Grätzel M, Park N G 2012 Scientific Reports 2 7

    [4]

    Lee M M, Teuscher J, Miyasaka T, Murakami T N, Snaith H J 2012 Science 338 643

    [5]

    Liu M Z, Johnston M B, Snaith H J 2013 Nature 501 395

    [6]

    Burschka J, Pellet N, Moon S J, Humphry-Baker R, Gao P, Nazeeruddin M K, Grätzel M 2013 Nature 499 316

    [7]

    Stranks S D, Eperon G E, Grancini G, Menelaou C, Alcocer M J P, Leijtens T, Herz L M, Petrozza A, Snaith H J 2013 Science 342 341

    [8]

    Xing G C, Mathews N, Sun S Y, Lim S S, Lam Y M, Grätzel M, Mhaisalkar S, Sum T C 2013 Science 342 344

    [9]

    Zhou H P, Chen Q, Li G, Luo S, Song T B, Duan H S, Hong Z R, You J B, Liu Y S, Yang Y 2014 Science 345 542

    [10]

    Mei A Y, Li X, Liu L F, Ku Z L, Liu T F, Rong Y G, Xu M, Hu M, Chen J Z, Yang Y, Grätzel M, Han H W 2014 Science 345 295

    [11]

    Luo J, Im J H, Mayer M T, Schreier M, Nazeeruddin M K, Park N G, Tilley S D, Fan H J, Graetzel M 2014 Science 345 1593

    [12]

    Wojciechowski K, Saliba M, Leijtens T, Abate A, Snaith H J 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 1142

    [13]

    Liu D Y, Kelly T L 2014 Nat. Photonics 8 133

    [14]

    Pellet N, Gao P, Gregori G, Yang T Y, Nazeeruddin M K, Maier J, Grätzel M 2014 Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit. 53 3151

    [15]

    Amat A, Mosconi E, Ronca E, Quarti C, Umari P, Nazeeruddin M K, Grätzel M, De Angelis F 2014 Nano Lett. 14 3608

    [16]

    Hanusch F C, Wiesenmayer E, Mankel E, Binek A, Angloher P, Fraunhofer C, Giesbrecht N, Feckl J M, Jaegermann W, Johrendt D, Bein T, Docampo P 2014 J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5 2791

    [17]

    Koh T M, Fu K W, Fang Y N, Chen S, Sum T C, Mathews N, Mhaisalkar S G, Boix P P, Baikie T 2014 J. Phys. Chem. C 118 16458

    [18]

    Baikie T, Fang Y N, Kadro J M, Schreyer M, Wei F X, Mhaisalkar S G, Graetzel M, White T J 2013 J. Mater. Chem. A 1 5628

    [19]

    Stoumpos C C, Malliakas C D, Kanatzidis M G 2013 Inorg. Chem. 52 9019

    [20]

    Eperon G E, Stranks S D, Menelaou C, Johnston M B, Herz L M, Snaith H J 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 982

    [21]

    Lv S L, Pang S P, Zhou Y Y, Padture N P, Hu H, Wang L, Zhou X H, Zhu H M, Zhang L X, Huang C S, Cui G L 2014 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16 19206

    [22]

    Lee J W, Seol D J, Cho A N, Park N G 2014 Adv. Mater. 26 4991

    [23]

    Kim H B, Choi H, Jeong J, Kim S, Walker B, Song S, Kim J Y 2014 Nanoscale 6 6679

    [24]

    Hsu H L, Chen C P, Chang J Y, Yu Y Y, Shen Y K 2014 Nanoscale 6 10281

    [25]

    Eperon G E, Burlakov V M, Docampo P, Goriely A, Snaith H J 2014 Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 151

    [26]

    Dualeh A, Tetreault N, Moehl T, Gao P, Nazeeruddin M K, Grätzel M 2014 Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 3250

    [27]

    Chen Q, Zhou H P, Hong Z R, Luo S, Duan H S, Wang H H, Liu Y S, Li G, Yang Y 2014 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136 622

    [28]

    Jeon N J, Noh J H, Kim Y C, Yang W S, Ryu S, Il Seol S 2014 Nat. Mater. 13 897

    [29]

    Wu Y Z, Islam A, Yang X D, Qin C J, Liu J, Zhang K, Peng W Q, Han L Y 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 2934

    [30]

    Conings B, Baeten L, De Dobbelaere C, D'Haen J, Manca J, Boyen H G 2014 Adv. Mater. 26 2041

    [31]

    Qiu J H, Qiu Y C, Yan K Y, Zhong M, Mu C, Yan H, Yang S H 2013 Nanoscale 5 3245

    [32]

    Gao X F, Li J Y, Baker J, Hou Y, Guan D S, Chen J H, Yuan C 2014 Chem. Commun. 50 6368

    [33]

    Bi D Q, Boschloo G, Schwarzmuller S, Yang L, Johansson E M J, Hagfeldt A 2013 Nanoscale 5 11686

    [34]

    Seo J, Park S, Kim Y C, Jeon N J, Noh J H, Yoon S C, Sang S I 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 2642

    [35]

    Wu Y, Yang X, Chen H, Zhang K, Qin C, Liu J, Peng W, Islam A, Bi E, Ye F, Yin M, Zhang P, Han L 2014 Applied Physics Express 7 4

    [36]

    Zheng L L, Chung Y H, Ma Y Z, Zhang L P, Xiao L X, Chen Z J, Wang S F, Qu B, Gong Q H 2014 Chem. Commun. 50 11196

    [37]

    Zhang F Q, Yang X C, Wang H X, Cheng M, Zhao J H, Sun L C 2014 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6 16140

    [38]

    Li W Z, Li J L, Wang L D, Niu G D, Gao R, Qiu Y 2013 J. Mater. Chem. A 1 11735

    [39]

    Noh J H, Jeon N J, Choi Y C, Nazeeruddin M K, Graetzel M, Seok S I 2013 J. Mater. Chem. A 1 11842

    [40]

    Heo J H, Im S H, Noh J H, Mandal T N, Lim C S, Chang J A, Lee Y H, Kim H J, Sarkar A, Nazeeruddin M K, Grätzel M, Seok S I 2013 Nat. Photonics 7 487

    [41]

    Bi D Q, Boschloo G, Hagfeldt A 2014 Nano 9 7

    [42]

    Liu J, Wu Y, Qin C, Yang X, Yasuda T, Islam A, Zhang K, Peng W, Chen W, Han L 2014 Energy & Environmental Science 7 2963

    [43]

    Etgar L, Gao P, Xue Z S, Peng Q, Chandiran A K, Liu B, Nazeeruddin M K, Grätzel M 2012 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 17396

    [44]

    Aharon S, El Cohen B, Etgar L 2014 J. Phys. Chem. C 118 17160

    [45]

    Xu Y, Shi J, Lv S, Zhu L, Dong J, Wu H, Xiao Y, Luo Y, Wang S, Li D, Li X, Meng Q 2014 Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces 6 5651

    [46]

    Abu Laban W, Etgar L 2013 Energy Environ. Sci. 6 3249

    [47]

    Shi J J, Luo Y H, Wei H Y, Luo J H, Dong J, Lv S T, Xiao J Y, Xu Y Z, Zhu L F, Xu X, Wu H J, Li D M, Meng Q B 2014 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6 9711

    [48]

    Yang X D, Yanagida M, Han L Y 2013 Energy & Environmental Science 6 54

    [49]

    Snaith H J, Abate A, Ball J M, Eperon G E, Leijtens T, Noel N K, Stranks S D, Wang J T W, Wojciechowski K, Zhang W 2014 J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5 1511

    [50]

    Unger E L, Hoke E T, Bailie C D, Nguyen W H, Bowring A R, Heumueller T, Christoforo M G, McGehee M D 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 3690

    [51]

    Hao F, Stoumpos C C, Cao D H, Chang R P H, Kanatzidis M G 2014 Nat. Photonics 8 489

    [52]

    Noel N K, Stranks S D, Abate A, Wehrenfennig C, Guarnera S, Haghighirad A A, Sadhanala A, Eperon G E, Pathak S K, Johnston M B, Petrozza A, Herz L M, Snaith H J 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 3061

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  • 收稿日期:  2014-11-13
  • 修回日期:  2014-12-18
  • 刊出日期:  2015-02-05

高效率钙钛矿太阳电池发展中的关键问题

  • 1. 上海交通大学材料科学与工程学院, 金属基复合材料国家重点实验室, 上海 200240
    基金项目: 

    上海交通大学211三期工程项目(批准号: WS3116205009)资助的课题.

摘要: 钙钛矿太阳电池的迅速发展为解决未来能源问题带来一线曙光. 但是, 钙钛矿太阳电池在高效率电池器件的可重现性、稳定性以及性能评估等方面还面临着很多问题, 严重制约其今后的发展. 本文综述了钙钛矿太阳电池面世以来发生的重要进展, 以及存在的几个关键性问题. 从器件基本结构和基本工作原理出发, 本文重点讨论了光吸收层的光谱和形貌等性质对器件性能和可重现性的影响, 阐明了电子传输层和空穴阻隔层的重要作用, 论述了空穴传输层的相关进展以及其对器件稳定性的影响. 通过对以上关键问题的讨论和总结, 本文对钙钛矿太阳电池未来的研究发展进行了展望.

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