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原子喷泉频标:原理与发展

王倩 魏荣 王育竹

原子喷泉频标:原理与发展

王倩, 魏荣, 王育竹
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  • 介绍了喷泉频标的原理与发展.喷泉频标是一项近20年来发展起来的原子钟技术,它以激光冷却技术为基础,利用该技术实现了冷原子介质的俘获与上抛.冷原子介质在上抛下落过程中首先完成原子态制备,然后两次通过微波谐振腔实现Ramsey作用,在两次作用之间原子经历自由演化,最后原子经过探测区,通过双能级荧光探测法探测原子跃迁概率得到鉴频的Ramsey干涉条纹,并实现频率锁定,其中心条纹的线宽在1 Hz左右.频率稳定度和频率不确定度是喷泉频标的两个重要指标.影响喷泉钟频率稳定度的因素主要有量子投影噪声和电子学噪声,目前喷泉钟的短期稳定度为 (10-13–10-14)τ-1/2,长期稳定度在 10-16–10-17量级.喷泉频标的频率不确定度主要受二阶塞曼频移、黑体辐射频移、冷原子碰撞频移以及与微波相关的频移等的影响.目前喷泉钟的不确定度在小的10-16量级.作为基准频标,喷泉钟的工作介质主要是133Cs,87Rb.国际各大计量机构都研制了喷泉频标,它在各地协调世界时的建立、国际原子时的校准等方面发挥着越来越重要的作用.此外,喷泉频标还用于研究高精度时频基准和时间比对链路、验证基本物理理论等.
      通信作者: 魏荣, weirong@siom.ac.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:91336105)和中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类)任务编号(批准号:XDB21030200)资助的课题.
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-03-27
  • 修回日期:  2018-06-17
  • 刊出日期:  2019-08-20

原子喷泉频标:原理与发展

  • 1. 中国科学院上海光学精密机械研究所, 量子光学重点实验室, 上海 201800;
  • 2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 通信作者: 魏荣, weirong@siom.ac.cn
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金(批准号:91336105)和中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类)任务编号(批准号:XDB21030200)资助的课题.

摘要: 介绍了喷泉频标的原理与发展.喷泉频标是一项近20年来发展起来的原子钟技术,它以激光冷却技术为基础,利用该技术实现了冷原子介质的俘获与上抛.冷原子介质在上抛下落过程中首先完成原子态制备,然后两次通过微波谐振腔实现Ramsey作用,在两次作用之间原子经历自由演化,最后原子经过探测区,通过双能级荧光探测法探测原子跃迁概率得到鉴频的Ramsey干涉条纹,并实现频率锁定,其中心条纹的线宽在1 Hz左右.频率稳定度和频率不确定度是喷泉频标的两个重要指标.影响喷泉钟频率稳定度的因素主要有量子投影噪声和电子学噪声,目前喷泉钟的短期稳定度为 (10-13–10-14)τ-1/2,长期稳定度在 10-16–10-17量级.喷泉频标的频率不确定度主要受二阶塞曼频移、黑体辐射频移、冷原子碰撞频移以及与微波相关的频移等的影响.目前喷泉钟的不确定度在小的10-16量级.作为基准频标,喷泉钟的工作介质主要是133Cs,87Rb.国际各大计量机构都研制了喷泉频标,它在各地协调世界时的建立、国际原子时的校准等方面发挥着越来越重要的作用.此外,喷泉频标还用于研究高精度时频基准和时间比对链路、验证基本物理理论等.

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