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Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines

Zheng Xiao-Hu Huang An-Ping Yang Zhi-Chao Xiao Zhi-Song Wang Mei Cheng Guo-An

Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines

Zheng Xiao-Hu, Huang An-Ping, Yang Zhi-Chao, Xiao Zhi-Song, Wang Mei, Cheng Guo-An
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  • As the scaling of MOSFETs continues towards 45 nm technology node, it is inevitable that Hf-based high-k materials replace the traditional SiO2 as the gate dielectrics of MOSFETs. But there are still many issues to be settled. Rare earth doping can increase the k value of dielectrics, decrease the defect densities of dielectrics and modulate the threshold voltage shift of MOSFETs. This paper reviews recent progress, the challenge of Hf-based high-k materials, the influence of rare earth doping on Hf-based high-k materials and its future trend.
    • Funds:
    [1]

    Moore G E 1975 Electron Devices Meeting December 1—3, 1975 21 p11

    [2]

    Robertson J 2006 Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 327

    [3]

    Wilk G D, Wallace R M, Anthony J M 2001 J. Appl. Phys. 89 5243

    [4]

    Sharma R K, Kumar A, Anthony J M 2001 JOM 53 53

    [5]

    Yeo Y C, King T J, Hu C 2002 J. Appl. Phys. 92 7266

    [6]

    Plummer J D, Griffin P B 2001 Proc. IEEE 89 240

    [7]

    Houssa M, Pantisano L, Ragnarsson L A, Degraeve R, Schram T, Pourtois G, Gendt S D, Groeseneken G, Heyns M M 2006 Mater. Sci. Eng. R 51 37

    [8]

    Bae S H, Lee C H, Clark R, Kwong D L 2003 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 24 556

    [9]

    Robertson J 2000 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18 1785

    [10]

    Robertson J, Chen C W 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 1168

    [11]

    Koike M, Ino T, Kamimuta Y, Koyama M, Kamata Y, Suzuki M, Mitani Y, Nishiyama A, Tsunashima Y 2003 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting Washington, D. C., December 08—10, 2003 p107

    [12]

    Yu X F, Zhu C X, Yu M B 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 103502

    [13]

    Umezawa N, Shiraishi K, Ohno K, Watanabe H, Chikyow T, Torii K, Yamabe K, Yamada K, Kitajima H, Arikado T 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 143507

    [14]

    Visokay M R, Chambers J J, Rotondaro A L P, Shanware A, Colombo L 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 3183

    [15]

    Xu G B, Xu Q X 2009 Chin. Phys. B 18 768

    [16]

    Sa N, Kang J F, Yang H, Liu X Y, Zhang X, Han R Q 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 1419 (in Chinese) [萨 宁、 康晋锋、 杨 红、 刘晓彦、 张 兴、 韩汝琦 2006 物理学报 55 1149]

    [17]

    Quevedo-Lopez M A, Krishnan S A, Kirsch P D, Pant G, Gnade B E, Wallace R M 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 262902

    [18]

    Choi C H, Jeon T S, Clark R, Kwong D L 2003 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 24 215

    [19]

    Wang S J, Chai J W, Dong Y F, Feng Y P, Sutanto N, Pan J S, Huan A C H 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 192103

    [20]

    Green M L, Gusev E P, Degraeve R, Garfunkel E L 2001 J. Appl. Phys. 90 2057

    [21]

    Chiou Y K, Chang C H, Wang C C, Lee K Y, Wu T B, Kwo R, Hong M H 2007 J. Electrochem Soc. 154 G99

    [22]

    Toriumi A, Iwamoto K, Ota H, Kadoshima M, Mizubayashi W, Nabatame T, Ogawa A, Tominaga K, Horikawa T, Satake H 2005 Microelectron. Eng. 80 190

    [23]

    Zhu W J, Tamagawa T, Gibson M, Furukawa T, Ma T P 2002 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 23 649

    [24]

    Wang X F, Li Q, Lee P F, Dai J Y, Gong X G 2010 Micron 41 15

    [25]

    Yu X F, Zhu C X, Li M F, Chin A, Yu M B, Du A Y, Kwong D L 2004 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 25 501

    [26]

    Yu X F, Yu M B, Zhu C X 2006 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 27 498

    [27]

    Yu X F, Yu M B, Zhu C X 2007 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 54 284

    [28]

    Zhang M H, Rhee S J, Kang C Y, Choi C H, Akbar M S, Krishnan S A, Lee T, 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 232901

    [29]

    Stacy D W, Wilder D R 1975 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58 285

    [30]

    Zhao X Y, Vanderbilt D 2002 Phys. Rev. B 65 233106

    [31]

    Curtis C E, Doney L M, Johnson J R 2006 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 37 458

    [32]

    Wang J, Li H P, Stevens R 1992 J. Mater. Sci. 27 553

    [33]

    Lee C K, Cho E, Lee H S, Hwang C S, Han S W 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 012102

    [34]

    Tomida K, Kita K, Torium A 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 142902

    [35]

    Park P K, Kang S W 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 192905

    [36]

    Yang Y, Zhu W J, Ma T P, Stemmer S 2004 J. Appl. Phys. 95 3772

    [37]

    Triyoso D H, Hedge R I, Schaeffer J K, Roan D, Tobin P J, Samavedam S B, White B E, Gregory R, Wang X D 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 222901

    [38]

    Lim S G, Kriventsov S, Jackson T N, Haeni J H, Schlom D G, Balbashov A M, Uecker R, Reiche P, Freeouf J L, Lucovshy G 2002 J. Appl. Phys. 91 4500

    [39]

    Kita K, Kyuno K, Toriumi A 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 102906

    [40]

    Rauwel E, Dubourdieu C, Hollnder B, Rochat N, Ducroquet F, Rossell M D, Tendeloo G V, Pelissier B 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 012902

    [41]

    Losovyj Y B, Ketsman I, Sokolov A, Belashchenko K D, Dowben P A, Tang J K, Wang Z J 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 132908

    [42]

    Adelmann C, Sriramkumar V, Elshocht S V, Lehnen P, Conard T, Gendt S D 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 162902

    [43]

    Chen G H, Hou Z F, Gong X G, Li Q 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 104 074101

    [44]

    Shannon R D 1993 J. Appl. Phys. 73 348

    [45]

    Tao Q, Jursich G, Majumder P, Singh M, Walkosa W, Gu P, Klie R, Takoudis C 2009 Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12 G50

    [46]

    Niinist J, Kukli K, Sajavaara T, Ritala M, Leskel M, Oberbeck L, Sundqvist J, Schrder U 2009 Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12 G1

    [47]

    Hardy A, Adelmann C,Van Elshocht S, Van den Rul H, Van Bael M K, De Gendt S, D’Olieslaeger M, Heyns M, Kittl J A, Mullens J 2009 Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 7812

    [48]

    Toriumi A, Kita K, Tomida K, Yamamoto Y 2005 208th ECS Meeting, Los Angeles, California, October 16—21, 2005 p185

    [49]

    Yamamoto Y, Kita K, Kyuno K, Toriumi A 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 032903

    [50]

    Wang X P, Yu H Y, Li M F, Zhu C X, Biesemans S, Chin A, Sun Y Y, Feng Y P, Lim A, Yeo Y C, Loh W Y, Lo G Q, Kwong D L 2007 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 28 258

    [51]

    Gavartin J L, Muoz Ramo D, Shluger A L 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 082908

    [52]

    Liu D, Robertson J 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 042904

    [53]

    Xiong K, Robertson J, Clark S J 2006 Phys. Status Solidi B 243 2071

    [54]

    Umezawa N, Shiraishi K, Sugino S, Tachibana A, Ohmori K, Kakushima K, Iwai H, Chikyow T, Ohno T, Nara Y, Yamada K 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 132904

    [55]

    Lee B H, Oh J, Tseng H H, Jammy R, Huff H 2006 Mater. Today 8 32

    [56]

    Yeo Y C, King T J, Hu C M 2002 J. Appl. Phys. 92 7266

    [57]

    Yeo Y C, Ranade P, King T J, Hu C M 2002 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 23 342

    [58]

    Wen H C, Majhi P, Choi K, Park C S, Alshareef H N, Harris H R, Luan H, Niimi H, Park H B, Bersuker G, Lysaght P S, Kwong D L, Song S C, Lee B H, Jammy R 2008 Microelectron. Eng. 85 2

    [59]

    Kirsch P D, Sivasubramani P, Huang J, Young C D, Quevedo-Lopez M A, Wen H C, Alshareef H, Choi K, Park C S, Freeman K, Hussain M M, Bersuker G, Harris H R, Majhi P, Choi R, Lysaght P, Lee B H, Tseng H H, Jammy R, B?scke T S, Lichtenwalner D J, Jur J S, Kingon A I 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 092901

    [60]

    Arimura H, Oku Y, Saeki M, Kitano N, Hosoi T, Shimura T, Watababe H 2010 J. Appl. Phys. 107 034104

    [61]

    Xu Q X, Xu G B, Wang W W, Chen D P, Shi S L, Han Z S, Ye C T 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 252903

    [62]

    Kirsch P D, Quevedo-Lopez M A, Krishnan S A, Krug C, AlShareef H, Park C S, Harris R, Moumen N, Neugroschel A, Bersuker G, Lee B H, Wang J G, Pant G, Gnade B E, Kim M J, Wallace R M, Jur J S, Lichtenwalner D J, Kingon A I, Jammy R 2006 IEEE Electron Devices Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 11—13, 2006 p1

    [63]

    Yan Z J, Wang Y Y, Xu R, Jang Z M 2004 Acta Phys. Sin. 53 2771 (in Chinese) [阎志军、 王印月、 许 闰、 蒋最敏 2004 物理学报 53 2771]

  • [1]

    Moore G E 1975 Electron Devices Meeting December 1—3, 1975 21 p11

    [2]

    Robertson J 2006 Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 327

    [3]

    Wilk G D, Wallace R M, Anthony J M 2001 J. Appl. Phys. 89 5243

    [4]

    Sharma R K, Kumar A, Anthony J M 2001 JOM 53 53

    [5]

    Yeo Y C, King T J, Hu C 2002 J. Appl. Phys. 92 7266

    [6]

    Plummer J D, Griffin P B 2001 Proc. IEEE 89 240

    [7]

    Houssa M, Pantisano L, Ragnarsson L A, Degraeve R, Schram T, Pourtois G, Gendt S D, Groeseneken G, Heyns M M 2006 Mater. Sci. Eng. R 51 37

    [8]

    Bae S H, Lee C H, Clark R, Kwong D L 2003 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 24 556

    [9]

    Robertson J 2000 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18 1785

    [10]

    Robertson J, Chen C W 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 1168

    [11]

    Koike M, Ino T, Kamimuta Y, Koyama M, Kamata Y, Suzuki M, Mitani Y, Nishiyama A, Tsunashima Y 2003 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting Washington, D. C., December 08—10, 2003 p107

    [12]

    Yu X F, Zhu C X, Yu M B 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 103502

    [13]

    Umezawa N, Shiraishi K, Ohno K, Watanabe H, Chikyow T, Torii K, Yamabe K, Yamada K, Kitajima H, Arikado T 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 143507

    [14]

    Visokay M R, Chambers J J, Rotondaro A L P, Shanware A, Colombo L 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 3183

    [15]

    Xu G B, Xu Q X 2009 Chin. Phys. B 18 768

    [16]

    Sa N, Kang J F, Yang H, Liu X Y, Zhang X, Han R Q 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 1419 (in Chinese) [萨 宁、 康晋锋、 杨 红、 刘晓彦、 张 兴、 韩汝琦 2006 物理学报 55 1149]

    [17]

    Quevedo-Lopez M A, Krishnan S A, Kirsch P D, Pant G, Gnade B E, Wallace R M 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 262902

    [18]

    Choi C H, Jeon T S, Clark R, Kwong D L 2003 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 24 215

    [19]

    Wang S J, Chai J W, Dong Y F, Feng Y P, Sutanto N, Pan J S, Huan A C H 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 192103

    [20]

    Green M L, Gusev E P, Degraeve R, Garfunkel E L 2001 J. Appl. Phys. 90 2057

    [21]

    Chiou Y K, Chang C H, Wang C C, Lee K Y, Wu T B, Kwo R, Hong M H 2007 J. Electrochem Soc. 154 G99

    [22]

    Toriumi A, Iwamoto K, Ota H, Kadoshima M, Mizubayashi W, Nabatame T, Ogawa A, Tominaga K, Horikawa T, Satake H 2005 Microelectron. Eng. 80 190

    [23]

    Zhu W J, Tamagawa T, Gibson M, Furukawa T, Ma T P 2002 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 23 649

    [24]

    Wang X F, Li Q, Lee P F, Dai J Y, Gong X G 2010 Micron 41 15

    [25]

    Yu X F, Zhu C X, Li M F, Chin A, Yu M B, Du A Y, Kwong D L 2004 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 25 501

    [26]

    Yu X F, Yu M B, Zhu C X 2006 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 27 498

    [27]

    Yu X F, Yu M B, Zhu C X 2007 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 54 284

    [28]

    Zhang M H, Rhee S J, Kang C Y, Choi C H, Akbar M S, Krishnan S A, Lee T, 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 232901

    [29]

    Stacy D W, Wilder D R 1975 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58 285

    [30]

    Zhao X Y, Vanderbilt D 2002 Phys. Rev. B 65 233106

    [31]

    Curtis C E, Doney L M, Johnson J R 2006 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 37 458

    [32]

    Wang J, Li H P, Stevens R 1992 J. Mater. Sci. 27 553

    [33]

    Lee C K, Cho E, Lee H S, Hwang C S, Han S W 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 012102

    [34]

    Tomida K, Kita K, Torium A 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 142902

    [35]

    Park P K, Kang S W 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 192905

    [36]

    Yang Y, Zhu W J, Ma T P, Stemmer S 2004 J. Appl. Phys. 95 3772

    [37]

    Triyoso D H, Hedge R I, Schaeffer J K, Roan D, Tobin P J, Samavedam S B, White B E, Gregory R, Wang X D 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 222901

    [38]

    Lim S G, Kriventsov S, Jackson T N, Haeni J H, Schlom D G, Balbashov A M, Uecker R, Reiche P, Freeouf J L, Lucovshy G 2002 J. Appl. Phys. 91 4500

    [39]

    Kita K, Kyuno K, Toriumi A 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 102906

    [40]

    Rauwel E, Dubourdieu C, Hollnder B, Rochat N, Ducroquet F, Rossell M D, Tendeloo G V, Pelissier B 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 012902

    [41]

    Losovyj Y B, Ketsman I, Sokolov A, Belashchenko K D, Dowben P A, Tang J K, Wang Z J 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 132908

    [42]

    Adelmann C, Sriramkumar V, Elshocht S V, Lehnen P, Conard T, Gendt S D 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 162902

    [43]

    Chen G H, Hou Z F, Gong X G, Li Q 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 104 074101

    [44]

    Shannon R D 1993 J. Appl. Phys. 73 348

    [45]

    Tao Q, Jursich G, Majumder P, Singh M, Walkosa W, Gu P, Klie R, Takoudis C 2009 Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12 G50

    [46]

    Niinist J, Kukli K, Sajavaara T, Ritala M, Leskel M, Oberbeck L, Sundqvist J, Schrder U 2009 Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12 G1

    [47]

    Hardy A, Adelmann C,Van Elshocht S, Van den Rul H, Van Bael M K, De Gendt S, D’Olieslaeger M, Heyns M, Kittl J A, Mullens J 2009 Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 7812

    [48]

    Toriumi A, Kita K, Tomida K, Yamamoto Y 2005 208th ECS Meeting, Los Angeles, California, October 16—21, 2005 p185

    [49]

    Yamamoto Y, Kita K, Kyuno K, Toriumi A 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 032903

    [50]

    Wang X P, Yu H Y, Li M F, Zhu C X, Biesemans S, Chin A, Sun Y Y, Feng Y P, Lim A, Yeo Y C, Loh W Y, Lo G Q, Kwong D L 2007 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 28 258

    [51]

    Gavartin J L, Muoz Ramo D, Shluger A L 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 082908

    [52]

    Liu D, Robertson J 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 042904

    [53]

    Xiong K, Robertson J, Clark S J 2006 Phys. Status Solidi B 243 2071

    [54]

    Umezawa N, Shiraishi K, Sugino S, Tachibana A, Ohmori K, Kakushima K, Iwai H, Chikyow T, Ohno T, Nara Y, Yamada K 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 132904

    [55]

    Lee B H, Oh J, Tseng H H, Jammy R, Huff H 2006 Mater. Today 8 32

    [56]

    Yeo Y C, King T J, Hu C M 2002 J. Appl. Phys. 92 7266

    [57]

    Yeo Y C, Ranade P, King T J, Hu C M 2002 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 23 342

    [58]

    Wen H C, Majhi P, Choi K, Park C S, Alshareef H N, Harris H R, Luan H, Niimi H, Park H B, Bersuker G, Lysaght P S, Kwong D L, Song S C, Lee B H, Jammy R 2008 Microelectron. Eng. 85 2

    [59]

    Kirsch P D, Sivasubramani P, Huang J, Young C D, Quevedo-Lopez M A, Wen H C, Alshareef H, Choi K, Park C S, Freeman K, Hussain M M, Bersuker G, Harris H R, Majhi P, Choi R, Lysaght P, Lee B H, Tseng H H, Jammy R, B?scke T S, Lichtenwalner D J, Jur J S, Kingon A I 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 092901

    [60]

    Arimura H, Oku Y, Saeki M, Kitano N, Hosoi T, Shimura T, Watababe H 2010 J. Appl. Phys. 107 034104

    [61]

    Xu Q X, Xu G B, Wang W W, Chen D P, Shi S L, Han Z S, Ye C T 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 252903

    [62]

    Kirsch P D, Quevedo-Lopez M A, Krishnan S A, Krug C, AlShareef H, Park C S, Harris R, Moumen N, Neugroschel A, Bersuker G, Lee B H, Wang J G, Pant G, Gnade B E, Kim M J, Wallace R M, Jur J S, Lichtenwalner D J, Kingon A I, Jammy R 2006 IEEE Electron Devices Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 11—13, 2006 p1

    [63]

    Yan Z J, Wang Y Y, Xu R, Jang Z M 2004 Acta Phys. Sin. 53 2771 (in Chinese) [阎志军、 王印月、 许 闰、 蒋最敏 2004 物理学报 53 2771]

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  • Received Date:  07 March 2010
  • Accepted Date:  27 April 2010
  • Published Online:  15 January 2011

Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines

  • 1. (1)Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China; (2)Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

Abstract: As the scaling of MOSFETs continues towards 45 nm technology node, it is inevitable that Hf-based high-k materials replace the traditional SiO2 as the gate dielectrics of MOSFETs. But there are still many issues to be settled. Rare earth doping can increase the k value of dielectrics, decrease the defect densities of dielectrics and modulate the threshold voltage shift of MOSFETs. This paper reviews recent progress, the challenge of Hf-based high-k materials, the influence of rare earth doping on Hf-based high-k materials and its future trend.

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