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Degradation model of GaAs vacuum electron sources

Zhang Yi-Jun Yang Zhi Chang Ben-Kang Zou Ji-Jun

Degradation model of GaAs vacuum electron sources

Zhang Yi-Jun, Yang Zhi, Chang Ben-Kang, Zou Ji-Jun
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  • The degradation of activated GaAs vacuum electron source as a function of time has been investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).We found that the cathode surface element content changes with time and the significant decrease in sensitivity of electron source is mainly due to the change of dipole direction caused by the adsorption of harmful gases on the cathode surface.Based on the above results,we deduced the degradation model of GaAs electron source through analyzing the adsorption process of harmful gases on the surface in vacuum system.The model reveals the exponential degradation rule of GaAs electron sources and the inverse relationship between lifetime and pressure.The theoretical results are in full agreement with the experimental fact.
    • Funds:
    [1]

    Maruyama T,Brachmann A,Clendenin J E,Desikan T,Garwin E L,Kirby R E,Luh,DA,Turner J,Prepost R 2002 Nucl.Instr.and Meth.A 492 199

    [2]

    Du X Q,Chang B K 2009 Acta Phys.Sin. 58 8643 (in Chinese) [杜晓晴、常本康2009 物理学报 58 8643]

    [3]

    Zou J J,Chang B K,Yang Z,Zhang Y J,Qiao J L 2009 Acta Phys.Sin. 58 5842 (in Chinese) [邹继军、常本康、杨 智、张益军、乔建良2009 物理学报 58 5842]

    [4]

    Schneider J E,Sen P,Pickard D S,Winograd G I,McCord M A,Pease R F W,Spicer W E 1998 J.Vac.Sci.Technol. B 16 3192

    [5]

    Li Q,Hao L,Pang W N 2008 Acta Phys.Sin. 57 172 (in Chinese) [李 倩、郝 亮、庞文宁 2008 物理学报 57 172]

    [6]

    Zhang Y J,Chang B K,Yang Z,Niu J,Zou J J 2009 Chin.Phys.B 18 4541

    [7]

    Durek D,Frommberger F,Reichelt T,Westermann M 1999 Appl.Surf.Sci. 143 319

    [8]

    Calabrese R,Ciullo G,Guidi V 1994 Rev.Sci.Instrum. 65 343

    [9]

    Alley A,Aoyagi H,Clendenin J,Frisch J,Garden C,Hoyt E,Kirby R,Klaisner L,Kulikov A,Miller R,Mulhollan G,Prescott C,Sáez P,Schultz D,Tang H,Turner J,Witte K,Woods M,Yeremian A D,Zolotorev M 1995 Nucl.Instr.and Meth.A 365 1

    [10]

    Grames J,Adderley P,Baylac M,Clark J,Day A,Hansknecht J,Poelker M,Stutzman M 2002 Proceedings of the 15thInternational Spin Physics Symposium and Workshop on Polarized Electron Sources and Polarimenters New York,9—14 September,2002,p1047

    [11]

    Wada T,Nitta T,Nomura T 1990 Jpn J.Appl.Phys. 29 2087

    [12]

    Zou J J,Chang B K,Yang Z,Gao P,Qiao J L,Zeng Y P 2007 Acta Phys.Sin. 56 6109 (in Chinese) [邹继军、常本康、杨 智、高 频、乔建良、曾一平2007 物理学报 56 6109]

    [13]

    Machuca F,Liu Z,Sun Y,Pianetta P,Spicer W E,Pearse R F W 2002 J.Vac.Sci.Technol.B 20 2721

    [14]

    Machuca F,Liu Z,Sun Y,Pianetta P,Spicer W E,Pearse R F W 2003 J.Vac.Sci.Technol.B 21 1863

    [15]

    Calabrese R,Guidi V,Lenisa P,Maciga B,Ciullo G,Mea G D,Egeni G P,Lamanna G,Rigato V,Rudello V,Yang B,Zandolin S,Tecchio L 1994 Appl.Phys.Lett. 65 301

    [16]

    Qiao J L,Chang B K,Du X Q,Niu J,Zou J J 2010 Acta Phys.Sin. 59 2855 (in Chinese) [乔建良、常本康、杜晓晴、牛 军、邹继军2010 物理学报 59 2855]

    [17]

    Liu Z 2005 Ph.D.Dissertation (Palo Alto: Stanford University)

    [18]

    Clark M G 1975 J.Phys.D: Appl.Phys. 8 535

    [19]

    Whitman L J,Stroscio J A,Dragose R A,Celotta R J 1991 Phys.Rev.lett. 66 1338

  • [1]

    Maruyama T,Brachmann A,Clendenin J E,Desikan T,Garwin E L,Kirby R E,Luh,DA,Turner J,Prepost R 2002 Nucl.Instr.and Meth.A 492 199

    [2]

    Du X Q,Chang B K 2009 Acta Phys.Sin. 58 8643 (in Chinese) [杜晓晴、常本康2009 物理学报 58 8643]

    [3]

    Zou J J,Chang B K,Yang Z,Zhang Y J,Qiao J L 2009 Acta Phys.Sin. 58 5842 (in Chinese) [邹继军、常本康、杨 智、张益军、乔建良2009 物理学报 58 5842]

    [4]

    Schneider J E,Sen P,Pickard D S,Winograd G I,McCord M A,Pease R F W,Spicer W E 1998 J.Vac.Sci.Technol. B 16 3192

    [5]

    Li Q,Hao L,Pang W N 2008 Acta Phys.Sin. 57 172 (in Chinese) [李 倩、郝 亮、庞文宁 2008 物理学报 57 172]

    [6]

    Zhang Y J,Chang B K,Yang Z,Niu J,Zou J J 2009 Chin.Phys.B 18 4541

    [7]

    Durek D,Frommberger F,Reichelt T,Westermann M 1999 Appl.Surf.Sci. 143 319

    [8]

    Calabrese R,Ciullo G,Guidi V 1994 Rev.Sci.Instrum. 65 343

    [9]

    Alley A,Aoyagi H,Clendenin J,Frisch J,Garden C,Hoyt E,Kirby R,Klaisner L,Kulikov A,Miller R,Mulhollan G,Prescott C,Sáez P,Schultz D,Tang H,Turner J,Witte K,Woods M,Yeremian A D,Zolotorev M 1995 Nucl.Instr.and Meth.A 365 1

    [10]

    Grames J,Adderley P,Baylac M,Clark J,Day A,Hansknecht J,Poelker M,Stutzman M 2002 Proceedings of the 15thInternational Spin Physics Symposium and Workshop on Polarized Electron Sources and Polarimenters New York,9—14 September,2002,p1047

    [11]

    Wada T,Nitta T,Nomura T 1990 Jpn J.Appl.Phys. 29 2087

    [12]

    Zou J J,Chang B K,Yang Z,Gao P,Qiao J L,Zeng Y P 2007 Acta Phys.Sin. 56 6109 (in Chinese) [邹继军、常本康、杨 智、高 频、乔建良、曾一平2007 物理学报 56 6109]

    [13]

    Machuca F,Liu Z,Sun Y,Pianetta P,Spicer W E,Pearse R F W 2002 J.Vac.Sci.Technol.B 20 2721

    [14]

    Machuca F,Liu Z,Sun Y,Pianetta P,Spicer W E,Pearse R F W 2003 J.Vac.Sci.Technol.B 21 1863

    [15]

    Calabrese R,Guidi V,Lenisa P,Maciga B,Ciullo G,Mea G D,Egeni G P,Lamanna G,Rigato V,Rudello V,Yang B,Zandolin S,Tecchio L 1994 Appl.Phys.Lett. 65 301

    [16]

    Qiao J L,Chang B K,Du X Q,Niu J,Zou J J 2010 Acta Phys.Sin. 59 2855 (in Chinese) [乔建良、常本康、杜晓晴、牛 军、邹继军2010 物理学报 59 2855]

    [17]

    Liu Z 2005 Ph.D.Dissertation (Palo Alto: Stanford University)

    [18]

    Clark M G 1975 J.Phys.D: Appl.Phys. 8 535

    [19]

    Whitman L J,Stroscio J A,Dragose R A,Celotta R J 1991 Phys.Rev.lett. 66 1338

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Publishing process
  • Received Date:  10 February 2010
  • Accepted Date:  25 April 2010
  • Published Online:  15 January 2011

Degradation model of GaAs vacuum electron sources

  • 1. (1)Institute of Electronic Engineering and Opto-electronic Technology,Nanjing University of Science and Technology,Nanjing 210094,China; (2)Institute of Electronic Engineering and Opto-electronic Technology,Nanjing University of Science and Technology,Nanjing 210094,China;Engineering Research Center of Nuclear Technology Application (East China Institute of Technology),

Abstract: The degradation of activated GaAs vacuum electron source as a function of time has been investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).We found that the cathode surface element content changes with time and the significant decrease in sensitivity of electron source is mainly due to the change of dipole direction caused by the adsorption of harmful gases on the cathode surface.Based on the above results,we deduced the degradation model of GaAs electron source through analyzing the adsorption process of harmful gases on the surface in vacuum system.The model reveals the exponential degradation rule of GaAs electron sources and the inverse relationship between lifetime and pressure.The theoretical results are in full agreement with the experimental fact.

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