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Structural analysis of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 multi-layer thin film solar cells

Pan Hui-Ping Bo Lian-Kun Huang Tai-Wu Zhang Yi Yu Tao Yao Shu-De

Structural analysis of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 multi-layer thin film solar cells

Pan Hui-Ping, Bo Lian-Kun, Huang Tai-Wu, Zhang Yi, Yu Tao, Yao Shu-De
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  • In this paper, the complex structure of CuInGaSe (CIGS), which is fabricated by a two-step progress (the deposition step and the salinization) or co-evaporation method, is analyzed in detail by several methods. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) shows unique advantage for investigating CIGS multi-layer. For the two-step CIGS thin films, both Ga and In atoms reveal a gradient distribution. Such a distribution that Ga atoms are more likely to be localized in a deeper layer of surface than in a shallow layer of surface, has no relation with the Mo layer. RBS and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prove that there appears diffusion in the interfaces of multi-layers, especially the interfaces of CdS and CIGS, Mo and CIGS. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) indicates that CIGS thin film presents the highest efficiency when the content ratio of In and Ga atoms is 0.7:0.3. Structural investigation by X-ray diffraction reveals the improved crystalline quality after annealing.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10875004), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB832904).
    [1]

    Sun Y, Wang J Q, Du Z F, Shu B J, Yu G, Wen G Z, Zhou Z H, Sun J, Zhang C J, Zhang L Z 2001 Acta Energiae Sol. Sin. 22 192 (in Chinese)

    [2]

    Xie D T, Zhao K, Wang L F, Zhu F, Quan S W, Meng T J, Zhang B C, Chen J E 2002 Acta Phys. Sin. 51 1377 (in Chinese)

    [3]

    Repins I, Contreras M A, Egaas B, DeHart C, Scharf J, Perkins C L, To B, Noufi R 2008 Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 16 235

    [4]

    Hayashi T, Minemoto T, Zoppi G, Forbes I, Tanaka K, Yamada S, Araki T, Takakura H 2009 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93 922

    [5]

    Shi C Y, Sun Y, He Q, Li F Y, Zhao J C 2009 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93 654

    [6]

    Ding Z B, Wang Q, Wang K, Wang H, Chen T X, Zhang G Y, Yao S D 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 2873 (in Chinese) [丁志博, 王琦, 王坤, 王欢, 陈田详, 张国义, 姚淑德 2007 物理学报 56 2873]

    [7]

    Doolittle L R 1985 Nucl. Instr. and Meth. In Phys. Res. B 9 344

    [8]

    Wuerz R, Eicke A, Frankenfeld M, Kessler F, Powalla M, Rogin P 2009 Thin Solid Films. 517 2415

    [9]

    Liu W, Sun Y, He Q, Li F Y, Qiao Z X, Liu F F, Li C J, Tian J G 2008 Proceeding of 10th China Solar Photovoltaic Conference [C] 550-553 (in Chinese) [刘玮, 孙云, 何青, 李风岩, 乔在祥, 刘芳芳, 李长健, 田建国 第十届中国太阳能光伏会议论文集. 中国, 常州, 2008年09月19日, 550—553]

    [10]

    Scheer R Thin Solid Films. 2011, doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.092

    [11]

    Han D L, Zhang G, Zhuang D M, Yuan J S, Song J 2007 Vacuum 44 30 (in Chinese) [韩东麟, 张弓, 庄大明, 元金石, 宋军, 2007 真空科学与技术学报 44 30]

    [12]

    Marudachalam M, Birkmire R W, Hichri H, Schultz J M, Swartzlander A, Al-Jassim M M 1997 J. Appl. Phys. 82 2896

    [13]

    Wada T, Kohara N, Nishiwaki S, Negami T 2001 Thin Solid Films 387 118

    [14]

    Assmann L, Bernéde J C, Drici A, Amory C, Halgand E, Morsli M 2005 Appl. Surf. Sci. 246 159

    [15]

    Wang H, Yao S D, Pan Y B, Zhang G Y 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 3350 (in Chinese) [王欢, 姚淑德, 潘尧波, 张国义 2007 物理学报 56 3350]

    [16]

    Gossla M, Shafarman W N 2005 Thin Solid Films 480-481 33

    [17]

    Jackson P, Würz R, Rau U, Mattheis J, Kurth M, Schlötzer T, Bilger G, Werner J H 2007 Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15 507

    [18]

    Dittrich H, Prinz U, Szot J, Schock H W, 1989 Proceedings of the 9th European Communities Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference Freiburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany 25-29 September 1989 p163

    [19]

    Nakada T, Kunioka A 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 2444

    [20]

    Liao D X, Rockett A 2003 J. Appl. Phys. 93 9380

    [21]

    Zheng Q L, Zhuang D M, Zhang G, Li Q F 2006 Chin. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26 36 (in Chinese) [郑麒麟, 庄大明, 张弓, 李秋芳 2006 真空科学与技术学报 26 36]

  • [1]

    Sun Y, Wang J Q, Du Z F, Shu B J, Yu G, Wen G Z, Zhou Z H, Sun J, Zhang C J, Zhang L Z 2001 Acta Energiae Sol. Sin. 22 192 (in Chinese)

    [2]

    Xie D T, Zhao K, Wang L F, Zhu F, Quan S W, Meng T J, Zhang B C, Chen J E 2002 Acta Phys. Sin. 51 1377 (in Chinese)

    [3]

    Repins I, Contreras M A, Egaas B, DeHart C, Scharf J, Perkins C L, To B, Noufi R 2008 Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 16 235

    [4]

    Hayashi T, Minemoto T, Zoppi G, Forbes I, Tanaka K, Yamada S, Araki T, Takakura H 2009 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93 922

    [5]

    Shi C Y, Sun Y, He Q, Li F Y, Zhao J C 2009 Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93 654

    [6]

    Ding Z B, Wang Q, Wang K, Wang H, Chen T X, Zhang G Y, Yao S D 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 2873 (in Chinese) [丁志博, 王琦, 王坤, 王欢, 陈田详, 张国义, 姚淑德 2007 物理学报 56 2873]

    [7]

    Doolittle L R 1985 Nucl. Instr. and Meth. In Phys. Res. B 9 344

    [8]

    Wuerz R, Eicke A, Frankenfeld M, Kessler F, Powalla M, Rogin P 2009 Thin Solid Films. 517 2415

    [9]

    Liu W, Sun Y, He Q, Li F Y, Qiao Z X, Liu F F, Li C J, Tian J G 2008 Proceeding of 10th China Solar Photovoltaic Conference [C] 550-553 (in Chinese) [刘玮, 孙云, 何青, 李风岩, 乔在祥, 刘芳芳, 李长健, 田建国 第十届中国太阳能光伏会议论文集. 中国, 常州, 2008年09月19日, 550—553]

    [10]

    Scheer R Thin Solid Films. 2011, doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.092

    [11]

    Han D L, Zhang G, Zhuang D M, Yuan J S, Song J 2007 Vacuum 44 30 (in Chinese) [韩东麟, 张弓, 庄大明, 元金石, 宋军, 2007 真空科学与技术学报 44 30]

    [12]

    Marudachalam M, Birkmire R W, Hichri H, Schultz J M, Swartzlander A, Al-Jassim M M 1997 J. Appl. Phys. 82 2896

    [13]

    Wada T, Kohara N, Nishiwaki S, Negami T 2001 Thin Solid Films 387 118

    [14]

    Assmann L, Bernéde J C, Drici A, Amory C, Halgand E, Morsli M 2005 Appl. Surf. Sci. 246 159

    [15]

    Wang H, Yao S D, Pan Y B, Zhang G Y 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 3350 (in Chinese) [王欢, 姚淑德, 潘尧波, 张国义 2007 物理学报 56 3350]

    [16]

    Gossla M, Shafarman W N 2005 Thin Solid Films 480-481 33

    [17]

    Jackson P, Würz R, Rau U, Mattheis J, Kurth M, Schlötzer T, Bilger G, Werner J H 2007 Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15 507

    [18]

    Dittrich H, Prinz U, Szot J, Schock H W, 1989 Proceedings of the 9th European Communities Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference Freiburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany 25-29 September 1989 p163

    [19]

    Nakada T, Kunioka A 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 2444

    [20]

    Liao D X, Rockett A 2003 J. Appl. Phys. 93 9380

    [21]

    Zheng Q L, Zhuang D M, Zhang G, Li Q F 2006 Chin. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26 36 (in Chinese) [郑麒麟, 庄大明, 张弓, 李秋芳 2006 真空科学与技术学报 26 36]

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  • Received Date:  03 May 2012
  • Accepted Date:  12 June 2012
  • Published Online:  20 November 2012

Structural analysis of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 multi-layer thin film solar cells

  • 1. State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
  • 2. Department of Physics and Electionic Science, Qiannan Normal College for Nationalities, Duyun 558000, China;
  • 3. Institute of Photoelectronic Thin Film Device and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10875004), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB832904).

Abstract: In this paper, the complex structure of CuInGaSe (CIGS), which is fabricated by a two-step progress (the deposition step and the salinization) or co-evaporation method, is analyzed in detail by several methods. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) shows unique advantage for investigating CIGS multi-layer. For the two-step CIGS thin films, both Ga and In atoms reveal a gradient distribution. Such a distribution that Ga atoms are more likely to be localized in a deeper layer of surface than in a shallow layer of surface, has no relation with the Mo layer. RBS and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prove that there appears diffusion in the interfaces of multi-layers, especially the interfaces of CdS and CIGS, Mo and CIGS. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) indicates that CIGS thin film presents the highest efficiency when the content ratio of In and Ga atoms is 0.7:0.3. Structural investigation by X-ray diffraction reveals the improved crystalline quality after annealing.

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