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Determination of optical constants and thickness of photoactive layer in polymer oslar cells by single transmission measurement

Huang Zhuo-Yin Li Guo-Long Li Kan Zhen Hong-Yu Shen Wei-Dong Liu Xiang-Dong Liu Xu

Determination of optical constants and thickness of photoactive layer in polymer oslar cells by single transmission measurement

Huang Zhuo-Yin, Li Guo-Long, Li Kan, Zhen Hong-Yu, Shen Wei-Dong, Liu Xiang-Dong, Liu Xu
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  • We present a simple and accurate method of determininy the optical constant and physical thickness of the photoactive layer in a polymer solar cell. The applicabilities of the physics models including Forouhi-Bloomer and Lorentz-Oscillator models in transmission curve fitting are compared. This method is used to calculate the optical constants and film thicknesses of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) /[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and poly[2- methoxy-5-5(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene](MEH-PPV)/PCBM bulk heterojunction, The calculated transmission curves fit to the experimental ones well. The results accord with those reported in the literature and from the step profiler, and their error is less than 4%. The optical constant and the physical thickness of polymer solar cell after the optimization process including thermal annealing and adding high-boiling-point additive are studied, and the results are consistent with the voltage-current characteristics of the cell. This method is suited for bulk heterojunction films and can be used in polymer solar cell optimization and detection system.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61007056), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100101120048), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. 2009QNA5010, 2010QNA6003).
    [1]

    Oosterhout S D, Wienk M M, van BavelS S, ThiedmannR, Koster L J A, Gilot J, Loos J, Schmidt V, Janssen R A J 2011 Nature Materials 8 818

    [2]

    Chen H Y, Hou J H, Zhang S Q, Liang Y Y, Yang G W, Yang Y, Yu L P, Wu Y, Li G 2009 Nature Photonics 3 649

    [3]

    Chen H Y, Yang H C, Yang G W, Sista S, Zadoyan R, Li G, Yang Y 2009 J. Phys. Chem. C 113 7946

    [4]

    van Bavel S S, Sourty E, deWith G, Loos J 2009 Nano Lett. 9 507

    [5]

    Miao X, Peng J B 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 2131 (in Chinese) [徐苗, 彭俊彪 2010 物理学报 59 2131]

    [6]

    Yu H Z, Wen Y X 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 038401 (in Chinese) [於黄忠, 温源鑫 2011 物理学报 60 038401]

    [7]

    Li R H, Meng W M, Peng Y Q, Ma C Z, Wang R S, Xie H W, Wang Y, Ye Z C 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 2126 (in Chinese) [李荣华, 孟卫民, 彭应全, 马朝柱, 汪润生, 谢宏伟, 王颖, 叶早晨 2010 物理学报 59 2126]

    [8]

    Liu R, Xu S, Zhao S L, Zhang F J, Cao X N, Kong C, Cao W Z, Gong W 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 058801 (in Chinese) [刘瑞, 徐征, 赵谡玲, 张福俊, 曹晓宁, 孔超, 曹文喆, 龚伟 2011 物理学报 60 058801]

    [9]

    Zhao D W, Tan S T, Ke L, Liu P, Kyaw A K K, Sun X W, Lo G Q, Kwong D L 2010 Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 94 985

    [10]

    Kim J Y, KimS H, Lee H H, Lee K, Ma W L, Gong X, Heeger A L 2006 Adv. Mater 18 572

    [11]

    Persson N K, 2005 J. Chem. Phys. 123 204718

    [12]

    Mariano C Q, Heliotis G, Xia R, Ariu M, Pintani M, Etchegoin P, Bradley D D C 2005 Adv. Funct Mater 15 925

    [13]

    Weber J W, Calado V E, van de Sanden M C M2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 091904

    [14]

    Macleod H A 2001 Thin-Film Optical Filters 3rd edn (Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing) p34

    [15]

    Zhu D X, Shen W D, Ye H, Liu X, Zhen H Y 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 235104

    [16]

    ShenWD, Liu X, Zhu Y, Zou T, Ye H, Gu P F 2005 Chinese Journal of Semiconductors 26 155 (in Chinese) [沈伟东, 刘旭, 朱勇, 邹桐, 叶辉, 顾培夫 2005 半导体学报 26 155]

    [17]

    Su W T, Li B, Liu D q, Zhang F S 2006 Optical Instruments 28 150 (in Chinese) [苏伟涛, 李斌, 刘定权, 张凤山 2006 光学仪器 28 150]

    [18]

    Laidani N, Bartali R, Gottardi G, Anderle M, Cheyssac P 2008 J. Phys.: Condens Matter 20 015216

    [19]

    Moulé A J, Meerholz K 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 061901

    [20]

    Moulé A J, Bonekamp J B, Meerholz K 2006 J. Appl. Phys. 100 094503

    [21]

    Koster L J A, Smits E C P, Mihailetchi V D, Blom P W M 2005 Physical Review B 72 085205

  • [1]

    Oosterhout S D, Wienk M M, van BavelS S, ThiedmannR, Koster L J A, Gilot J, Loos J, Schmidt V, Janssen R A J 2011 Nature Materials 8 818

    [2]

    Chen H Y, Hou J H, Zhang S Q, Liang Y Y, Yang G W, Yang Y, Yu L P, Wu Y, Li G 2009 Nature Photonics 3 649

    [3]

    Chen H Y, Yang H C, Yang G W, Sista S, Zadoyan R, Li G, Yang Y 2009 J. Phys. Chem. C 113 7946

    [4]

    van Bavel S S, Sourty E, deWith G, Loos J 2009 Nano Lett. 9 507

    [5]

    Miao X, Peng J B 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 2131 (in Chinese) [徐苗, 彭俊彪 2010 物理学报 59 2131]

    [6]

    Yu H Z, Wen Y X 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 038401 (in Chinese) [於黄忠, 温源鑫 2011 物理学报 60 038401]

    [7]

    Li R H, Meng W M, Peng Y Q, Ma C Z, Wang R S, Xie H W, Wang Y, Ye Z C 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 2126 (in Chinese) [李荣华, 孟卫民, 彭应全, 马朝柱, 汪润生, 谢宏伟, 王颖, 叶早晨 2010 物理学报 59 2126]

    [8]

    Liu R, Xu S, Zhao S L, Zhang F J, Cao X N, Kong C, Cao W Z, Gong W 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 058801 (in Chinese) [刘瑞, 徐征, 赵谡玲, 张福俊, 曹晓宁, 孔超, 曹文喆, 龚伟 2011 物理学报 60 058801]

    [9]

    Zhao D W, Tan S T, Ke L, Liu P, Kyaw A K K, Sun X W, Lo G Q, Kwong D L 2010 Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 94 985

    [10]

    Kim J Y, KimS H, Lee H H, Lee K, Ma W L, Gong X, Heeger A L 2006 Adv. Mater 18 572

    [11]

    Persson N K, 2005 J. Chem. Phys. 123 204718

    [12]

    Mariano C Q, Heliotis G, Xia R, Ariu M, Pintani M, Etchegoin P, Bradley D D C 2005 Adv. Funct Mater 15 925

    [13]

    Weber J W, Calado V E, van de Sanden M C M2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 091904

    [14]

    Macleod H A 2001 Thin-Film Optical Filters 3rd edn (Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing) p34

    [15]

    Zhu D X, Shen W D, Ye H, Liu X, Zhen H Y 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 235104

    [16]

    ShenWD, Liu X, Zhu Y, Zou T, Ye H, Gu P F 2005 Chinese Journal of Semiconductors 26 155 (in Chinese) [沈伟东, 刘旭, 朱勇, 邹桐, 叶辉, 顾培夫 2005 半导体学报 26 155]

    [17]

    Su W T, Li B, Liu D q, Zhang F S 2006 Optical Instruments 28 150 (in Chinese) [苏伟涛, 李斌, 刘定权, 张凤山 2006 光学仪器 28 150]

    [18]

    Laidani N, Bartali R, Gottardi G, Anderle M, Cheyssac P 2008 J. Phys.: Condens Matter 20 015216

    [19]

    Moulé A J, Meerholz K 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 061901

    [20]

    Moulé A J, Bonekamp J B, Meerholz K 2006 J. Appl. Phys. 100 094503

    [21]

    Koster L J A, Smits E C P, Mihailetchi V D, Blom P W M 2005 Physical Review B 72 085205

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  • Received Date:  02 June 2011
  • Accepted Date:  24 June 2011
  • Published Online:  15 April 2012

Determination of optical constants and thickness of photoactive layer in polymer oslar cells by single transmission measurement

  • 1. State Key Labs of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61007056), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100101120048), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. 2009QNA5010, 2010QNA6003).

Abstract: We present a simple and accurate method of determininy the optical constant and physical thickness of the photoactive layer in a polymer solar cell. The applicabilities of the physics models including Forouhi-Bloomer and Lorentz-Oscillator models in transmission curve fitting are compared. This method is used to calculate the optical constants and film thicknesses of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) /[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and poly[2- methoxy-5-5(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene](MEH-PPV)/PCBM bulk heterojunction, The calculated transmission curves fit to the experimental ones well. The results accord with those reported in the literature and from the step profiler, and their error is less than 4%. The optical constant and the physical thickness of polymer solar cell after the optimization process including thermal annealing and adding high-boiling-point additive are studied, and the results are consistent with the voltage-current characteristics of the cell. This method is suited for bulk heterojunction films and can be used in polymer solar cell optimization and detection system.

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