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Research on the temporal-spatial distributions and the physical mechanisms for the sound speed profiles in north-central Indian Ocean

Li Jia Yang Kun-De Lei Bo He Zheng-Yao

Research on the temporal-spatial distributions and the physical mechanisms for the sound speed profiles in north-central Indian Ocean

Li Jia, Yang Kun-De, Lei Bo, He Zheng-Yao
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  • The structure of sound speed in ocean has a strong influence on underwater sound propagation. For underwater target detection and underwater acoustic communication, it is of great significance to obtain the temporal and spatial distribution of sound speed profile. Since the limitations and applicability of vertical grads method in structural analysis of sound speed in the Indian Ocean, optimal partition method is developed to calculate the sound spring layer. The study focuses on analysing the eigenvalues of sound speed profiles (SSPs) in the north-central Indian Ocean based on the last 10 year data of array for real-time geostrophic oceanography. The vertical structure characteristics of sound speed are investigated in the Indian Ocean, and the laws of temporal and spatial variation are obtained. The distribution of the fitting accuracy with the order of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) are found. The physical mechanisms of the temporal and spatial variation of SSPs are revealed with the marine physical environment in Indian Ocean. The simulation results show that optimal partition method is suitable for the area to judge the structure of spring layer, and the parameters of the corresponding criterion is also proposed. The regional distributions of the fitting accuracy with the order of EOF are more obvious than with the seasonal variations. The deep channel axis exists at south 5S and there are three spring layers between 15S and 25S. The structures of SSPs in the Indian Ocean can be classified into four types: single spring layer, double spring layer type Ⅰ, double spring layer type Ⅱ and three spring layer, and for seasonal models: spring model, summer model, autumn model and winter model. The analysis results of the SSPs can provide some reference value for acoustic propagation and the sonar systems.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174235, 61101192), the Program for the New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NCET-08-0455), the Science and Technology Development Program of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2010KJXX-02), and the Science and Technology Innovation Foundation of Northwestern Polytechnical University, China.
    [1]

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    [2]

    Zhang Z B, Ma Y L, Yang K D, Yan S F 2005 Acta Acust. 30 103 (in Chinese) [张忠兵, 马远良, 杨坤德, 鄢社锋 2005 声学学报 30 103]

    [3]

    Fan M Y, Guo Y H, Hui J Y 2000 Acta Acust. 25 528 (in Chinese) [范敏毅, 郭玉红, 惠俊英 2000 声学学报 25 528]

    [4]

    Luo W, Schmidt H 2009 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125 1384

    [5]

    Huang C, Gerstoft P, Hodgkiss W S 2006 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119 3224

    [6]

    Yang K D, Ma Y L 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 1798 (in Chinese) [杨坤德, 马远良 2009 物理学报 58 1798]

    [7]

    Yang K D, Chapman R, Ma Y L 2007 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121 833

    [8]

    Yang K D, Ma Y L, Sun C, Miller J H, Potty G R 2004 IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 29 964

    [9]

    Yin J W, Hui J Y, Guo L X 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 1753 (in Chinese) [殷敬伟, 惠俊英, 郭龙祥 2008 物理学报 57 1753]

    [10]

    He C B, Huang J G, Han J, Zhang Q F 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 8379 (in Chinese) [何成兵, 黄建国, 韩晶, 张群飞 2009 物理学报 58 8379]

    [11]

    Zhang X, Zhang Y G, Huang F L, Li J 2010 Mar. Sci. Bull. 29 29 (in Chinese) [张旭, 张永刚, 黄飞灵, 李坚 2010 海洋通报 29 29]

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    Zhang X, Zhang Y G, Zhang S J, Wu S H 2009 J. Trop. Ocean 28 23 (in Chinese) [张旭, 张永刚, 张胜军, 吴世华 2009 热带海洋学报 28 23]

    [13]

    Wu P M, Guo X G, Wu R S 2002 Acta Oceanol. Sin. 24 179 (in Chinese) [吴培木, 郭小钢, 吴日升 2002 海洋学报 24 179]

    [14]

    Reise B, Etter P C 1997 Proceedings of Undersea Defence Technology Conference (Hamburg: Undersea Defence Technology Organization) pp408---413

    [15]

    Mandelberg M D, Frizzell-Makowski L J F 2000 IEEE Oceans Conference and Exhibition (New York: IEEE) pp105---108

    [16]

    Chu P C, Fan C W 2010 IEEE Oceans 10 1001

    [17]

    Shi M C 2004 Physical Oceanography (Jinan: Shandong Education Press) (in Chinese) [侍茂崇 2004 物理海洋学 (济南:山东教育出版社)]

    [18]

    Wang D X, Wu G X, Xu J J 1999 Chin. Sci. Bull. 44 1226 (in Chinese) [王东晓, 吴国雄, 徐建军 1999 科学通报 44 1226]

    [19]

    Pan A J, Liu Q Y 2005 Chin. Sci. Bull. 50 1523 (in Chinese) [潘爱军, 刘秦玉 2005 科学通报 50 1523]

    [20]

    Jensen V E, Samuel P, Johannessen O M 1997 IEEE J. Geophys. Res. 21 1698

    [21]

    Feng S D, Feng T 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 029202 (in Chinese) [冯士德, 冯涛 2011 物理学报 60 029202]

    [22]

    Chen C T, Millero F J 1977 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62 1129

    [23]

    Christopher S M, Watts D R 1997 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102 2058

    [24]

    Del Grosso V A 1974 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 56 1084

    [25]

    Zhang Y T, Fang K T 1997 Multivariate Statistics Analysis (Beijing: Science Press) (in Chinese) [张尧庭, 方开泰 1997 多元统计分析引论 (北京:科学出版社)]

    [26]

    Sun S P, Zhang L, Hou W, Feng G L 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 029201 (in Chinese) [孙树鹏, 张璐, 侯威, 封国林 2011 物理学报 60 029201]

    [27]

    Shen Y H, Ma Y L, Tu Q P, Jiang X Q 1999 Appl. Acoust. 20 21 (in Chinese) [沈远海, 马远良, 屠庆平, 姜小权 1999 应用声学 20 21]

  • [1]

    Chiu L Y S, Lin Y T, Chen C F, Duda T F, Calder B 2011 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129 260

    [2]

    Zhang Z B, Ma Y L, Yang K D, Yan S F 2005 Acta Acust. 30 103 (in Chinese) [张忠兵, 马远良, 杨坤德, 鄢社锋 2005 声学学报 30 103]

    [3]

    Fan M Y, Guo Y H, Hui J Y 2000 Acta Acust. 25 528 (in Chinese) [范敏毅, 郭玉红, 惠俊英 2000 声学学报 25 528]

    [4]

    Luo W, Schmidt H 2009 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125 1384

    [5]

    Huang C, Gerstoft P, Hodgkiss W S 2006 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119 3224

    [6]

    Yang K D, Ma Y L 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 1798 (in Chinese) [杨坤德, 马远良 2009 物理学报 58 1798]

    [7]

    Yang K D, Chapman R, Ma Y L 2007 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121 833

    [8]

    Yang K D, Ma Y L, Sun C, Miller J H, Potty G R 2004 IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 29 964

    [9]

    Yin J W, Hui J Y, Guo L X 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 1753 (in Chinese) [殷敬伟, 惠俊英, 郭龙祥 2008 物理学报 57 1753]

    [10]

    He C B, Huang J G, Han J, Zhang Q F 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 8379 (in Chinese) [何成兵, 黄建国, 韩晶, 张群飞 2009 物理学报 58 8379]

    [11]

    Zhang X, Zhang Y G, Huang F L, Li J 2010 Mar. Sci. Bull. 29 29 (in Chinese) [张旭, 张永刚, 黄飞灵, 李坚 2010 海洋通报 29 29]

    [12]

    Zhang X, Zhang Y G, Zhang S J, Wu S H 2009 J. Trop. Ocean 28 23 (in Chinese) [张旭, 张永刚, 张胜军, 吴世华 2009 热带海洋学报 28 23]

    [13]

    Wu P M, Guo X G, Wu R S 2002 Acta Oceanol. Sin. 24 179 (in Chinese) [吴培木, 郭小钢, 吴日升 2002 海洋学报 24 179]

    [14]

    Reise B, Etter P C 1997 Proceedings of Undersea Defence Technology Conference (Hamburg: Undersea Defence Technology Organization) pp408---413

    [15]

    Mandelberg M D, Frizzell-Makowski L J F 2000 IEEE Oceans Conference and Exhibition (New York: IEEE) pp105---108

    [16]

    Chu P C, Fan C W 2010 IEEE Oceans 10 1001

    [17]

    Shi M C 2004 Physical Oceanography (Jinan: Shandong Education Press) (in Chinese) [侍茂崇 2004 物理海洋学 (济南:山东教育出版社)]

    [18]

    Wang D X, Wu G X, Xu J J 1999 Chin. Sci. Bull. 44 1226 (in Chinese) [王东晓, 吴国雄, 徐建军 1999 科学通报 44 1226]

    [19]

    Pan A J, Liu Q Y 2005 Chin. Sci. Bull. 50 1523 (in Chinese) [潘爱军, 刘秦玉 2005 科学通报 50 1523]

    [20]

    Jensen V E, Samuel P, Johannessen O M 1997 IEEE J. Geophys. Res. 21 1698

    [21]

    Feng S D, Feng T 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 029202 (in Chinese) [冯士德, 冯涛 2011 物理学报 60 029202]

    [22]

    Chen C T, Millero F J 1977 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62 1129

    [23]

    Christopher S M, Watts D R 1997 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102 2058

    [24]

    Del Grosso V A 1974 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 56 1084

    [25]

    Zhang Y T, Fang K T 1997 Multivariate Statistics Analysis (Beijing: Science Press) (in Chinese) [张尧庭, 方开泰 1997 多元统计分析引论 (北京:科学出版社)]

    [26]

    Sun S P, Zhang L, Hou W, Feng G L 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 029201 (in Chinese) [孙树鹏, 张璐, 侯威, 封国林 2011 物理学报 60 029201]

    [27]

    Shen Y H, Ma Y L, Tu Q P, Jiang X Q 1999 Appl. Acoust. 20 21 (in Chinese) [沈远海, 马远良, 屠庆平, 姜小权 1999 应用声学 20 21]

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  • Received Date:  13 July 2011
  • Accepted Date:  28 April 2012
  • Published Online:  20 April 2012

Research on the temporal-spatial distributions and the physical mechanisms for the sound speed profiles in north-central Indian Ocean

  • 1. College of Marine, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174235, 61101192), the Program for the New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NCET-08-0455), the Science and Technology Development Program of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2010KJXX-02), and the Science and Technology Innovation Foundation of Northwestern Polytechnical University, China.

Abstract: The structure of sound speed in ocean has a strong influence on underwater sound propagation. For underwater target detection and underwater acoustic communication, it is of great significance to obtain the temporal and spatial distribution of sound speed profile. Since the limitations and applicability of vertical grads method in structural analysis of sound speed in the Indian Ocean, optimal partition method is developed to calculate the sound spring layer. The study focuses on analysing the eigenvalues of sound speed profiles (SSPs) in the north-central Indian Ocean based on the last 10 year data of array for real-time geostrophic oceanography. The vertical structure characteristics of sound speed are investigated in the Indian Ocean, and the laws of temporal and spatial variation are obtained. The distribution of the fitting accuracy with the order of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) are found. The physical mechanisms of the temporal and spatial variation of SSPs are revealed with the marine physical environment in Indian Ocean. The simulation results show that optimal partition method is suitable for the area to judge the structure of spring layer, and the parameters of the corresponding criterion is also proposed. The regional distributions of the fitting accuracy with the order of EOF are more obvious than with the seasonal variations. The deep channel axis exists at south 5S and there are three spring layers between 15S and 25S. The structures of SSPs in the Indian Ocean can be classified into four types: single spring layer, double spring layer type Ⅰ, double spring layer type Ⅱ and three spring layer, and for seasonal models: spring model, summer model, autumn model and winter model. The analysis results of the SSPs can provide some reference value for acoustic propagation and the sonar systems.

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