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Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines

Chen Ying-Tian T. H. Ho

Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines

Chen Ying-Tian, T. H. Ho
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  • Among others, the removal of boron is the key issue to effectively purify metallurgical silicon into solar grade silicon. An innovative slagging process is proposed in this article after reviewing many previous studies. In the process, strong radiation is employed as catalysis to promote the chemical reaction. The authors have for the first time unveiled the secrets including the newly developed high temperature tools, the materials used, the method of mixing materials before purification, the process for separating silicon from residuals after purification, etc.. In the meantime, the authors also propose a postulate to explain the mechanism of the catalysis process. Except the removal of boron, the processes to remove other impurities, such as phosphorous and residual metals using electron beam and magnetic floating directional solidification are also discussed for the completion of a new industrial process to fabricate pure silicon. In the article, the authors also extend their discussion to the possibility of using the proposed non-imaging heliostat in other fields; to the possibility to further manufacture electronic grade silicon using the same process; to the possibility to obtain more experimental evidences for the postulate of strong radiation catalysis and to other subjects related to authors' claimed creations. It is sincerely hoped that the publication of the innovations reported in this article may provide an alternative way in the route map for the use of renewable energy of low cost and low carbon emission.
    [1]

    Bass M. 1995 Handbook of Optics (New York: McGraw-Hill)1 p147

    [2]

    Cruickshark F D, Hills G A 1960 J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50 379

    [3]

    Chen Y T, Chong K K, Bligh T P, Chen L C, Yunus J, Kannan K S, Lim B H, Lim C S, Alias M A, Bidin N, Aliman O, Salehan S, Rezan S A H, Tam C M, Tan K K 2001 Solar Energy 71 155

    [4]

    Chen Y T, Chong K K, Lim C S, Lim B H, Tan K K, Aliman O, Bligh T P, Tan B K, Ismail G 2002 Solar Energy 72 531

    [5]

    Deng F, Tang Z L 2009 Technology of Silicon Polycrystal Manufacture (Beijing, Chemical Industry Press) (in Chinese)[邓 丰、唐正林 2009 多晶硅生产技术 (北京:化学工业出版社) ]

    [6]

    Yang D R 2005 Silicon Semiconductor Materials (Beijing. Mechanical Industry Press) (in Chinese)[杨德仁 2005 半导体硅材料 (北京:机械工业出版社) ]

    [7]

    Orlova E A, Zagrebaev S A, Orlov M A, Kozlov F A, Alekseev V V, Drobyshev A V, Zhmurin V G, Zasorin I I, Kozlova N A 2010 Bulletin of The Lebedev Physics Institute 37 321

    [8]

    Tamendarov M F, Mukashev B N, Abdullin K A, Kulekeev Z A, Bekturganov N S, Beketov B A 2006 PCT Patent WO 041271 A1

    [9]

    Sakaguchi Y, Ishizak M, Kawahara T, Fukai M, Yoshiyagawa M, Aratani F 1992 ISIJ International 32 643

    [10]

    Lynch D C, Oye H. A 2007 PCT Patent WO 127126 A2

    [11]

    Ruixian Science Technology Ltd 2010 CN 101857232 [瑞贤科技股份有限公司 2010 CN 〖12] Gao W X, Chu J H 2010 Commun Phys Chem 11 21(in Chinese)[高文秀、褚君浩 2010 化学物理通讯 11 21]

    [12]

    Strebkov D S, Pinov A, Zadde V V, Tsuo Y S, Touryan K, Murphy L, Gee J M 1998 8th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes Colorado, The United States of America, August 17—19 1998 p18

    [13]

    Strebkov D S, Pinov A, Zadde V V, Lebedev E N, Belov E P, Efimov N K, Kleshevnikova S I, Touryan K, Bleak D 2004 14th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell and Modules Colorado, The United States of America, August 8-11, 2004 p174

    [14]

    Sakaguchi Y., Yuge N, Nakamura N, Baba H, Hanazawa K, Abe M, Kato Y 1997 14th Eur. PV Solar Energy Conf. Barcelona, Spain, 30 June—4 July, 1997 p157

    [15]

    Schmid F, Khattack C P, Joyce D B 2002 U. S. Patent 6,368,403 B1

    [16]

    Yuge N, Abe M, Hanazawa K, Baba H, Nakamura N, Kato Y, Sakaguchi Y, Hiwasa S, Aratani F 2001 Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 9 203

    [17]

    Ciszek T F, Wang T H, Page M R, Bauer R E, Landry M D 2002 29th IEEE PV Specialist Conference Louisiana, The United States of America, May 20—24, 2002 p131

    [18]

    Khattack C P, Joyce D B, Schmid F 2002 Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 74 77

    [19]

    Bildl E, Dietl J, Baueregger R, Seifert D 1986 U. S. Patent 4,588,571

    [20]

    Biello D 2010 www.scientificamerican.com

    [21]

    Ito N, Kondo J, Okazawa K, Okajima M 2006 PCT Patent WO 095663 A2 Shi Jun 2011 New Materials Industry 3 20 (in Chinese)[史 珺 2011 新材料产业 3 20 ]

    [22]

    Chen Y T, Zhang Y, Hu S, Ho T H, Lim B H, Lim C S 2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 52 549

    [23]

    Lu D, Chen Y T, Hu S, Zhang Y 2010 Commun. Theor. Phys. 54 175

    [24]

    Chen Y T, Zhang Y, Hu S, Ho T H, Lim B H, Lim C S, Chong K K, Tan B K 2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 52 750

    [25]

    Chen Y T, Chong K K, Lim B H, Lim C S 2003 Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 79 1

    [26]

    Chen Y T, Lim B H, Lim C S 2006 Solar Energy 80 268

    [27]

    Zaibel R, Pagan E, Ries H 1995 Solar Energy Material and Solar Cells 37 191

    [28]

    Li L, Chen Y T, Hu S 2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 51 315

    [29]

    Lu Z P 2006 J. of USTC 36 1244 (in Chinese)[刘祖平 2006 中国科学技术大学学报 36 1244 ]

    [30]

    Chen Y T, Lim B H, Lim C S 2006 J. of Solar Energy Engineering 128 245

    [31]

    Ries H, Schubnell M, 1990 Solar Energy Materials 21 213

    [32]

    Zhang Y S 1981 Annual of Solar Energy Society of China (in Chinese)[张迎胜 1981 中国太阳能学会年会论文]

    [33]

    Chen Y T, Bligh T P 1997 British Patent 9721019.9

    [34]

    He Z X 2009 Proceedings of the Forum on the Technology Development of New Energy and Renewable Energy in China p1 (in Chinese)[何祚庥 2009 中国新能源及可再生能源科技发展论坛,p1]

    [35]

    Kribus A 2006 Commun. & Theor. Phys. 45 163

    [36]

    Kennedy C, Terwilliger K, Milbourne M 2005 2004 DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Review Meeting NREL/CP-520-36582 Colorado, The United States of America, October 25—28, 2004

    [37]

    Cochran C N 1987 In light Metal (Ed. by Zabreznik R D) p429

    [38]

    Murray J P 1999 Solar Energy 66 133

    [39]

    Rodriquez–Donoso G P, Ruiz J, Fernandez B J, Vazquez-Vaamonde A J 1995 Materials & Design 16 163

    [40]

    Imhof A 1991 Solar Energy Materials 24 733

    [41]

    De Young R J 1986 J. of Quantum Electronics 22 1019

    [42]

    Flamant G, Kurtcuoglu V, Murray J, Steinfeld A 2006 Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 2099

    [43]

    Tsuchiya M, Sankaranarayanan S K R S, Ramanathan S 2009 Progress in Materials Science 54 981

    [44]

    Roy R, Rao M L, Kanzius J 2008 Materials Research Innovations 12 3

    [45]

    Chen Y T, Ho T H, Lim C S, Lim B H 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 118105 Chen Y T, Lim C S, Ho T H, Lim B H, Wang Y N 2009 Chin. Phys. Lett. 26 78103

    [46]

    Teixeira L A V, Tokuda Y, Yoko T, Morita K 2009 ISIJ International 49 777

    [47]

    Tolman R C 1938 Principle of statistical mechanics (London: Oxford Univ. Press)

    [48]

    Beijing Yingtian Solar Energy Technology Ltd 2011 Chinese Patentapplication 201110025326.6 [北京应天阳光太阳能技术有限公司2011中国专利申请 201110025326.6]

    [49]

    Beijing Yingtian Solar Energy Technology Ltd 2010 Chinese4 Patentapplication 201010282839.0 [北京应天阳光太阳能技术有限公司2010 中国专利申请 201010282839.0]

    [50]

    Beijing Yingtian Solar Energy Technology Ltd 2011 Chinese Patenapplication 201110000236.1 [北京应天阳光太阳能技术有限公司2011 中国专利申请 201110000236.1]

    [51]

    Morita K, Miki T 2003 Intermetallics 11 1111

    [52]

    Mori N 1995 U. S. Patent 5,454,424

    [53]

    Yuge N, Abe M, Hanazawa K, Baba H, Nakamura N, Kato Y, Sakaguchi Y, Hiwasa S, Aratani F 2001 Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 9 203

    [54]

    Miyake M, Hiramatsu T, Maeda M 2006 J. Japan Inst. Metals 70 43

  • [1]

    Bass M. 1995 Handbook of Optics (New York: McGraw-Hill)1 p147

    [2]

    Cruickshark F D, Hills G A 1960 J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50 379

    [3]

    Chen Y T, Chong K K, Bligh T P, Chen L C, Yunus J, Kannan K S, Lim B H, Lim C S, Alias M A, Bidin N, Aliman O, Salehan S, Rezan S A H, Tam C M, Tan K K 2001 Solar Energy 71 155

    [4]

    Chen Y T, Chong K K, Lim C S, Lim B H, Tan K K, Aliman O, Bligh T P, Tan B K, Ismail G 2002 Solar Energy 72 531

    [5]

    Deng F, Tang Z L 2009 Technology of Silicon Polycrystal Manufacture (Beijing, Chemical Industry Press) (in Chinese)[邓 丰、唐正林 2009 多晶硅生产技术 (北京:化学工业出版社) ]

    [6]

    Yang D R 2005 Silicon Semiconductor Materials (Beijing. Mechanical Industry Press) (in Chinese)[杨德仁 2005 半导体硅材料 (北京:机械工业出版社) ]

    [7]

    Orlova E A, Zagrebaev S A, Orlov M A, Kozlov F A, Alekseev V V, Drobyshev A V, Zhmurin V G, Zasorin I I, Kozlova N A 2010 Bulletin of The Lebedev Physics Institute 37 321

    [8]

    Tamendarov M F, Mukashev B N, Abdullin K A, Kulekeev Z A, Bekturganov N S, Beketov B A 2006 PCT Patent WO 041271 A1

    [9]

    Sakaguchi Y, Ishizak M, Kawahara T, Fukai M, Yoshiyagawa M, Aratani F 1992 ISIJ International 32 643

    [10]

    Lynch D C, Oye H. A 2007 PCT Patent WO 127126 A2

    [11]

    Ruixian Science Technology Ltd 2010 CN 101857232 [瑞贤科技股份有限公司 2010 CN 〖12] Gao W X, Chu J H 2010 Commun Phys Chem 11 21(in Chinese)[高文秀、褚君浩 2010 化学物理通讯 11 21]

    [12]

    Strebkov D S, Pinov A, Zadde V V, Tsuo Y S, Touryan K, Murphy L, Gee J M 1998 8th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Materials and Processes Colorado, The United States of America, August 17—19 1998 p18

    [13]

    Strebkov D S, Pinov A, Zadde V V, Lebedev E N, Belov E P, Efimov N K, Kleshevnikova S I, Touryan K, Bleak D 2004 14th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell and Modules Colorado, The United States of America, August 8-11, 2004 p174

    [14]

    Sakaguchi Y., Yuge N, Nakamura N, Baba H, Hanazawa K, Abe M, Kato Y 1997 14th Eur. PV Solar Energy Conf. Barcelona, Spain, 30 June—4 July, 1997 p157

    [15]

    Schmid F, Khattack C P, Joyce D B 2002 U. S. Patent 6,368,403 B1

    [16]

    Yuge N, Abe M, Hanazawa K, Baba H, Nakamura N, Kato Y, Sakaguchi Y, Hiwasa S, Aratani F 2001 Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 9 203

    [17]

    Ciszek T F, Wang T H, Page M R, Bauer R E, Landry M D 2002 29th IEEE PV Specialist Conference Louisiana, The United States of America, May 20—24, 2002 p131

    [18]

    Khattack C P, Joyce D B, Schmid F 2002 Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 74 77

    [19]

    Bildl E, Dietl J, Baueregger R, Seifert D 1986 U. S. Patent 4,588,571

    [20]

    Biello D 2010 www.scientificamerican.com

    [21]

    Ito N, Kondo J, Okazawa K, Okajima M 2006 PCT Patent WO 095663 A2 Shi Jun 2011 New Materials Industry 3 20 (in Chinese)[史 珺 2011 新材料产业 3 20 ]

    [22]

    Chen Y T, Zhang Y, Hu S, Ho T H, Lim B H, Lim C S 2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 52 549

    [23]

    Lu D, Chen Y T, Hu S, Zhang Y 2010 Commun. Theor. Phys. 54 175

    [24]

    Chen Y T, Zhang Y, Hu S, Ho T H, Lim B H, Lim C S, Chong K K, Tan B K 2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 52 750

    [25]

    Chen Y T, Chong K K, Lim B H, Lim C S 2003 Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 79 1

    [26]

    Chen Y T, Lim B H, Lim C S 2006 Solar Energy 80 268

    [27]

    Zaibel R, Pagan E, Ries H 1995 Solar Energy Material and Solar Cells 37 191

    [28]

    Li L, Chen Y T, Hu S 2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 51 315

    [29]

    Lu Z P 2006 J. of USTC 36 1244 (in Chinese)[刘祖平 2006 中国科学技术大学学报 36 1244 ]

    [30]

    Chen Y T, Lim B H, Lim C S 2006 J. of Solar Energy Engineering 128 245

    [31]

    Ries H, Schubnell M, 1990 Solar Energy Materials 21 213

    [32]

    Zhang Y S 1981 Annual of Solar Energy Society of China (in Chinese)[张迎胜 1981 中国太阳能学会年会论文]

    [33]

    Chen Y T, Bligh T P 1997 British Patent 9721019.9

    [34]

    He Z X 2009 Proceedings of the Forum on the Technology Development of New Energy and Renewable Energy in China p1 (in Chinese)[何祚庥 2009 中国新能源及可再生能源科技发展论坛,p1]

    [35]

    Kribus A 2006 Commun. & Theor. Phys. 45 163

    [36]

    Kennedy C, Terwilliger K, Milbourne M 2005 2004 DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Review Meeting NREL/CP-520-36582 Colorado, The United States of America, October 25—28, 2004

    [37]

    Cochran C N 1987 In light Metal (Ed. by Zabreznik R D) p429

    [38]

    Murray J P 1999 Solar Energy 66 133

    [39]

    Rodriquez–Donoso G P, Ruiz J, Fernandez B J, Vazquez-Vaamonde A J 1995 Materials & Design 16 163

    [40]

    Imhof A 1991 Solar Energy Materials 24 733

    [41]

    De Young R J 1986 J. of Quantum Electronics 22 1019

    [42]

    Flamant G, Kurtcuoglu V, Murray J, Steinfeld A 2006 Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 2099

    [43]

    Tsuchiya M, Sankaranarayanan S K R S, Ramanathan S 2009 Progress in Materials Science 54 981

    [44]

    Roy R, Rao M L, Kanzius J 2008 Materials Research Innovations 12 3

    [45]

    Chen Y T, Ho T H, Lim C S, Lim B H 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 118105 Chen Y T, Lim C S, Ho T H, Lim B H, Wang Y N 2009 Chin. Phys. Lett. 26 78103

    [46]

    Teixeira L A V, Tokuda Y, Yoko T, Morita K 2009 ISIJ International 49 777

    [47]

    Tolman R C 1938 Principle of statistical mechanics (London: Oxford Univ. Press)

    [48]

    Beijing Yingtian Solar Energy Technology Ltd 2011 Chinese Patentapplication 201110025326.6 [北京应天阳光太阳能技术有限公司2011中国专利申请 201110025326.6]

    [49]

    Beijing Yingtian Solar Energy Technology Ltd 2010 Chinese4 Patentapplication 201010282839.0 [北京应天阳光太阳能技术有限公司2010 中国专利申请 201010282839.0]

    [50]

    Beijing Yingtian Solar Energy Technology Ltd 2011 Chinese Patenapplication 201110000236.1 [北京应天阳光太阳能技术有限公司2011 中国专利申请 201110000236.1]

    [51]

    Morita K, Miki T 2003 Intermetallics 11 1111

    [52]

    Mori N 1995 U. S. Patent 5,454,424

    [53]

    Yuge N, Abe M, Hanazawa K, Baba H, Nakamura N, Kato Y, Sakaguchi Y, Hiwasa S, Aratani F 2001 Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 9 203

    [54]

    Miyake M, Hiramatsu T, Maeda M 2006 J. Japan Inst. Metals 70 43

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Publishing process
  • Received Date:  12 April 2011
  • Accepted Date:  15 April 2011
  • Published Online:  15 July 2011

Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines

  • 1. Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

Abstract: Among others, the removal of boron is the key issue to effectively purify metallurgical silicon into solar grade silicon. An innovative slagging process is proposed in this article after reviewing many previous studies. In the process, strong radiation is employed as catalysis to promote the chemical reaction. The authors have for the first time unveiled the secrets including the newly developed high temperature tools, the materials used, the method of mixing materials before purification, the process for separating silicon from residuals after purification, etc.. In the meantime, the authors also propose a postulate to explain the mechanism of the catalysis process. Except the removal of boron, the processes to remove other impurities, such as phosphorous and residual metals using electron beam and magnetic floating directional solidification are also discussed for the completion of a new industrial process to fabricate pure silicon. In the article, the authors also extend their discussion to the possibility of using the proposed non-imaging heliostat in other fields; to the possibility to further manufacture electronic grade silicon using the same process; to the possibility to obtain more experimental evidences for the postulate of strong radiation catalysis and to other subjects related to authors' claimed creations. It is sincerely hoped that the publication of the innovations reported in this article may provide an alternative way in the route map for the use of renewable energy of low cost and low carbon emission.

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