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Preparation and properties of graphite-like carbon films fabricated by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

Wang Yong-Jun Li Hong-Xuan Ji Li Liu Xiao-Hong Wu Yan-Xia Zhou Hui-Di Chen Jian-Min

Preparation and properties of graphite-like carbon films fabricated by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

Wang Yong-Jun, Li Hong-Xuan, Ji Li, Liu Xiao-Hong, Wu Yan-Xia, Zhou Hui-Di, Chen Jian-Min
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  • A series of graphite-like carbon films is fabricated by the middle frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures and the morphologies of the resulting films are investigated by Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The mechanical and the tribological properties of the films are studied by nanoindentation and CSM tribometer. The results show that the deposited carbon film is dominated by sp2 sites, and has an amorphous structure, a moderate hardness, low internal stress, high surface roughness and superior tribological properties. With the increase of the duty ratio, the intensity ratio between D and G peaks first decreases and then increases, while the film hardness first increases and then decreases. Tribological testing in humid atmosphere demonstrates that the present carbon film has a superior wear resistance (~10-11 cm3/N-1.m-1) and high load bearing capacity (~2.5 GPa). Although the duty ratio has no obvious influence on friction coefficient, the wear rate decreases obviously and then increases slightly with the increase of duty ratio. The superior tribological properties of the graphite-like carbon film are attributed mainly to its unique structure, low internal stress and high structure stability.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 50705093, 50575217), the Innovative Group Foundation from NSFC (Grant No. 50421502) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2007CB607601).
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    Ma G J, Liu X L, Zhang H F, Wu H C, Peng L P, Jiang Y L 2007Acta Phys. Sin. 56 2377 (in Chinese ) [马国佳,刘喜亮, 张华芳, 武洪臣, 彭丽平, 蒋艳莉 2007 物理学报 56 2377]

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    Zhao D C, Ren N, Ma Z J, Qiu J W, Xiao G J, Wu S H 2007 ActaPhys. Sin. 57 1935 (in Chinese) [赵栋才,任妮, 马占吉, 邱家稳, 肖更竭, 武生虎 2007 物理学报 57 1935]

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    Chouquet C, Gavillet J, Ducros C, Sanchette F 2010 Mater. Chem.Phys. 12 3367

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    Ma G J, Liu X L, Zhang H F, Wu H C, Peng L P 2007 Chin. Phys.B 17 1105

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    Chen X C, Peng Z J, Fu Z Q, Wang C B 2010 China Surf. Eng. 2336 (in Chinese) [陈新春,彭志坚, 付志强, 王成彪 2010 中国表面工程 23 36]

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    Dai M J, Fu Z Q, Lin S S,Wang C B, Xiao X L 2010 Vacuum 47 1(in Chinese) [代明江, 付志强, 林松盛,王成彪, 肖晓玲 2010 真空 47 1]

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    Ding Q, Wang L P, Hu L T, Hu T C, Wang Y F, Zhang Y N 2011J. Appl. Phys. 109 013501

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    Yang S, Jones A H S, Teer D 2000 Surf. Coat. Technol. 133-134369

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    Konca E, Cheng Y T, Weiner A M, Dasch J M, Alpas A T 2006Surf. Coat. Technol. 200 3996

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    Yan S P, Jiang B L, Su Y, Zhang Y H 2008 Tribology 28 491 (inChinese) [严少平, 蒋百灵,苏阳, 张永宏 2008 摩擦学报 28 491]

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    Ma J, Jiang B L, Zhang Y H 2007 Tribology 27 437 (in Chinese)[马婕, 蒋百灵, 张永宏 2007 摩擦学报 27 437]

    [25]
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    Fu Y H, Zhu X D, He J W, Yang S C 2003 Tribology 23 463 (inChinese) [付永辉, 朱晓东, 何家文, Yang S C 2003textitTribology 23 463]

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    Ferrari A C, Robertson J 2001 Phys. Rev. B 64 075414 [16] Ferrari A C, Robertson J 2000 Phys. Rev. B 61 14095

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    Baptista D L, Zawislak F C 2004 Diamond Relat. Mater. 13 1791

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    Siegal M P, Tallant D R, Martinez-Miranda L J, Barbour J C,Simpson R L, Overmyer D L 2000 Phys. Rev. B 61 10451

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    Liu A P, Zhu J Q, Han J C, Wu H P, Jia Z C 2007 Appl. Surf. Sci.253 9124

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    Peng X L, Barber Z H, Clyne T W 2001 Surf. Coat. Technol. 13823

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    Lifshitz Y, Edrei R, Hoffman A, Grossman E, Lempert G D,Berthold J, Schultrich B, Jger H U 2007 Diamond Relat. Mater.16 1771

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    Kim T Y, Lee C S, Lee Y J, Lee K R, Chae K H, Oh K H 2007 J.Appl. Phys. 101 023504

    [43]

    Voevodin A A, Donley M S, Zabinski J S, Bultman J E 1995 Surf.Coat. Technol. 76-77 534

  • [1]

    Robertson J 2002 Mater. Sci. Eng. R 37 129

    [2]
    [3]

    Neuville S, Matthews A 2007 Thin Solid Films 515 6619

    [4]
    [5]

    Ma G J, Liu X L, Zhang H F, Wu H C, Peng L P, Jiang Y L 2007Acta Phys. Sin. 56 2377 (in Chinese ) [马国佳,刘喜亮, 张华芳, 武洪臣, 彭丽平, 蒋艳莉 2007 物理学报 56 2377]

    [6]

    Zhao D C, Ren N, Ma Z J, Qiu J W, Xiao G J, Wu S H 2007 ActaPhys. Sin. 57 1935 (in Chinese) [赵栋才,任妮, 马占吉, 邱家稳, 肖更竭, 武生虎 2007 物理学报 57 1935]

    [7]
    [8]
    [9]

    Chouquet C, Gavillet J, Ducros C, Sanchette F 2010 Mater. Chem.Phys. 12 3367

    [10]

    Ma G J, Liu X L, Zhang H F, Wu H C, Peng L P 2007 Chin. Phys.B 17 1105

    [11]
    [12]
    [13]

    Chen X C, Peng Z J, Fu Z Q, Wang C B 2010 China Surf. Eng. 2336 (in Chinese) [陈新春,彭志坚, 付志强, 王成彪 2010 中国表面工程 23 36]

    [14]
    [15]

    Dai M J, Fu Z Q, Lin S S,Wang C B, Xiao X L 2010 Vacuum 47 1(in Chinese) [代明江, 付志强, 林松盛,王成彪, 肖晓玲 2010 真空 47 1]

    [16]
    [17]

    Ding Q, Wang L P, Hu L T, Hu T C, Wang Y F, Zhang Y N 2011J. Appl. Phys. 109 013501

    [18]
    [19]

    Yang S, Jones A H S, Teer D 2000 Surf. Coat. Technol. 133-134369

    [20]
    [21]

    Konca E, Cheng Y T, Weiner A M, Dasch J M, Alpas A T 2006Surf. Coat. Technol. 200 3996

    [22]

    Yan S P, Jiang B L, Su Y, Zhang Y H 2008 Tribology 28 491 (inChinese) [严少平, 蒋百灵,苏阳, 张永宏 2008 摩擦学报 28 491]

    [23]
    [24]

    Ma J, Jiang B L, Zhang Y H 2007 Tribology 27 437 (in Chinese)[马婕, 蒋百灵, 张永宏 2007 摩擦学报 27 437]

    [25]
    [26]

    Fu Y H, Zhu X D, He J W, Yang S C 2003 Tribology 23 463 (inChinese) [付永辉, 朱晓东, 何家文, Yang S C 2003textitTribology 23 463]

    [27]
    [28]

    Ferrari A C, Robertson J 2001 Phys. Rev. B 64 075414 [16] Ferrari A C, Robertson J 2000 Phys. Rev. B 61 14095

    [29]
    [30]
    [31]

    Baptista D L, Zawislak F C 2004 Diamond Relat. Mater. 13 1791

    [32]
    [33]
    [34]

    Siegal M P, Tallant D R, Martinez-Miranda L J, Barbour J C,Simpson R L, Overmyer D L 2000 Phys. Rev. B 61 10451

    [35]
    [36]

    Liu A P, Zhu J Q, Han J C, Wu H P, Jia Z C 2007 Appl. Surf. Sci.253 9124

    [37]
    [38]

    Peng X L, Barber Z H, Clyne T W 2001 Surf. Coat. Technol. 13823

    [39]
    [40]

    Lifshitz Y, Edrei R, Hoffman A, Grossman E, Lempert G D,Berthold J, Schultrich B, Jger H U 2007 Diamond Relat. Mater.16 1771

    [41]
    [42]

    Kim T Y, Lee C S, Lee Y J, Lee K R, Chae K H, Oh K H 2007 J.Appl. Phys. 101 023504

    [43]

    Voevodin A A, Donley M S, Zabinski J S, Bultman J E 1995 Surf.Coat. Technol. 76-77 534

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  • Received Date:  11 February 2011
  • Accepted Date:  23 June 2011
  • Published Online:  05 March 2012

Preparation and properties of graphite-like carbon films fabricated by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

  • 1. State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
  • 2. Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 50705093, 50575217), the Innovative Group Foundation from NSFC (Grant No. 50421502) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2007CB607601).

Abstract: A series of graphite-like carbon films is fabricated by the middle frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures and the morphologies of the resulting films are investigated by Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The mechanical and the tribological properties of the films are studied by nanoindentation and CSM tribometer. The results show that the deposited carbon film is dominated by sp2 sites, and has an amorphous structure, a moderate hardness, low internal stress, high surface roughness and superior tribological properties. With the increase of the duty ratio, the intensity ratio between D and G peaks first decreases and then increases, while the film hardness first increases and then decreases. Tribological testing in humid atmosphere demonstrates that the present carbon film has a superior wear resistance (~10-11 cm3/N-1.m-1) and high load bearing capacity (~2.5 GPa). Although the duty ratio has no obvious influence on friction coefficient, the wear rate decreases obviously and then increases slightly with the increase of duty ratio. The superior tribological properties of the graphite-like carbon film are attributed mainly to its unique structure, low internal stress and high structure stability.

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