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Evaluation of noninductive charging mechanisms and simulation of charge characteristic structure in the early thunderstorm based on RAMS V6.0

Li Wan-Li Liu Dong-Xia Qie Xiu-Shu Fu Shen-Ming Duan Shu Chen Yi-Chen

Evaluation of noninductive charging mechanisms and simulation of charge characteristic structure in the early thunderstorm based on RAMS V6.0

Li Wan-Li, Liu Dong-Xia, Qie Xiu-Shu, Fu Shen-Ming, Duan Shu, Chen Yi-Chen
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  • A new regional thunderstorm model, coupled with two primary non-inductive electrification mechanisms, namely Takahashi (1978) and Saunders (1991) schemes, is developed based on the newest version of RAMS V6.0. Based on the simulation on a thunderstorm in its early stage which occurred in Beijing, the results show that the total charge distribution is tripolar in both schemes when the electric field reaches breakdown value. The results are in agreement with some observations and results of other model. However, the evolution processes and shapes of cloud charge distribution in the two schemes are different. The result of Takahashi's (1978) scheme produces a tripolar charge distribution in the cloud before the first lightning. The Saunders' (1991) scheme produces a transform from inverted dipole distribution to tripolar charge distribution. This is because they used different experimental conditions: different factors lead to different results. The results from both schemes show that the positive charge carrier at a low level of thunderstorm is rain droplet, the aggregates and graupels are located in high level of thunderstorm, and the charge center distribution of graupels is similar to the distribution of total charge in thunderstorm cloud.
    • Funds: Project supported by the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No. 40930949), Postdoctor Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 119100581F), and Hundred Talent Foundation of Chinese Academt of Sciences, China.
    [1]

    Takahashi T 1974 J. Atmos. Sci. 31 2160

    [2]

    Takahashi T 1978 J. Atmos. Sci. 35 1536

    [3]

    Saunders C P R, Keith W D, Mitzeva R P 1991 J. Geophys. Res.96 11007

    [4]

    Dye J E, Jones J J, Winn W P, Cerni T A, Gardiner B, Lamb D,Pitter R L, Hallett J, Saunders C P R 1986 J. Geophys. Res. 911231

    [5]

    Helsdon J H, Farley R D 1987 J. Geophys. Res. 92 5661

    [6]

    Ziegler C L, Macgorman D R, Dye J E, Ray P S 1991 J. Geophys.Res. 96 12833

    [7]

    Yan M H, Liu X S, An X M, Zhang Y J 1996 Plateau Meteorol.15 425 (in Chinese) [言穆弘,刘欣生, 安学敏, 张义军 1996 高原气象 15 425]

    [8]

    Helsdon J H, Wojcik W A, Farley R D 2001 J. Geophys. Res. 1061165

    [9]

    Rawlins F 1982 Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 108 779

    [10]

    Mansell E R, MacGorman D R, Ziegler C L, Straka J M 2005 J.Geophys. Res. 110 D12 doi: 10.1029/2004JD005287

    [11]

    Sun A P, Yan M H, Zhang Y J, Zhang H F, Huang M Y 2002 ActaMeteorol. Sin. 60 722 (in Chinese) [孙安平,言穆弘, 张义军, 张鸿发, 黄美元 2002 气象学报 60 722]

    [12]

    Guo F X, Zhang Y J, Yan M H 2010 Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 34 361(in Chinese) [郭凤霞, 张义军, 言穆弘 2010大气科学 34 361]

    [13]

    Altaratz O, Reisin T, Levin Z 2005 Geophys. Res. 110 D20205doi: 10.1029/2004JD005616

    [14]

    Liu D X 2010 Ph. D. Dissertation (Beijing: Chinese Academy ofSciences) (in Chinese) [刘冬霞 2010 博士学位论文 (北京:中国科学院研究生院)]

    [15]

    Deng X H 2009 MS Thesis (Beijing: Chinese Academy of MeteorologicalSciences) [邓小花 2009 硕士学位论文(北京: 中国气象科学研究院)]

    [16]

    Walko R L, Cotton W R, Feingold G, Bjorn S 2000 Atmos. Res.53 171

    [17]

    Zhao Y, Qie X S, Kong X Z, Zhang G S, Zhang T, Yang J, FengG L, Zhang Q L, Wang D F 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 6616 (inChinese) [赵阳, 郄秀书, 孔祥贞, 张广庶, 张彤, 杨静, 冯桂力,张其林, 王东方 2009 物理学报 58 6616]

    [18]

    Yang J, Qie X S, Wang J G, Zhao Y, Zhang Q L, Yuan T, Zhou YJ, Feng G L 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 1968 (in Chinese) [杨静, 郄秀书, 王建国, 赵阳, 张其林, 袁铁, 周筠珺, 冯桂力 2008物理学报 57 1968]

    [19]

    Jiang R B, Qie X S,Wang C X, Yang J, Zhang Q L,Wang J F, LiuD X 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 079201 (in Chinese) [蒋如斌, 郄秀书, 王彩霞, 杨静, 张其林, 王俊芳, 刘冬霞 2011物理学报 60 079201]

    [20]

    Yang B, Zhou B H, Meng X 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 8978 (inChinese) [杨波, 周壁华, 孟鑫 2010 物理学报 59 8978]

    [21]

    Gou X Q, Zhang Y J, Dong W S 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 957 (inChinese) [苟学强, 张义军, 董万胜 2006物理学报 55 957]

    [22]

    Takahashi T 1984 J. Atmos. Sci. 41 2541

    [23]

    Hou T J, Lei H C, Niu S J 2009 Climatic and Environmental Research14 143 (in Chinese) [侯团结, 雷恒池, 牛生杰 2009 气候与环境研究 14 143]

    [24]

    Tzur I, Levin Z 1981 J. Atmos. Sci. 38 2444

    [25]

    Norville K, Baker M, Latham J 1991 J. Geophys. Res. 96 7463

    [26]

    Stolzenburg M, Rust W D, Marshall T C 1998 J. Geophys. Res.103 14097

    [27]

    Zhao Z K, Qie X S, Zhang T L, Zhang T, Zhang H F,Wang Y, SheY, Sun B L, Wang H B 2009 Chin. Sci. Bull. 54 3532 [赵中阔,郄秀书, 张廷龙, 张彤, 张鸿发, 王勇, 佘勇, 孙宝来, 王怀斌 2009科学通报 54 3532]

    [28]

    Qie X S, Yu Y, Zhang G S, Liu X S, Guo C M, Watanabe T,Kawasaki Z, Nakano M, Nakamura K, Wang D H, Ushio T 1998Plateau Meteorol. 17 34 (in Chinese) [郄秀书, 余晔, 张广庶,刘欣生, 郭昌明, 渡边贞司, 河崎善一郞, 仲野贡, 中村光一, 王道洪,牛尾知雄 1998 高原气象 17 34]

    [29]

    Mansell E R, MacGorman D R, Ziegler C L 2002 J. Geophys. Res.107 4075 doi:10.1029/2000JD000244

    [30]

    Williams E R 1989 J. Geophys. Res. 94 13151

    [31]

    Marshall T C, Rust W D 1991 J. Geophys. Res. 96 22297

    [32]

    Yuan Z, Jiang B T, Ren L X, Zhou S J, Zheng D Z 1965 Acta Meteorol.Sin. 35 440 (in Chinese) [袁箴,蒋本汤, 任丽新, 周诗健, 郑达洲 1965 气象学报 35 440]

    [33]

    Qie X S, Zhang T L, Chen C P, Zhang G S, Zhang T, Wei W Z2005 Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 doi: 10.1029/2004GL022162

    [34]

    Zhang Y J, Meng Q, Lü W T, Krehbiel P R, Liu X S, Zhou X J2005 Chin. Sci. Bull. 50 2663 [张义军, 孟青, 吕伟涛,Krehbiel P R, 刘欣生, 周秀骥 2005 科学通报 50 2663]

  • [1]

    Takahashi T 1974 J. Atmos. Sci. 31 2160

    [2]

    Takahashi T 1978 J. Atmos. Sci. 35 1536

    [3]

    Saunders C P R, Keith W D, Mitzeva R P 1991 J. Geophys. Res.96 11007

    [4]

    Dye J E, Jones J J, Winn W P, Cerni T A, Gardiner B, Lamb D,Pitter R L, Hallett J, Saunders C P R 1986 J. Geophys. Res. 911231

    [5]

    Helsdon J H, Farley R D 1987 J. Geophys. Res. 92 5661

    [6]

    Ziegler C L, Macgorman D R, Dye J E, Ray P S 1991 J. Geophys.Res. 96 12833

    [7]

    Yan M H, Liu X S, An X M, Zhang Y J 1996 Plateau Meteorol.15 425 (in Chinese) [言穆弘,刘欣生, 安学敏, 张义军 1996 高原气象 15 425]

    [8]

    Helsdon J H, Wojcik W A, Farley R D 2001 J. Geophys. Res. 1061165

    [9]

    Rawlins F 1982 Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 108 779

    [10]

    Mansell E R, MacGorman D R, Ziegler C L, Straka J M 2005 J.Geophys. Res. 110 D12 doi: 10.1029/2004JD005287

    [11]

    Sun A P, Yan M H, Zhang Y J, Zhang H F, Huang M Y 2002 ActaMeteorol. Sin. 60 722 (in Chinese) [孙安平,言穆弘, 张义军, 张鸿发, 黄美元 2002 气象学报 60 722]

    [12]

    Guo F X, Zhang Y J, Yan M H 2010 Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 34 361(in Chinese) [郭凤霞, 张义军, 言穆弘 2010大气科学 34 361]

    [13]

    Altaratz O, Reisin T, Levin Z 2005 Geophys. Res. 110 D20205doi: 10.1029/2004JD005616

    [14]

    Liu D X 2010 Ph. D. Dissertation (Beijing: Chinese Academy ofSciences) (in Chinese) [刘冬霞 2010 博士学位论文 (北京:中国科学院研究生院)]

    [15]

    Deng X H 2009 MS Thesis (Beijing: Chinese Academy of MeteorologicalSciences) [邓小花 2009 硕士学位论文(北京: 中国气象科学研究院)]

    [16]

    Walko R L, Cotton W R, Feingold G, Bjorn S 2000 Atmos. Res.53 171

    [17]

    Zhao Y, Qie X S, Kong X Z, Zhang G S, Zhang T, Yang J, FengG L, Zhang Q L, Wang D F 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 6616 (inChinese) [赵阳, 郄秀书, 孔祥贞, 张广庶, 张彤, 杨静, 冯桂力,张其林, 王东方 2009 物理学报 58 6616]

    [18]

    Yang J, Qie X S, Wang J G, Zhao Y, Zhang Q L, Yuan T, Zhou YJ, Feng G L 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 1968 (in Chinese) [杨静, 郄秀书, 王建国, 赵阳, 张其林, 袁铁, 周筠珺, 冯桂力 2008物理学报 57 1968]

    [19]

    Jiang R B, Qie X S,Wang C X, Yang J, Zhang Q L,Wang J F, LiuD X 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 079201 (in Chinese) [蒋如斌, 郄秀书, 王彩霞, 杨静, 张其林, 王俊芳, 刘冬霞 2011物理学报 60 079201]

    [20]

    Yang B, Zhou B H, Meng X 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 8978 (inChinese) [杨波, 周壁华, 孟鑫 2010 物理学报 59 8978]

    [21]

    Gou X Q, Zhang Y J, Dong W S 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 957 (inChinese) [苟学强, 张义军, 董万胜 2006物理学报 55 957]

    [22]

    Takahashi T 1984 J. Atmos. Sci. 41 2541

    [23]

    Hou T J, Lei H C, Niu S J 2009 Climatic and Environmental Research14 143 (in Chinese) [侯团结, 雷恒池, 牛生杰 2009 气候与环境研究 14 143]

    [24]

    Tzur I, Levin Z 1981 J. Atmos. Sci. 38 2444

    [25]

    Norville K, Baker M, Latham J 1991 J. Geophys. Res. 96 7463

    [26]

    Stolzenburg M, Rust W D, Marshall T C 1998 J. Geophys. Res.103 14097

    [27]

    Zhao Z K, Qie X S, Zhang T L, Zhang T, Zhang H F,Wang Y, SheY, Sun B L, Wang H B 2009 Chin. Sci. Bull. 54 3532 [赵中阔,郄秀书, 张廷龙, 张彤, 张鸿发, 王勇, 佘勇, 孙宝来, 王怀斌 2009科学通报 54 3532]

    [28]

    Qie X S, Yu Y, Zhang G S, Liu X S, Guo C M, Watanabe T,Kawasaki Z, Nakano M, Nakamura K, Wang D H, Ushio T 1998Plateau Meteorol. 17 34 (in Chinese) [郄秀书, 余晔, 张广庶,刘欣生, 郭昌明, 渡边贞司, 河崎善一郞, 仲野贡, 中村光一, 王道洪,牛尾知雄 1998 高原气象 17 34]

    [29]

    Mansell E R, MacGorman D R, Ziegler C L 2002 J. Geophys. Res.107 4075 doi:10.1029/2000JD000244

    [30]

    Williams E R 1989 J. Geophys. Res. 94 13151

    [31]

    Marshall T C, Rust W D 1991 J. Geophys. Res. 96 22297

    [32]

    Yuan Z, Jiang B T, Ren L X, Zhou S J, Zheng D Z 1965 Acta Meteorol.Sin. 35 440 (in Chinese) [袁箴,蒋本汤, 任丽新, 周诗健, 郑达洲 1965 气象学报 35 440]

    [33]

    Qie X S, Zhang T L, Chen C P, Zhang G S, Zhang T, Wei W Z2005 Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 doi: 10.1029/2004GL022162

    [34]

    Zhang Y J, Meng Q, Lü W T, Krehbiel P R, Liu X S, Zhou X J2005 Chin. Sci. Bull. 50 2663 [张义军, 孟青, 吕伟涛,Krehbiel P R, 刘欣生, 周秀骥 2005 科学通报 50 2663]

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  • Received Date:  11 May 2011
  • Accepted Date:  20 June 2011
  • Published Online:  05 March 2012

Evaluation of noninductive charging mechanisms and simulation of charge characteristic structure in the early thunderstorm based on RAMS V6.0

  • 1. Key Laboratory of Middle Atmosphere and Global Environment Observation, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029, China;
  • 2. International Climatic and Environment Sciences Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100029, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No. 40930949), Postdoctor Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 119100581F), and Hundred Talent Foundation of Chinese Academt of Sciences, China.

Abstract: A new regional thunderstorm model, coupled with two primary non-inductive electrification mechanisms, namely Takahashi (1978) and Saunders (1991) schemes, is developed based on the newest version of RAMS V6.0. Based on the simulation on a thunderstorm in its early stage which occurred in Beijing, the results show that the total charge distribution is tripolar in both schemes when the electric field reaches breakdown value. The results are in agreement with some observations and results of other model. However, the evolution processes and shapes of cloud charge distribution in the two schemes are different. The result of Takahashi's (1978) scheme produces a tripolar charge distribution in the cloud before the first lightning. The Saunders' (1991) scheme produces a transform from inverted dipole distribution to tripolar charge distribution. This is because they used different experimental conditions: different factors lead to different results. The results from both schemes show that the positive charge carrier at a low level of thunderstorm is rain droplet, the aggregates and graupels are located in high level of thunderstorm, and the charge center distribution of graupels is similar to the distribution of total charge in thunderstorm cloud.

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