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Theoretical progress in designs of stable superhydrophobic surfaces

Wang Ben Nian Jing-Yan Tie Lu Zhang Ya-Bin Guo Zhi-Guang

Theoretical progress in designs of stable superhydrophobic surfaces

Wang Ben, Nian Jing-Yan, Tie Lu, Zhang Ya-Bin, Guo Zhi-Guang
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  • Controlling the wettability of solid surfaces is an important issue that has aroused the increasing interest from both fundamental and practical perspective by tailoring surface morphology and surface chemical compositions. The underlying theories for interpreting wetting phenomena still mainly focus on the Young's equation, the Wenzel equation, and the Cassie-Baxter equation, despite the fact that the wetting phenomena have been studied over the past decades. While there are a lot of experimental studies on wettability of surface roughness, there is still a lack of a thorough analysis of the contributions of micro and nano-scale roughness to wettability behavior despite interesting features these surfaces have. In this article, the basic theories and their applicabilities are addressed in detail, and the mutual transition between Wenzel state and Cassie-Baxter state is described from different viewpoints in general, and from single-scale and dual-scale point of view in particular. The design concept of geometrical model with stable superhydrophobicity is also described, which is based on the typical theories about wettability. Finally, some promising breakthroughs in the theoretical progress are proposed.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 50902047, 31070155, 11172301), and the Top Hundred Talents Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
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  • [1]

    Guo Z G, Liu W M 2007 Plant Science 172 1103

    [2]

    Bixler G D, Bhushan B 2012 Soft Matter 8 11271

    [3]

    Gao X F, Jiang L 2004 Nature 432 36

    [4]

    Wang J X, Zhang Y Z, Wang S T, Song Y L, Jiang L 2011 Acc. Chem. Res. 44 405

    [5]

    Zi J, Yu X D, Li Y Z, Hu X H, Xu C, Wang X J, Liu X H, Fu R T 2003 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 12576

    [6]

    Liu K S, Jiang L 2011 Nano Today 6 155

    [7]

    Liu K S, Du J X, Wu J T, Jiang L 2012 Nanoscale 4 768

    [8]

    Gao X F, Jiang L 2006 Physics 35 559 (in Chinese) [高雪峰, 江雷 2006 物理 35 559]

    [9]

    Sun M X, Watson G S, Zheng Y M, Watson J A, Liang A P 2009 J. Exp. Biol. 212 3148

    [10]

    Zheng Y M, Gao X F, Jiang L 2007 Soft Matter 3 178

    [11]

    Binetti V R, Schiffman J D, Leaffer O D, Spanier J E, Schauer C L 2009 Integr. Biol. 1 324

    [12]

    Liu H H, Zhao Q B, Zhou H, Ding J, Zhang D, Zhu H X, Fan T X 2011 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13 10872

    [13]

    Gao X F, Yan X, Yao X, Xu L, Zhang K, Zhang J H, Yang B, Jiang L 2007 Adv. Mater. 19 2213

    [14]

    Drelich J, Chibowski E, Meng D D, Terpilowski K 2011 Soft Matter 7 9804

    [15]

    Zhang Y B, Chen Y, Shi L, Li J, Guo Z G 2012 J. Mater. Chem. 22 799

    [16]

    Guo Z G, Zhou F, Hao J C, Liu W M 2005 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 15670

    [17]

    Introzzi L, Fuentes-Alventosa J M, Cozzolino C A, Trabattoni S, Tavazzi S, Bianchi C L, Schiraldi A, Piergiovanni L, Farris S 2012 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4 3692

    [18]

    Gong G M, Wu J T, Liu J G, Sun N, Zhao Y, Jiang L 2012 J. Mater. Chem. 22 8257

    [19]

    Liang W X, Zhang Y B, Wang B, Guo Z G, Liu W M 2012 Acta Chim. Sin. 70 2393 (in Chinese) [梁伟欣, 张亚斌, 王奔, 郭志光, 刘维民 2012 化学学报 70 2393]

    [20]

    Wang S T, Feng L, Jiang L 2006 Adv. Mater. 18 767

    [21]

    Wang Z W, Li Q, She Z X, Chen F N, Li L Q 2012 J. Mater. Chem. 22 4097

    [22]

    Ishizaki T, Sakamoto M 2011 Langmuir 27 2375

    [23]

    Gong M G, Xu X L, Cao Z L, Liu Y Y, Zhu H M 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 1885 (in Chinese) [公茂刚, 许小亮, 曹自立, 刘远越, 朱海明 2009 物理学报 58 1885]

    [24]

    Guo Z G, Liu W M, Su B L 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 063104

    [25]

    Huang Z B, Zhu Y, Zhang J H, Yin G F 2007 J. Phys. Chem. C 111 6821

    [26]

    Kobayashi M, Terayama Y, Yamaguchi H, Terada M, Murakami D, Ishihara K, Takahara A 2012 Langmuir 28 7212

    [27]

    Weng C J, Chang C H, Peng C W, Chen S W, Yeh J M, Hsu C J, Wei Y 2011 Chem. Mater. 23 2075

    [28]

    Li X M, Reinhoudt D, Crego-Calama M 2007 Chem. Soc. Rev. 36 1350

    [29]

    Mishchenko L, Hatton B, Bahadur V, Taylor J A, Krupenkin T, Aizenberg J 2010 ACS Nano 4 7699

    [30]

    Jia B Q, Mei Y, Cheng L, Zhou J P, Zhang L N 2012 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4 2897

    [31]

    Guo Z G, Liu W M, Su B L 2011 J. Colloid Interface Sci. 353 335

    [32]

    Vogler E A 1999 J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 10 1015

    [33]

    Gao L, McCarthy T J 2008 Langmuir 24 9183

    [34]

    Jin M H, Feng X L, Feng L, Sun T L, Zhai J, Li T J, Jiang L 2005 Adv. Mater. 17 1977

    [35]

    Wenzel R N 1936 Ind. Eng. Chem. 28 988

    [36]

    Cassie A B D, Baxter S 1944 Trans. Faraday Soc. 40 546

    [37]

    Su Y W, Ji B H, Zhang K, Gao H J, Huang Y G, Hwang K 2010 Langmuir 26 4984

    [38]

    Young T 1805 Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 95 65

    [39]

    Patankar N A 2004 Langmuir 20 7097

    [40]

    Marmur A 2004 Langmuir 20 3517

    [41]

    Im M, Im H, Lee J H, Yoon J B, Choi Y K 2010 Langmuir 26 17389

    [42]

    Sarkar D K, Farzaneh M 2009 J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 23 1215

    [43]

    Wang S, Jiang L 2007 Adv. Mater. 19 3423

    [44]

    Adamson A V 1990 Physical Chemistry of Surface (New York: Wiley)

    [45]

    Whyman G, Bormashenko E, Stein T 2008 Chem. Phys. Lett. 450 355

    [46]

    Nosonovsky M, Bhushan B 2005 Microsyst. Technol. 11 535

    [47]

    He B, Lee J, Patankar N A 2004 Colloids Surf. A 248 101

    [48]

    Sakai H, Fujii T 1999 J. Colloid Interface Sci. 210 152

    [49]

    Nosonovsky M, Bhushan B 2008 Langmuir 24 1525

    [50]

    Bhushan B, Nosonovsky M 2010 Phil. Trans: R. Soc. A 368 4713

    [51]

    Wang B, Zhang Y B, Shi L, Li J, Guo Z G 2012 J. Mater. Chem. 22 20112

    [52]

    Cao X P, Jiang Y M 2005 Acta Phys. Sin. 54 2202 (in Chinese) [曹晓平, 蒋亦民 2005 物理学报 54 2202]

    [53]

    Chibowski E 2003 Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 103 149

    [54]

    de Gennes P G, Brochard-Wyart F, Quéré D 2003 Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena (Berlin, Germeny: Springer) p69

    [55]

    Tadmor R, Yadav P S 2008 J. Colloid Interface Sci. 317 241

    [56]

    Johnson R E, Dettre R H 1964 Adv. Chem. Ser. 43 112

    [57]

    Nosonovsky M, Bhushan B 2008 Adv. Funct. Mater. 18 843

    [58]

    Furmidge G G L 1962 J. Colloid Sci. 17 309

    [59]

    Mettu S, Chaudhury M K 2011 Langmuir 27 10327

    [60]

    Hong S J, Chang F M, Chou T H, Chan S H, Sheng Y J, Tsao H K 2011 Langmuir 27 6890

    [61]

    Chen W, Fadeev A Y, Hsieh M C, Öner D, Youngblood J, McCarthy T J 1999 Langmuir 15 3395

    [62]

    Hancock M J, Sekeroglu K, Demirel M C 2012 Adv. Funct. Mater. 22 2223

    [63]

    Xiu Y, Zhu L, Hess D W, Wong C P 2008 J. Phys. Chem. C 112 11403

    [64]

    Gupta P, Ulman A, Fanfan S, Korniakov A, Loos K 2005 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 4

    [65]

    Bhushan B, Nosonovsky M, Jung Y C 2007 J. R. Soc. Interface 4 643

    [66]

    Nosonovsky M, Bhushan B 2007 Microelectron. Eng. 84 382

    [67]

    Nosonovsky M, Bhushan B 2007 Ultramicroscopy 107 969

    [68]

    Quéré D 2002 Nat. Mater. 1 14

    [69]

    Quéré D 2004 Nat. Mater. 3 79

    [70]

    Bhushan B, Jung Y C 2011 Prog. Mater. Sci. 56 1

    [71]

    Forsberg P, Nikolajeff F, Karlsson M 2011 Soft Matter 7 104

    [72]

    Bormashenko E, Pogreb R, Whyman G, Bormashenko Y, Erlich M 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 201917

    [73]

    Bormashenko E, Pogreb R, Whyman G, Erlich M 2007 Langmuir 23 6501

    [74]

    Bahadur V, Garimella S V 2007 Langmuir 23 4918

    [75]

    Guo Z G, Su B L 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 082106

    [76]

    Jung Y C, Bhushan B 2008 J. Microsc. 229 127

    [77]

    Verplanck N, Galopin E, Camart J C, Thomy V 2007 Nano Lett. 7 813

    [78]

    Krupenkin T N, Taylor J A, Wang E N, Kolodner P, Hodes M, Salamon T R 2007 Langmuir 23 9128

    [79]

    Boreyko J B, Chen C H 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 174502

    [80]

    Liu G M, Fu L, Rode A V, Craig V S J 2011 Langmuir 27 2595

    [81]

    Lafuma A, Quéré D 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 457

    [82]

    Wang B, Li J, Wang G Y, Liang W X, Zhang Y B, Shi L, Guo Z G, Liu W M 2013 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5 1827

    [83]

    Dupuis A, Yeomans J M 2005 Langmuir 21 2624

    [84]

    Koishi T, Yasuoka K, Fujikawa S, Ebisuzaki T, Zeng X C 2009 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 8435

    [85]

    Marmur A 2003 Langmuir 19 8343

    [86]

    Bhushan B, Jung Y C, Koch K 2009 Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 367 1631

    [87]

    Liu J L, Feng X Q, Wang G F, Yu S W 2007 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19 356002

    [88]

    Whyman G, Bormashenko E 2011 Langmuir 27 8171

    [89]

    Xia F, Ge H, Hou Y, Sun T L, Chen L, Zhang G Z, Jiang L 2007 Adv. Mater. 19 2520

    [90]

    Uyama A, Yamazoe S, Shigematsu S, Morimoto M, Yokojima S, Mayama H, Kojima Y, Nakamura S, Uchida K 2011 Langmuir 27 6395

    [91]

    Yamamoto K, Ogata S 2008 J. Colloid Interface Sci. 326 471

    [92]

    Gao L C, McCarthy T J 2007 Langmuir 23 3762

    [93]

    Giljean S, Bigerelle M, Anselme K, Haidara H 2011 Appl. Surf. Sci. 257 9631

    [94]

    Marmur A 2008 Langmuir 24 7573

    [95]

    Shirtcliffe N J, Mchale G, Newton M I 2011 J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys. 49 1203

    [96]

    Bittoun E, Marmur A 2009 J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 23 401

    [97]

    Blow M L, Yeomans J M 2010 Langmuir 26 16071

    [98]

    Nosonovsky M 2007 Langmuir 23 9919

    [99]

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    [100]

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  • Received Date:  21 November 2012
  • Accepted Date:  29 March 2013
  • Published Online:  20 July 2013

Theoretical progress in designs of stable superhydrophobic surfaces

  • 1. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China;
  • 2. State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 50902047, 31070155, 11172301), and the Top Hundred Talents Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Abstract: Controlling the wettability of solid surfaces is an important issue that has aroused the increasing interest from both fundamental and practical perspective by tailoring surface morphology and surface chemical compositions. The underlying theories for interpreting wetting phenomena still mainly focus on the Young's equation, the Wenzel equation, and the Cassie-Baxter equation, despite the fact that the wetting phenomena have been studied over the past decades. While there are a lot of experimental studies on wettability of surface roughness, there is still a lack of a thorough analysis of the contributions of micro and nano-scale roughness to wettability behavior despite interesting features these surfaces have. In this article, the basic theories and their applicabilities are addressed in detail, and the mutual transition between Wenzel state and Cassie-Baxter state is described from different viewpoints in general, and from single-scale and dual-scale point of view in particular. The design concept of geometrical model with stable superhydrophobicity is also described, which is based on the typical theories about wettability. Finally, some promising breakthroughs in the theoretical progress are proposed.

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