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Characteristics of lightning radiation source distribution and charge structure of squall line

Liu Dong-Xia Qie Xiu-Shu Wang Zhi-Chao Wu Xue-Ke Pan Lun-Xiang

Characteristics of lightning radiation source distribution and charge structure of squall line

Liu Dong-Xia, Qie Xiu-Shu, Wang Zhi-Chao, Wu Xue-Ke, Pan Lun-Xiang
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  • Lightning information indicates the intensity and the development of severe convection. The characteristics of lightning activity and charge structure of a squall line over Beijing on 13 June 2010 are analyzed by using the SAFIR3000 lightning detection data, Doppler weather radar and precipitation data. Results show that the lightning radiation sources are the major part in the convective leading region with a high reflectivity in front of the squall line, and the number of lightning radiation sources gradually increases in the back of stratiform region only at the dissipating stage. The correlation coefficient between the total lightning and convective precipitation is found to be 0.82, and that of intra-cloud lightning and convective precipitation is 0.76. It is inferred that the lightning is closely related to dynamical and microphysical processes of the squall line. According to the lightning radiation distribution, the charge structure of squall line is also discussed. At the mature stage of the squall line, the lightning radiation sources have two layers with the upper level centered at 11 km and the lower level at 6 km. Based on the bidirectional leader of lightning propagation and by assuming VHF source density maxima being most likely associated with the positive charge region, it is concluded that the squall line is characterized by a tripole charge structure with a middle charge region between the levels of 8 km and 10 km, and the two positive charge regions at the levels of 10 to 12 km and 4 to 7 km above the ground, respectively.
    • Funds: Project supported by the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 40930949), and the National Natural Science Youth Foundation of China (Grant No. 41105002).
    [1]

    Lu H C 2000 The principle and forecasting of mesoscale system (Beijing: Meteorological Press) p80 (in Chinese) [陆汉城 2000 中尺度天气原理与预报 北京 气象出版社 第80页]

    [2]

    Feng G L, Qie X S, Wang J, Gong D L 2009 Atmos. Res. 91 466

    [3]

    Zhang Y J, Meng Q, Lu W T, Krehbiel P R, Liu X S, Zhou X J 2004 Chinese Sci Bull. 49 499 (in Chinese) [张义军, 孟青, 吕伟涛, Paul R. Krehbiel, 刘欣生, 周秀骥 2004 科学通报 49 499]

    [4]

    Qie X S, Yan M H, Guo C M, Zhang G S 1993 Acta. Meteor. Sin. 7 244

    [5]

    Fierro A O, Mansell E R, Zigler C, MacGorman D R 2012 Mon. Wea. Rev. 140 2609

    [6]

    Cui X P, Li X F 2011 Chin. Phys. B 20 109201

    [7]

    Carey L D, Murphy M J, McCormick T L, Demetruades N W S 2005 J. Geophys. Res. 110 D03105 doi: 10.1029/2003JD004371

    [8]

    Nielsen K E, Maddox R A, Vasiloff S A 1994 Mon. Wea. Rev. 122 1809

    [9]

    Mazur V, Rust W D 1983 J. Geophys. Res. 88 1495

    [10]

    Marshall T C, Rust W D 1993 Bull. Am. Meteorol Soc. 74 2159

    [11]

    Takahashi T, Keenan T D 2004 J. Geophys. Res. 109 D16208 doi: 10.1029/2004JD004667

    [12]

    Rison W, Thomas R J, Krehbiel P R, Hamlin T, Harlin J. 1999 Geophys. Res. Lett. 26 3573

    [13]

    Boccippio D J, Heckman S, Goodman S J 2001 J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5) 4769

    [14]

    Chéze J L, Sauvageot H 1997 J. Geophys. Res. 102 1707

    [15]

    Dotzek N, Rabin R M, Carey L D, MacGorman D R, McCormick T L, Demetriades N W, Murphy M J, Holle R L 2005 Atmos. Res. 76 127

    [16]

    Yang P, Hou W, Feng G L 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 019201

    [17]

    Feng G L, Qie X S, Yuan T, Niu S Z 2007 Sci. China Earth Sci. 37 123 [冯桂力, 郄秀书, 袁铁, 牛淑贞 2007 中国科学D辑 37 123]

    [18]

    Liu D X, Qie X S, Feng G L 2010 Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences. (in Chinese) 34 95 [刘冬霞, 郄秀书, 冯桂力 2010 大气科学 34 95]

    [19]

    Yuan T, Qie X S 2010 Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences. (in Chinese) 34 58 [袁铁, 郄秀书 2010 大气科学 34 58]

    [20]

    Zhang G S, Wang Y H, Qie X S, Zhang T, Zhao Y X, Li Y J, Cao D J 2010 Sci. China Earth Sci. 53 doi: 10.1007/s11430-009-0116-x [张广庶, 王彦辉, 郄秀书, 张彤, 赵玉祥, 李亚君, 曹冬杰 2010 中国科学D辑 53 doi: 10.1007/s11430-009-0116-x]

    [21]

    Zhao Z K, Qie X S, Zhang T L, Zhang T, Zhang H F, Wang Y, She Y, Sun B L, Wang H B 2009 Chinese Sci. Bull. 54 3532 (in Chinese) [赵中阔, 郄秀书, 张廷龙, 张彤, 张鸿发, 王勇, 佘勇, 孙宝来, 王怀斌 2009 科学通报 54 3532]

    [22]

    Cummins K L, Murphy M J, Bardo E A, Hiscox W L, Pyle R B, Pifer A E 1998 J. Geophys. Res. 103 9035

    [23]

    Goodman S J, Buechler D E, Wright P D, Rust W D 1988 Geophys. Res. Lett. 15 1185

    [24]

    Williams E R, Weber M E, Orville R E 1989 J. Geophys. Res. 94 13213

    [25]

    Zheng D, Dan J R, Zhang Y J, Wu C, Zeng C J 2012 J. Tro. Meteor. 28 4 (in Chinese) [郑栋, 但建如, 张义军, 吴超, 曾昌军 2012 热带气象学报 28 4]

    [26]

    Zhao Y, Qie X S, Kong X Z, Zhang G S, Zhang T, Yang J, Feng G L, Zhang Q L, Wang D F 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 6616 (in Chinese) [赵阳, 郄秀书, 孔祥贞, 张广庶, 张彤, 杨静, 冯桂力, 张其林, 王东方 2009 物理学报 58 6616]

    [27]

    Yang J, Qie X S, Wang J G, Zhao Y, Zhang Q L, Yuan T, Zhou Y J, Feng G L 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 1968 (in Chinese) [杨静, 郄秀书, 王建国, 赵阳, 张其林, 袁铁, 周筠珺, 冯桂力 2008 物理学报 57 1968]

    [28]

    MacGorman D R, Straka J M, Ziegler C L 2002 J. Appl. Meteor. 40 459

    [29]

    Jiang R B, Qie X S, Wang C X, Yang J, Zhang Q L, Wang J F, Liu D X 2011 Acta. Phys. Sin. 60 079201 [蒋如斌, 郄秀书, 王彩霞, 杨静, 张其林, 刘明远, 王俊芳, 刘冬霞, 潘伦湘 2011 物理学报 60 079201]

    [30]

    Krehbiel P R, Thoms R J, Rison W, Hamlin T, Hardlin J, Davis M 2000 Eos. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union. 81 21

    [31]

    Marshall T C, Stolzenburg M, Rust W D 1996 J. Geophy. Res. 101 6979

    [32]

    Marshall T C, Rust W D 1993 Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74 2159

    [33]

    Stolzenburg M, Rust W D, Marshall T C 1998 J. Geophy. Res. 103 14059

    [34]

    Takahashi T 1978 J. Atmos. Sci. 35 1536

    [35]

    Li W L, Liu D X, Qie X S, Fu S M, Duan S, Chen Y C 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 059202 (in Chinese) [李万莉, 刘冬霞, 郄秀书, 傅慎明, 段树, 陈羿辰 2012 物理学报 61 059202]

    [36]

    Williams E R 1989 J. Geophys. Res. 94 13151

    [37]

    Saunders C P R, Keith W D, Mitzeva R P 1991 J. Geophys. Res. 96 11007

  • [1]

    Lu H C 2000 The principle and forecasting of mesoscale system (Beijing: Meteorological Press) p80 (in Chinese) [陆汉城 2000 中尺度天气原理与预报 北京 气象出版社 第80页]

    [2]

    Feng G L, Qie X S, Wang J, Gong D L 2009 Atmos. Res. 91 466

    [3]

    Zhang Y J, Meng Q, Lu W T, Krehbiel P R, Liu X S, Zhou X J 2004 Chinese Sci Bull. 49 499 (in Chinese) [张义军, 孟青, 吕伟涛, Paul R. Krehbiel, 刘欣生, 周秀骥 2004 科学通报 49 499]

    [4]

    Qie X S, Yan M H, Guo C M, Zhang G S 1993 Acta. Meteor. Sin. 7 244

    [5]

    Fierro A O, Mansell E R, Zigler C, MacGorman D R 2012 Mon. Wea. Rev. 140 2609

    [6]

    Cui X P, Li X F 2011 Chin. Phys. B 20 109201

    [7]

    Carey L D, Murphy M J, McCormick T L, Demetruades N W S 2005 J. Geophys. Res. 110 D03105 doi: 10.1029/2003JD004371

    [8]

    Nielsen K E, Maddox R A, Vasiloff S A 1994 Mon. Wea. Rev. 122 1809

    [9]

    Mazur V, Rust W D 1983 J. Geophys. Res. 88 1495

    [10]

    Marshall T C, Rust W D 1993 Bull. Am. Meteorol Soc. 74 2159

    [11]

    Takahashi T, Keenan T D 2004 J. Geophys. Res. 109 D16208 doi: 10.1029/2004JD004667

    [12]

    Rison W, Thomas R J, Krehbiel P R, Hamlin T, Harlin J. 1999 Geophys. Res. Lett. 26 3573

    [13]

    Boccippio D J, Heckman S, Goodman S J 2001 J. Geophys. Res. 106(D5) 4769

    [14]

    Chéze J L, Sauvageot H 1997 J. Geophys. Res. 102 1707

    [15]

    Dotzek N, Rabin R M, Carey L D, MacGorman D R, McCormick T L, Demetriades N W, Murphy M J, Holle R L 2005 Atmos. Res. 76 127

    [16]

    Yang P, Hou W, Feng G L 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 019201

    [17]

    Feng G L, Qie X S, Yuan T, Niu S Z 2007 Sci. China Earth Sci. 37 123 [冯桂力, 郄秀书, 袁铁, 牛淑贞 2007 中国科学D辑 37 123]

    [18]

    Liu D X, Qie X S, Feng G L 2010 Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences. (in Chinese) 34 95 [刘冬霞, 郄秀书, 冯桂力 2010 大气科学 34 95]

    [19]

    Yuan T, Qie X S 2010 Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences. (in Chinese) 34 58 [袁铁, 郄秀书 2010 大气科学 34 58]

    [20]

    Zhang G S, Wang Y H, Qie X S, Zhang T, Zhao Y X, Li Y J, Cao D J 2010 Sci. China Earth Sci. 53 doi: 10.1007/s11430-009-0116-x [张广庶, 王彦辉, 郄秀书, 张彤, 赵玉祥, 李亚君, 曹冬杰 2010 中国科学D辑 53 doi: 10.1007/s11430-009-0116-x]

    [21]

    Zhao Z K, Qie X S, Zhang T L, Zhang T, Zhang H F, Wang Y, She Y, Sun B L, Wang H B 2009 Chinese Sci. Bull. 54 3532 (in Chinese) [赵中阔, 郄秀书, 张廷龙, 张彤, 张鸿发, 王勇, 佘勇, 孙宝来, 王怀斌 2009 科学通报 54 3532]

    [22]

    Cummins K L, Murphy M J, Bardo E A, Hiscox W L, Pyle R B, Pifer A E 1998 J. Geophys. Res. 103 9035

    [23]

    Goodman S J, Buechler D E, Wright P D, Rust W D 1988 Geophys. Res. Lett. 15 1185

    [24]

    Williams E R, Weber M E, Orville R E 1989 J. Geophys. Res. 94 13213

    [25]

    Zheng D, Dan J R, Zhang Y J, Wu C, Zeng C J 2012 J. Tro. Meteor. 28 4 (in Chinese) [郑栋, 但建如, 张义军, 吴超, 曾昌军 2012 热带气象学报 28 4]

    [26]

    Zhao Y, Qie X S, Kong X Z, Zhang G S, Zhang T, Yang J, Feng G L, Zhang Q L, Wang D F 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 6616 (in Chinese) [赵阳, 郄秀书, 孔祥贞, 张广庶, 张彤, 杨静, 冯桂力, 张其林, 王东方 2009 物理学报 58 6616]

    [27]

    Yang J, Qie X S, Wang J G, Zhao Y, Zhang Q L, Yuan T, Zhou Y J, Feng G L 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 1968 (in Chinese) [杨静, 郄秀书, 王建国, 赵阳, 张其林, 袁铁, 周筠珺, 冯桂力 2008 物理学报 57 1968]

    [28]

    MacGorman D R, Straka J M, Ziegler C L 2002 J. Appl. Meteor. 40 459

    [29]

    Jiang R B, Qie X S, Wang C X, Yang J, Zhang Q L, Wang J F, Liu D X 2011 Acta. Phys. Sin. 60 079201 [蒋如斌, 郄秀书, 王彩霞, 杨静, 张其林, 刘明远, 王俊芳, 刘冬霞, 潘伦湘 2011 物理学报 60 079201]

    [30]

    Krehbiel P R, Thoms R J, Rison W, Hamlin T, Hardlin J, Davis M 2000 Eos. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union. 81 21

    [31]

    Marshall T C, Stolzenburg M, Rust W D 1996 J. Geophy. Res. 101 6979

    [32]

    Marshall T C, Rust W D 1993 Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74 2159

    [33]

    Stolzenburg M, Rust W D, Marshall T C 1998 J. Geophy. Res. 103 14059

    [34]

    Takahashi T 1978 J. Atmos. Sci. 35 1536

    [35]

    Li W L, Liu D X, Qie X S, Fu S M, Duan S, Chen Y C 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 059202 (in Chinese) [李万莉, 刘冬霞, 郄秀书, 傅慎明, 段树, 陈羿辰 2012 物理学报 61 059202]

    [36]

    Williams E R 1989 J. Geophys. Res. 94 13151

    [37]

    Saunders C P R, Keith W D, Mitzeva R P 1991 J. Geophys. Res. 96 11007

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  • Received Date:  24 May 2013
  • Accepted Date:  21 July 2013
  • Published Online:  05 November 2013

Characteristics of lightning radiation source distribution and charge structure of squall line

  • 1. Key Laboratory of Middle Atmosphere and Global Environment observation, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100029, China;
  • 2. College of Atmosphere Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 40930949), and the National Natural Science Youth Foundation of China (Grant No. 41105002).

Abstract: Lightning information indicates the intensity and the development of severe convection. The characteristics of lightning activity and charge structure of a squall line over Beijing on 13 June 2010 are analyzed by using the SAFIR3000 lightning detection data, Doppler weather radar and precipitation data. Results show that the lightning radiation sources are the major part in the convective leading region with a high reflectivity in front of the squall line, and the number of lightning radiation sources gradually increases in the back of stratiform region only at the dissipating stage. The correlation coefficient between the total lightning and convective precipitation is found to be 0.82, and that of intra-cloud lightning and convective precipitation is 0.76. It is inferred that the lightning is closely related to dynamical and microphysical processes of the squall line. According to the lightning radiation distribution, the charge structure of squall line is also discussed. At the mature stage of the squall line, the lightning radiation sources have two layers with the upper level centered at 11 km and the lower level at 6 km. Based on the bidirectional leader of lightning propagation and by assuming VHF source density maxima being most likely associated with the positive charge region, it is concluded that the squall line is characterized by a tripole charge structure with a middle charge region between the levels of 8 km and 10 km, and the two positive charge regions at the levels of 10 to 12 km and 4 to 7 km above the ground, respectively.

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