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Full-vectorial analysis of a polarization demultiplexer using a microring resonator with silicon-based slot waveguides

Xiao Jin-Biao Luo Hui Xu Yin Sun Xiao-Han

Full-vectorial analysis of a polarization demultiplexer using a microring resonator with silicon-based slot waveguides

Xiao Jin-Biao, Luo Hui, Xu Yin, Sun Xiao-Han
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  • Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform with the advantages of high-index-contrast and CMOS-compatible process can efficiently reduce the component sizes and densely integrate them at a chip scale. To meet the ever-increasing demand for the optical interconnect capacity, various multiplexing techniques have been used. However, it should still be proposed to effectively reduce the component size accompanied with the reasonable performance and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) compatibility. To the best of our knowledge, there has no attempt so far to design a polarization demultiplexer based on a microring resonator in slot waveguide structures. In this paper, a compact silicon-based polarization demultiplexer is proposed, where two regular silicon-based waveguides are used as the input/output channels and a microring in slot waveguide structures is used as the polarization/wavelength-selective component. A full-vectorial finite-difference frequency-domain method is utilized to study the modal characteristics of the regular and slot silicon-based waveguides, where the effective indices and coupling for transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes are presented. With the unique modal characteristics of slot waveguides and the strong polarization-dependent features of microring resonator, we can show that the field distributions and the effective indices of the TM mode between the regular and slot waveguides are similar, while those of the TE mode show clearly different. As a result, the input TM mode outputs from the drop port at the resonant wavelength, while the input TE mode outputs from the through port directly with nearly neglected coupling, thus the two polarizations are separated efficiently. A three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is utilized to study the spectrum and transmission characteristics of the proposed device. From the results, a polarization demultiplexer with a radius of 3.489 m is achieved with the extinction ratio and insertion loss of ~ 26.12(36.67) dB and ~ 0.49(0.09) dB respectively for the TM(TE) mode at the wavelength of 1.55 m by carefully optimizing the key structural parameters. In addition, taking the fabrication errors into account during the practical process, the fabrication tolerances to the proposed device are analyzed in detail and the performance is assessed by the extinction ratio and insertion loss. For demonstrating the transmission characteristics of the designed polarization (de) multipexing (P-DEMUX) device, the evolution along the propagation distance of the input mode through the designed P-DEMUX is also presented. The present polarization demultiplexer is compatible with the WDM systems on-chip based on microring resonators and can be easily introduced into the WDM system to further increase the optical interconnect capacity.
      Corresponding author: Xiao Jin-Biao, jbxiao@seu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 60978005), and the Jiangsu Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. BK20141120).
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    Kopp C, Bernabe S, Bakir B B, Fedeli J M, Orobtchouk R F, Porte S H, Zimmermann L, Tekin T 2011 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17 498

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    Liu A S, Liao L, Chetrit Y, Hat B N, Rubin D, Panicca M 2010 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 23

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    Richardson D J, Fini J M, Nelson L E 2013 Nat. Photonics 7 354

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    Guan H, Novack A, Streshinsky M, Shi R, Fang Q, Lim A E J, Lo G Q, Tom B J, Hochberg M 2014 Opt. Express 22 2489

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    Dai D X, Wang Z, Bowers J E 2011 Opt. Letters 36 2590

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    Yu Y Y, Li X Y, Sun B, He K P 2015 Chin. Phys. B 24 068702

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    Yang B K, Shin S Y, Zhang D M 2009 IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21 432

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    Dai D X, Wang Z, Peters J, Bowers J E 2012 IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24 673

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    Gerosa R M, Biazoli C R, Cordeiro C, Matos C 2012 Opt. Express 20 28981

    [13]

    Ye W N, Xu D X, Janz S, Waldron P, Cheben P, Tarr N G 2007 Opt. Letters 32 1492

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    Xiong F, Zhong W D, Kim H 2012 J. Lightwave Technol. 30 2329

    [15]

    Xu Q F, Fattal D, Beausoleil R G 2008 Opt. Express 16 4309

    [16]

    Guha B, Kyotoku B B C, Lipson M 2010 Opt. Express 18 3487

    [17]

    Bogaerts W, DE H P, Van V T, De K V, Kumar S S, Claes T, Dumon P, Bienstman P, Van D T, Baeta R 2012 Laser Photonics Rev. 6 47

    [18]

    Xiang X Y, Wang K R, Yuan J H, Jin B Y, Sang X Z, Yu C X 2014 Chin. Phys. B 23 034206

    [19]

    Ding R, Liu Y, Li Q, Xuan Z, Ma Y J, Yang Y S, Lim A E J, Lo G Q, Bergman K, Baehr J T, Hochberg M2014 IEEE Photonics J. 6 1

    [20]

    Park S, Kim K J, Kim I G, Kim G 2011 Opt. Express 19 13531

    [21]

    Cai X L, Huang D X, Zhang X L 2006 Opt. Express 14 11304

    [22]

    Almeida V R, Xu Q F, Barrios C A, Lipson M 2004 Opt. Letters 29 1209

    [23]

    Nacer S, Aissat A 2012 Opt. Quantum Electron. 44 35

    [24]

    Xiao J B, Liu X, Sun X H 2008 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47 3748

    [25]

    Saitoh K, Koshiba M 2009 Opt. Express 17 19225

    [26]

    Xu Y, Xiao J B, Sun X H 2014 J. Lightwave Technol. 32 4282

    [27]

    Xu Y, Xiao J B, Sun X H 2015 IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27 654

    [28]

    Xiao J B, Xu Y, Wang J Y, Sun X H 2014 Appl. Opt. 53 2390

    [29]

    Ishizaka Y, Saitoh K, Koshiba M 2013 IEEE Photonics J. 5 6601809

    [30]

    Berenger J P 1994 J. Comput. Phys. 114 185

    [31]

    Xiao J B, Ni H X, Sun X H 2008 Opt. Letters 33 1848

    [32]

    Okamoto K 2010 Fundamentals of optical waveguides (San Diego: Academic Press) pp159-203

    [33]

    Oskooi A F, Roundy D, Ibanescu M, Bermel P, Joannopoulos J D, Johnson S G 2010 Comput. Phys. Commun. 181 687

    [34]

    Sullivan D M 2013 Electromagnetic simulation using the FDTD method (New York: Wiley) pp85-96

    [35]

    Chew W C, Liu Q H 1996 J. Comput. Acoust. 4 341

  • [1]

    Vlasov Y A 2012 IEEE Commun. Mag. 50 s67

    [2]

    Kopp C, Bernabe S, Bakir B B, Fedeli J M, Orobtchouk R F, Porte S H, Zimmermann L, Tekin T 2011 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17 498

    [3]

    Liu A S, Liao L, Chetrit Y, Hat B N, Rubin D, Panicca M 2010 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 23

    [4]

    Richardson D J, Fini J M, Nelson L E 2013 Nat. Photonics 7 354

    [5]

    Deng L, Pang X D, Othman M B, Jensen J B, Zibar B, Yu X B, Liu D M, Monroy I T 2012 Opt. Express 20 4369

    [6]

    Sjdin M, Agrell E, Johannisson P, Lu G W, Andrekson P A, Karlsson M 2011 J. Lightwave Technol. 29 1219

    [7]

    Guan H, Novack A, Streshinsky M, Shi R, Fang Q, Lim A E J, Lo G Q, Tom B J, Hochberg M 2014 Opt. Express 22 2489

    [8]

    Dai D X, Wang Z, Bowers J E 2011 Opt. Letters 36 2590

    [9]

    Yu Y Y, Li X Y, Sun B, He K P 2015 Chin. Phys. B 24 068702

    [10]

    Yang B K, Shin S Y, Zhang D M 2009 IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21 432

    [11]

    Dai D X, Wang Z, Peters J, Bowers J E 2012 IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24 673

    [12]

    Gerosa R M, Biazoli C R, Cordeiro C, Matos C 2012 Opt. Express 20 28981

    [13]

    Ye W N, Xu D X, Janz S, Waldron P, Cheben P, Tarr N G 2007 Opt. Letters 32 1492

    [14]

    Xiong F, Zhong W D, Kim H 2012 J. Lightwave Technol. 30 2329

    [15]

    Xu Q F, Fattal D, Beausoleil R G 2008 Opt. Express 16 4309

    [16]

    Guha B, Kyotoku B B C, Lipson M 2010 Opt. Express 18 3487

    [17]

    Bogaerts W, DE H P, Van V T, De K V, Kumar S S, Claes T, Dumon P, Bienstman P, Van D T, Baeta R 2012 Laser Photonics Rev. 6 47

    [18]

    Xiang X Y, Wang K R, Yuan J H, Jin B Y, Sang X Z, Yu C X 2014 Chin. Phys. B 23 034206

    [19]

    Ding R, Liu Y, Li Q, Xuan Z, Ma Y J, Yang Y S, Lim A E J, Lo G Q, Bergman K, Baehr J T, Hochberg M2014 IEEE Photonics J. 6 1

    [20]

    Park S, Kim K J, Kim I G, Kim G 2011 Opt. Express 19 13531

    [21]

    Cai X L, Huang D X, Zhang X L 2006 Opt. Express 14 11304

    [22]

    Almeida V R, Xu Q F, Barrios C A, Lipson M 2004 Opt. Letters 29 1209

    [23]

    Nacer S, Aissat A 2012 Opt. Quantum Electron. 44 35

    [24]

    Xiao J B, Liu X, Sun X H 2008 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47 3748

    [25]

    Saitoh K, Koshiba M 2009 Opt. Express 17 19225

    [26]

    Xu Y, Xiao J B, Sun X H 2014 J. Lightwave Technol. 32 4282

    [27]

    Xu Y, Xiao J B, Sun X H 2015 IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27 654

    [28]

    Xiao J B, Xu Y, Wang J Y, Sun X H 2014 Appl. Opt. 53 2390

    [29]

    Ishizaka Y, Saitoh K, Koshiba M 2013 IEEE Photonics J. 5 6601809

    [30]

    Berenger J P 1994 J. Comput. Phys. 114 185

    [31]

    Xiao J B, Ni H X, Sun X H 2008 Opt. Letters 33 1848

    [32]

    Okamoto K 2010 Fundamentals of optical waveguides (San Diego: Academic Press) pp159-203

    [33]

    Oskooi A F, Roundy D, Ibanescu M, Bermel P, Joannopoulos J D, Johnson S G 2010 Comput. Phys. Commun. 181 687

    [34]

    Sullivan D M 2013 Electromagnetic simulation using the FDTD method (New York: Wiley) pp85-96

    [35]

    Chew W C, Liu Q H 1996 J. Comput. Acoust. 4 341

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  • Received Date:  23 April 2015
  • Accepted Date:  11 May 2015
  • Published Online:  05 October 2015

Full-vectorial analysis of a polarization demultiplexer using a microring resonator with silicon-based slot waveguides

    Corresponding author: Xiao Jin-Biao, jbxiao@seu.edu.cn
  • 1. School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 60978005), and the Jiangsu Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. BK20141120).

Abstract: Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform with the advantages of high-index-contrast and CMOS-compatible process can efficiently reduce the component sizes and densely integrate them at a chip scale. To meet the ever-increasing demand for the optical interconnect capacity, various multiplexing techniques have been used. However, it should still be proposed to effectively reduce the component size accompanied with the reasonable performance and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) compatibility. To the best of our knowledge, there has no attempt so far to design a polarization demultiplexer based on a microring resonator in slot waveguide structures. In this paper, a compact silicon-based polarization demultiplexer is proposed, where two regular silicon-based waveguides are used as the input/output channels and a microring in slot waveguide structures is used as the polarization/wavelength-selective component. A full-vectorial finite-difference frequency-domain method is utilized to study the modal characteristics of the regular and slot silicon-based waveguides, where the effective indices and coupling for transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes are presented. With the unique modal characteristics of slot waveguides and the strong polarization-dependent features of microring resonator, we can show that the field distributions and the effective indices of the TM mode between the regular and slot waveguides are similar, while those of the TE mode show clearly different. As a result, the input TM mode outputs from the drop port at the resonant wavelength, while the input TE mode outputs from the through port directly with nearly neglected coupling, thus the two polarizations are separated efficiently. A three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is utilized to study the spectrum and transmission characteristics of the proposed device. From the results, a polarization demultiplexer with a radius of 3.489 m is achieved with the extinction ratio and insertion loss of ~ 26.12(36.67) dB and ~ 0.49(0.09) dB respectively for the TM(TE) mode at the wavelength of 1.55 m by carefully optimizing the key structural parameters. In addition, taking the fabrication errors into account during the practical process, the fabrication tolerances to the proposed device are analyzed in detail and the performance is assessed by the extinction ratio and insertion loss. For demonstrating the transmission characteristics of the designed polarization (de) multipexing (P-DEMUX) device, the evolution along the propagation distance of the input mode through the designed P-DEMUX is also presented. The present polarization demultiplexer is compatible with the WDM systems on-chip based on microring resonators and can be easily introduced into the WDM system to further increase the optical interconnect capacity.

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