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Experimental study of clustering behaviors in granular gases

Wang Hua Chen Qiong Wang Wen-Guang Hou Mei-Ying

Experimental study of clustering behaviors in granular gases

Wang Hua, Chen Qiong, Wang Wen-Guang, Hou Mei-Ying
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  • Granular materials are widely spread in nature and in industry. Owing to the inelastic collisions between particles and frictions among particles, granular systems are dissipative in nature. This intrinsic dissipative nature causes local clustering in granular gas systems. This is a unique phenomenon compared with the molecular gases. Understanding and predicting the condition and parameter values when this phenomenon happens will be helpful for us to gain knowledge of the conditions of clustering or pattern formations in non-equilibrium complex systems. The clustering phenomenon in granular gas is analyzed using phase-separation modeling of van der Waals-like molecules. The results from the model are verified by molecular dynamics numerical simulations. However, due to the influence of the gravity, experimental verification is difficult in laboratory. In this work, we perform an experiment in micro-gravity environment provided by the drop tower of National Microgravity Laboratory Chinese Academy of Science. In the experiment we for the first time observe the phase-separation clustering phenomenon. Comparing the observation condition with the model prediction, we are able to indirectly obtain the restitution coefficients of particles used in the experiment. A model calculation for the spinodal regime under experimental conditions is performed for possible particle restitution coefficients, and a comparison with the experimental observation allows us to justify the values of the restitution coefficients. It is found that the coefficient is larger for bigger particles. For d=2.5mm titanium particles, the restitution coefficient is higher than 0.8; for d=1mm titanium particles, the restitution coefficient is about 0.8, and for d=0.5mm titanium particles, the restitution coefficient is between 0.6 and 0.8. This useful result can be essential for comparing experimental observation with the theoretical and the numerical results, and is crucial to the success in the SJ-10 satellite experiments.
      Corresponding author: Hou Mei-Ying, mayhou@iphy.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program-SJ-10 of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA04020200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274354, 11474326), and the Special Fund for Earthquake Research of China (Grant No. 201208011).
    [1]

    Sun Q C, Wang G Q 2009 Introduction to Granular Material Mechanics (Beijing: Science Press) p73 (in Chinese) [孙其诚, 王光谦 2009 颗粒物质力学导论 (北京: 科学出版社) 第73页]

    [2]

    Jaeger H M, Nagel S R 1996 Rev. Mod. Phys. 68 1259

    [3]

    Campbell C S 1990 Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 22 57

    [4]

    Grasselliy Y, Bossis G, Goutallier G 2009 Europhys. Lett. 86 60007

    [5]

    Aranson I S, Tsimring L S 2006 Rev. Mod. Phys. 78 641

    [6]

    Pschel T, Schwager T 2005 Computational Granular Dynamics: Models and Algorithms (Berlin: Springer)

    [7]

    McNamara S, Young W R 1994 Phys. Rev. E 50 28

    [8]

    Argentina M, Clerc M G, Soto R 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 044301

    [9]

    Cartes C, Clerc M G, Soto R 2004 Phys. Rev. E 70 031302

    [10]

    Khain E, Meerson B 2002 Phys. Rev. E 66 021306

    [11]

    Khain E, Meerson B, Sasorov P V 2004 Phys. Rev. E 70 051310

    [12]

    Livne E, Meerson B, Sasorov P V 2002 Phys. Rev. E 66 050301(R)

    [13]

    Diez-Minguito M, Meerson B 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 011304

    [14]

    Hou M Y 2008 Chin. J. Space Sci. 28 1 (in Chinese) [厚美瑛 2008 空间科学学报 28 1]

    [15]

    Hou M Y 2008 Physics 37 729 (in Chinese) [厚美瑛 2008 物理 37 729]

    [16]

    Liu R, Li Y C, Hou M Y 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 4660 (in Chinese) [刘锐, 李寅阊, 厚美瑛 2008 物理学报 57 4660]

    [17]

    Liu R, Li Y C, Hou M Y, Meerson B 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 061304

    [18]

    Hu W R, Zhao J F, Long M et. al. 2014 Microgravity Sci. Technol. 26 159

    [19]

    Qi N M, Zhang W H, Gao J Z, Huo M Y 2011 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House 29 95 (in Chinese) [齐乃明, 张文辉, 高九州, 霍明英 2011 中国学术期刊电子出版社 29 95]

    [20]

    Jenkins J T, Richman M W 1985 Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal. 87 355

    [21]

    Wei M, Wan S X, Yao K Z, Xie J C 2007 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House 4 1 (in Chinese) [韦明, 万士昕, 姚康庄, 谢京昌 2007 中国学术期刊电子出版社 4 1]

    [22]

    Brey J J, Dufty J W, Kim C S 1998 Phys. Rev. E 58 4638

    [23]

    Carnahan N F, Starling K E 1969 J. Chem. Phys. 51 635

  • [1]

    Sun Q C, Wang G Q 2009 Introduction to Granular Material Mechanics (Beijing: Science Press) p73 (in Chinese) [孙其诚, 王光谦 2009 颗粒物质力学导论 (北京: 科学出版社) 第73页]

    [2]

    Jaeger H M, Nagel S R 1996 Rev. Mod. Phys. 68 1259

    [3]

    Campbell C S 1990 Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 22 57

    [4]

    Grasselliy Y, Bossis G, Goutallier G 2009 Europhys. Lett. 86 60007

    [5]

    Aranson I S, Tsimring L S 2006 Rev. Mod. Phys. 78 641

    [6]

    Pschel T, Schwager T 2005 Computational Granular Dynamics: Models and Algorithms (Berlin: Springer)

    [7]

    McNamara S, Young W R 1994 Phys. Rev. E 50 28

    [8]

    Argentina M, Clerc M G, Soto R 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 044301

    [9]

    Cartes C, Clerc M G, Soto R 2004 Phys. Rev. E 70 031302

    [10]

    Khain E, Meerson B 2002 Phys. Rev. E 66 021306

    [11]

    Khain E, Meerson B, Sasorov P V 2004 Phys. Rev. E 70 051310

    [12]

    Livne E, Meerson B, Sasorov P V 2002 Phys. Rev. E 66 050301(R)

    [13]

    Diez-Minguito M, Meerson B 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 011304

    [14]

    Hou M Y 2008 Chin. J. Space Sci. 28 1 (in Chinese) [厚美瑛 2008 空间科学学报 28 1]

    [15]

    Hou M Y 2008 Physics 37 729 (in Chinese) [厚美瑛 2008 物理 37 729]

    [16]

    Liu R, Li Y C, Hou M Y 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 4660 (in Chinese) [刘锐, 李寅阊, 厚美瑛 2008 物理学报 57 4660]

    [17]

    Liu R, Li Y C, Hou M Y, Meerson B 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 061304

    [18]

    Hu W R, Zhao J F, Long M et. al. 2014 Microgravity Sci. Technol. 26 159

    [19]

    Qi N M, Zhang W H, Gao J Z, Huo M Y 2011 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House 29 95 (in Chinese) [齐乃明, 张文辉, 高九州, 霍明英 2011 中国学术期刊电子出版社 29 95]

    [20]

    Jenkins J T, Richman M W 1985 Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal. 87 355

    [21]

    Wei M, Wan S X, Yao K Z, Xie J C 2007 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House 4 1 (in Chinese) [韦明, 万士昕, 姚康庄, 谢京昌 2007 中国学术期刊电子出版社 4 1]

    [22]

    Brey J J, Dufty J W, Kim C S 1998 Phys. Rev. E 58 4638

    [23]

    Carnahan N F, Starling K E 1969 J. Chem. Phys. 51 635

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  • Received Date:  29 June 2015
  • Accepted Date:  27 September 2015
  • Published Online:  05 January 2016

Experimental study of clustering behaviors in granular gases

    Corresponding author: Hou Mei-Ying, mayhou@iphy.ac.cn
  • 1. School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China;
  • 2. Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Beijing National Laboratory for Condense Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program-SJ-10 of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA04020200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274354, 11474326), and the Special Fund for Earthquake Research of China (Grant No. 201208011).

Abstract: Granular materials are widely spread in nature and in industry. Owing to the inelastic collisions between particles and frictions among particles, granular systems are dissipative in nature. This intrinsic dissipative nature causes local clustering in granular gas systems. This is a unique phenomenon compared with the molecular gases. Understanding and predicting the condition and parameter values when this phenomenon happens will be helpful for us to gain knowledge of the conditions of clustering or pattern formations in non-equilibrium complex systems. The clustering phenomenon in granular gas is analyzed using phase-separation modeling of van der Waals-like molecules. The results from the model are verified by molecular dynamics numerical simulations. However, due to the influence of the gravity, experimental verification is difficult in laboratory. In this work, we perform an experiment in micro-gravity environment provided by the drop tower of National Microgravity Laboratory Chinese Academy of Science. In the experiment we for the first time observe the phase-separation clustering phenomenon. Comparing the observation condition with the model prediction, we are able to indirectly obtain the restitution coefficients of particles used in the experiment. A model calculation for the spinodal regime under experimental conditions is performed for possible particle restitution coefficients, and a comparison with the experimental observation allows us to justify the values of the restitution coefficients. It is found that the coefficient is larger for bigger particles. For d=2.5mm titanium particles, the restitution coefficient is higher than 0.8; for d=1mm titanium particles, the restitution coefficient is about 0.8, and for d=0.5mm titanium particles, the restitution coefficient is between 0.6 and 0.8. This useful result can be essential for comparing experimental observation with the theoretical and the numerical results, and is crucial to the success in the SJ-10 satellite experiments.

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