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Self-reliance and independently developed high-finesse spherical ultrastable optical reference cavity

Liu Jun Chen Bo-Xiong Xu Guan-Jun Cui Xiao-Xu Bai Bo Zhang Lin-Bo Chen Long Jiao Dong-Dong Wang Tao Liu Tao Dong Rui-Fang Zhang Shou-Gang

Self-reliance and independently developed high-finesse spherical ultrastable optical reference cavity

Liu Jun, Chen Bo-Xiong, Xu Guan-Jun, Cui Xiao-Xu, Bai Bo, Zhang Lin-Bo, Chen Long, Jiao Dong-Dong, Wang Tao, Liu Tao, Dong Rui-Fang, Zhang Shou-Gang
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  • Ultra-stable reference cavity with high finesse is a crucial component in a narrow-linewidth laser system which is widely used in time and frequency metrology, the test of Lorentz invariance, and measure of gravitational wave. In this paper, we report the recent progress of the self-made spherical reference cavity, aiming at the future space application. The main function of cavity is the reference of ultra-stable laser, which is the local reference oscillation source of space optical clock. The diameter of the designed spherical cavity spacer made of ultra-low expansion glass is 80 mm, and the cavity length is 78 mm, flat-concave mirrors configuration, and the radius of the concave mirror is 0.5 m. The support structure is designed to have two 3.9 mm-radius spherical groves located at the poles of the sphere along the diameter direction (defined as support axis), and a 53 angle between the support axis and the optical axis. The mechanic vibration sensitivities of the cavity along and perpendicular to the optical axis are both calculated by finite element analysis method to be below 110-10/g. Five-axis linkage CNC machining sphere forming technology is applied to S80 mm spherical surface processing with spherical contour degree up to 0.02. After a three-stage surface polishing processes, the fused silicamirror substratessurface roughness is measured to be less than 0.2 nm (rms). Implementing double ion beam sputtering technique for mirror coating, the reflection of the coating achieves a reflectivity of 99.999% and a loss of 4 ppm for 698 nm laser. The coating surface roughness is measured to be 0.3 nm (rms). The cavity spacer and the mirror are bonded by dried optical contact. In order to improve the thermal noise characteristics of the cavity, an ultra low expansion ring is contacted optically to the outer surface of the mirror. The cavity is characterized by ring-down spectroscopy, and the finesse is around 195000. With the help of a home-made 698 nm ultra narrow line-width laser, the cavity line-width is measured to be 9.8 kHz by sweeping cavity method. A 698 nm semiconductor laser is locked to this spherical cavity by PDH technology, and the cavity loss is measured to be5 ppm.
      Corresponding author: Liu Tao, taoliu@ntsc.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Special Fund for Research on National Major Research Instruments and Facilities of the National Natural Science Fundation of China (Grant No. 61127901), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11273024, 61025023), and the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11403031).
    [1]

    Leibrandt D R, Thorpe M J, Notcutt M, Drullinger R E, Rosenband T, Bergquist J C 2011 Opt. Express 19 3471

    [2]

    Kessler T, Hagemann C, Grebing C, Legero T, Steer U, Riehle F, Martin M J, Chen L, Ye J 2012 Nat. Photonics 6 687

    [3]

    Swallows M D, Martin M J, Bishof M, Benko C, Lin Y, Blatt S, Rey A M, Ye J 2012 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59 416

    [4]

    Cole G D, Zhang W, Martin M J, Ye J, AspelmeyerM 2013 Nat. Photon. 7 644

    [5]

    Hagemann C, Grebing C, Lisdat C, Falke S, Legero T, Sterr U, Riehle F, Martin M J, Ye J 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 5102

    [6]

    Wu L, Jiang Y, Ma C, Qi W, Yu H, Bi Z, Ma L 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 24969

    [7]

    Drever R W P, Hall J L, Kowalski F V, Hough J, Ford G M, Munley A J, Ward H 1983 Appl. Phys. B 31 97

    [8]

    Chou C W, Hume D B, Koelemeij J C, Wineland D J, Rosenband T 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 070802

    [9]

    Hinkley N, Sherman J A, Phillips N B, Schioppo M, Lemke N D, Beloy K, Pizzocaro M, Oates C W, Ludlow A D 2013 Science 341 1215

    [10]

    Nicholson T L, Campbell S L, Hutson R B, Marti G E, Bloom B J, McNally R L, Zhang W, Barrett M D, Safronova M S, Strouse G F, Tew W L, Ye J 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 6896

    [11]

    Heinecke D C, Bartels A, Diddams S A 2011 Opt. Express 19 18440

    [12]

    Fortier T M, Kirchner M S, Quinlan F, Taylor J, Bergquist J C, Rosenband, Lemke T N, Ludlow A, Jiang Y, Oates C W, Diddams S A 2011 Nat. Photonics 5 425

    [13]

    Hough J, Rowan S 2005 J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7 544

    [14]

    Willke B, Danzmann K, Frede M, King P, Kracht D, Kwee P, Puncken O, Savage R L, Schulz B, Seifert F, Veltkamp C, Wagner S, Weels P, Winkelmann L 2008 Classical Quantum Gravity 25 114040

    [15]

    Williams P A, Swann W C, Newbury N R 2008 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 1284

    [16]

    Kessler T, Hagemann C, Grebing G, Legero T, Sterr U, Riehle F, Martin M J, Chen L, Ye J 2012 Nat. Photonics 6 687

    [17]

    Wu L, Jang Y, Ma C, Qi W, Yu H, Bi Z, Ma L 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 24969

    [18]

    Levin Y 1998 Phys. Rev. D 57 659

    [19]

    Numata K, Kemery A, Camp J 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 250602

    [20]

    Nietzsche S, Nawrodt R, Zimmer A, Schnabel R, Vodel W, Seidel P 2006 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 293

    [21]

    Notcutt M, Ma L S, Ye J, Hall J L 2005 Opt. Lett. 30 1815

    [22]

    Ludlow A D, Huang X, Notcutt M, Zanon T, Foreman S M, Boyd M M, Blatt S, Ye J 2007 Opt. Lett. 32 641

    [23]

    Nazarova T, Riehle F, Sterr U 2006 Appl. Phy. B 83 531

    [24]

    Webster S A, Oxborrow M, Gill P 2007 Phy. Rev. A 75 10064

    [25]

    Chen L S, Hall J L, Ye J, Yang T, Zang E, Li T C 2006 Phy. Rev. A 30 150

    [26]

    Lyngnes O, Ode A, Ness D C 2009 Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society 7504

    [27]

    Traggis N G, Claussen N R 2010 tetitSPIE LASE 7578

    [28]

    Darrow M C2014 Macalester Jourmal of Physics Astronomy 2 3

    [29]

    Zalicki P, Zare R N 1995 J. Chem. Phys. 102 2708

    [30]

    Webster S, Gill P 2011 Opt. Lett. 36 3572

    [31]

    Schiller S, Gorlitz A, Nevsky A, Alighanbari S 2012 Physics 48 412

    [32]

    Kessler T, Legero T, Sterr U 2012 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29 178

    [33]

    Legero T, Kessler T, Sterr U 2010 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27 776

    [34]

    Ong J L, Lucas L C, Lacefield W R, Rigney E D 1992 Biomaterials 13 249

    [35]

    Wu J J, Wu C T, Liao Y C, Lu T R, Chen L C, Chen K H, Hwa L G, Kuo C T, Ling K J 1999 Thin Solid Films s355 417

    [36]

    Cormie P, Mcbride J M, Mccaulley G O 2009 J. Strength Cond. Res. 23 177

    [37]

    Berg S, Katardjiev L 1999 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17 1916

    [38]

    Flaminio R, Franc J, Michel C, Morgado N, Pinard L, Sassolas B 2010 Classical Quantum Gravity 27 84030

    [39]

    Buzea C, Robbie K 2005 Rep. Prog. Phys. 68 385

    [40]

    Mitin V F, Lazarow V K, Lari L, Lytvyn P M, Kholevchuk V V, Matveeva L A, Mitin V V, Venger E F 2014 Thin Solid Films 550 715

    [41]

    Alexandrovski A 2009 Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society 7193 71930D-13

    [42]

    Lawrence M J, Willke B, Husman M E, Gustafson E K, Byer R L 1999 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16 523

    [43]

    Foltynowicz A 2009 Ph. D. Dissertation (Ume: Ume University)

    [44]

    Hofstetter D, Thornton R L 1998 IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34 1914

    [45]

    Hood C J, Kimble H J, Ye J 2001 Phy. Rev. A 64 33804

  • [1]

    Leibrandt D R, Thorpe M J, Notcutt M, Drullinger R E, Rosenband T, Bergquist J C 2011 Opt. Express 19 3471

    [2]

    Kessler T, Hagemann C, Grebing C, Legero T, Steer U, Riehle F, Martin M J, Chen L, Ye J 2012 Nat. Photonics 6 687

    [3]

    Swallows M D, Martin M J, Bishof M, Benko C, Lin Y, Blatt S, Rey A M, Ye J 2012 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59 416

    [4]

    Cole G D, Zhang W, Martin M J, Ye J, AspelmeyerM 2013 Nat. Photon. 7 644

    [5]

    Hagemann C, Grebing C, Lisdat C, Falke S, Legero T, Sterr U, Riehle F, Martin M J, Ye J 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 5102

    [6]

    Wu L, Jiang Y, Ma C, Qi W, Yu H, Bi Z, Ma L 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 24969

    [7]

    Drever R W P, Hall J L, Kowalski F V, Hough J, Ford G M, Munley A J, Ward H 1983 Appl. Phys. B 31 97

    [8]

    Chou C W, Hume D B, Koelemeij J C, Wineland D J, Rosenband T 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 070802

    [9]

    Hinkley N, Sherman J A, Phillips N B, Schioppo M, Lemke N D, Beloy K, Pizzocaro M, Oates C W, Ludlow A D 2013 Science 341 1215

    [10]

    Nicholson T L, Campbell S L, Hutson R B, Marti G E, Bloom B J, McNally R L, Zhang W, Barrett M D, Safronova M S, Strouse G F, Tew W L, Ye J 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 6896

    [11]

    Heinecke D C, Bartels A, Diddams S A 2011 Opt. Express 19 18440

    [12]

    Fortier T M, Kirchner M S, Quinlan F, Taylor J, Bergquist J C, Rosenband, Lemke T N, Ludlow A, Jiang Y, Oates C W, Diddams S A 2011 Nat. Photonics 5 425

    [13]

    Hough J, Rowan S 2005 J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7 544

    [14]

    Willke B, Danzmann K, Frede M, King P, Kracht D, Kwee P, Puncken O, Savage R L, Schulz B, Seifert F, Veltkamp C, Wagner S, Weels P, Winkelmann L 2008 Classical Quantum Gravity 25 114040

    [15]

    Williams P A, Swann W C, Newbury N R 2008 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 1284

    [16]

    Kessler T, Hagemann C, Grebing G, Legero T, Sterr U, Riehle F, Martin M J, Chen L, Ye J 2012 Nat. Photonics 6 687

    [17]

    Wu L, Jang Y, Ma C, Qi W, Yu H, Bi Z, Ma L 2016 Sci. Rep. 6 24969

    [18]

    Levin Y 1998 Phys. Rev. D 57 659

    [19]

    Numata K, Kemery A, Camp J 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 250602

    [20]

    Nietzsche S, Nawrodt R, Zimmer A, Schnabel R, Vodel W, Seidel P 2006 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 293

    [21]

    Notcutt M, Ma L S, Ye J, Hall J L 2005 Opt. Lett. 30 1815

    [22]

    Ludlow A D, Huang X, Notcutt M, Zanon T, Foreman S M, Boyd M M, Blatt S, Ye J 2007 Opt. Lett. 32 641

    [23]

    Nazarova T, Riehle F, Sterr U 2006 Appl. Phy. B 83 531

    [24]

    Webster S A, Oxborrow M, Gill P 2007 Phy. Rev. A 75 10064

    [25]

    Chen L S, Hall J L, Ye J, Yang T, Zang E, Li T C 2006 Phy. Rev. A 30 150

    [26]

    Lyngnes O, Ode A, Ness D C 2009 Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society 7504

    [27]

    Traggis N G, Claussen N R 2010 tetitSPIE LASE 7578

    [28]

    Darrow M C2014 Macalester Jourmal of Physics Astronomy 2 3

    [29]

    Zalicki P, Zare R N 1995 J. Chem. Phys. 102 2708

    [30]

    Webster S, Gill P 2011 Opt. Lett. 36 3572

    [31]

    Schiller S, Gorlitz A, Nevsky A, Alighanbari S 2012 Physics 48 412

    [32]

    Kessler T, Legero T, Sterr U 2012 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29 178

    [33]

    Legero T, Kessler T, Sterr U 2010 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27 776

    [34]

    Ong J L, Lucas L C, Lacefield W R, Rigney E D 1992 Biomaterials 13 249

    [35]

    Wu J J, Wu C T, Liao Y C, Lu T R, Chen L C, Chen K H, Hwa L G, Kuo C T, Ling K J 1999 Thin Solid Films s355 417

    [36]

    Cormie P, Mcbride J M, Mccaulley G O 2009 J. Strength Cond. Res. 23 177

    [37]

    Berg S, Katardjiev L 1999 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17 1916

    [38]

    Flaminio R, Franc J, Michel C, Morgado N, Pinard L, Sassolas B 2010 Classical Quantum Gravity 27 84030

    [39]

    Buzea C, Robbie K 2005 Rep. Prog. Phys. 68 385

    [40]

    Mitin V F, Lazarow V K, Lari L, Lytvyn P M, Kholevchuk V V, Matveeva L A, Mitin V V, Venger E F 2014 Thin Solid Films 550 715

    [41]

    Alexandrovski A 2009 Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society 7193 71930D-13

    [42]

    Lawrence M J, Willke B, Husman M E, Gustafson E K, Byer R L 1999 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16 523

    [43]

    Foltynowicz A 2009 Ph. D. Dissertation (Ume: Ume University)

    [44]

    Hofstetter D, Thornton R L 1998 IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34 1914

    [45]

    Hood C J, Kimble H J, Ye J 2001 Phy. Rev. A 64 33804

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  • Received Date:  29 September 2016
  • Accepted Date:  18 January 2017
  • Published Online:  05 April 2017

Self-reliance and independently developed high-finesse spherical ultrastable optical reference cavity

    Corresponding author: Liu Tao, taoliu@ntsc.ac.cn
  • 1. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
  • 2. National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Time and Frequency Stardard Laboratory, Xi'an 710600, China;
  • 3. Avic Xi'an Fight Automatic Control Research Institute, Xi'an 710065, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the Special Fund for Research on National Major Research Instruments and Facilities of the National Natural Science Fundation of China (Grant No. 61127901), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11273024, 61025023), and the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11403031).

Abstract: Ultra-stable reference cavity with high finesse is a crucial component in a narrow-linewidth laser system which is widely used in time and frequency metrology, the test of Lorentz invariance, and measure of gravitational wave. In this paper, we report the recent progress of the self-made spherical reference cavity, aiming at the future space application. The main function of cavity is the reference of ultra-stable laser, which is the local reference oscillation source of space optical clock. The diameter of the designed spherical cavity spacer made of ultra-low expansion glass is 80 mm, and the cavity length is 78 mm, flat-concave mirrors configuration, and the radius of the concave mirror is 0.5 m. The support structure is designed to have two 3.9 mm-radius spherical groves located at the poles of the sphere along the diameter direction (defined as support axis), and a 53 angle between the support axis and the optical axis. The mechanic vibration sensitivities of the cavity along and perpendicular to the optical axis are both calculated by finite element analysis method to be below 110-10/g. Five-axis linkage CNC machining sphere forming technology is applied to S80 mm spherical surface processing with spherical contour degree up to 0.02. After a three-stage surface polishing processes, the fused silicamirror substratessurface roughness is measured to be less than 0.2 nm (rms). Implementing double ion beam sputtering technique for mirror coating, the reflection of the coating achieves a reflectivity of 99.999% and a loss of 4 ppm for 698 nm laser. The coating surface roughness is measured to be 0.3 nm (rms). The cavity spacer and the mirror are bonded by dried optical contact. In order to improve the thermal noise characteristics of the cavity, an ultra low expansion ring is contacted optically to the outer surface of the mirror. The cavity is characterized by ring-down spectroscopy, and the finesse is around 195000. With the help of a home-made 698 nm ultra narrow line-width laser, the cavity line-width is measured to be 9.8 kHz by sweeping cavity method. A 698 nm semiconductor laser is locked to this spherical cavity by PDH technology, and the cavity loss is measured to be5 ppm.

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