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Electromagnetically induced transparency of a cesium Rydberg atom in weak radio-frequency field

Yang Zhi-Wei Jiao Yue-Chun Han Xiao-Xuan Zhao Jian-Ming Jia Suo-Tang

Electromagnetically induced transparency of a cesium Rydberg atom in weak radio-frequency field

Yang Zhi-Wei, Jiao Yue-Chun, Han Xiao-Xuan, Zhao Jian-Ming, Jia Suo-Tang
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  • Rydberg atoms are highly excited atoms with large principal quantum number n, big sizes (~n2) and long lifetimes (~n3). Rydberg atoms are very sensitive to an external field due to the large polarizabilities of Rydberg atoms (~n7). Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of Rydberg atom provides an ideal method to detect Rydberg atoms without destroying atoms, and can be used to measure the external direct current and radio frequency (RF) field. In this paper, we study the EIT effect of a cesium ladder-type three-level atom involving Rydberg state exposed to a weak RF field. The ground state (6S1/2), the excited state (6P3/2) and Rydberg state (48D5/2) constitute the Rydberg three-level system, in which the probe laser couples 6S1/2(F=4)6P3/2(F'=5) transition, whereas the coupling laser scans across the 6P3/248D5/2 Rydberg transition. The coupling laser (510 nm laser, propagating in the z-axis direction and linear polarization in the y-axis direction) and the probe laser (852 nm laser, linear polarization in the y-axis direction) counter-propagate through a 50-mm-long cesium vapor cell at room temperature, yielding Rydberg EIT spectra. Rydberg EIT signal is detected as a function of the detuning of the coupling laser. When a weak RF (80 MHz) electric field polarized in the x-axis direction is applied to a pair of electrode plates located on both sides of the cesium cell, the EIT spectrum of Rydberg 48D5/2 shows the Stark splitting and the even order harmonic sidebands. The experimental results are analyzed by using the Floquet theory. The simulation results accord well with the experimentally measured results. Furthermore, we also investigate the influence of the self-ionization effect of Rydberg atom on the Stark spectrum by changing the RF frequency. We put forward a proposal to avoid the effect of ionization by placing electrode plates in the cesium cell. In the weak RF-field domain, mj=5/2 Stark line crosses mj=1/2, 3/2 sidebands, these cross points provide an antenna-free method of accurately calibrating the RF electric field based on Rydberg atoms.
      Corresponding author: Zhao Jian-Ming, zhaojm@sxu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921603), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274209, 61475090), and the Shanxi Scholarship Council of China (Grant No. 2014-009).
    [1]

    Jiao Y C, Han X X, Yang Z W, Li J K, Raithel G, Zhao J M, Jia S T 2016 Phys. Rev. A 94 023832

    [2]

    Savukov I M, Seltzer S J, Romalis M V, Sauer K L 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 063004

    [3]

    Patton B, Versolato O O, Hovde D C, Corsini E, Higbie J M, Budker D 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 101 083502

    [4]

    Li J K, Yang W G, Song Z F, Zhang H, Zhang L J, Zhao J M, Jia S T 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 163201 (in Chinese) [李敬奎, 杨文广, 宋振飞, 张好, 张临杰, 赵建明, 贾锁堂 2015 物理学报 64 163201]

    [5]

    Gallagher T F 1994 Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

    [6]

    Mohapatra A K, Jackson T R, Adams C S 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 113003

    [7]

    Mohapatra A K, Bason M G, Butscher B, Weatherill K J, Adams C S 2008 Nat. Phys. 4 890

    [8]

    Holloway C, Gordon J, Jefferts S, Schwarzkopf A, Anderson D, Miller S, Thaicharoen N, Raithel G 2014 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 62 6169

    [9]

    Sedlacek J A, Schwettmann A, Kbler H, Lw R, Pfau T, Shaffer J P 2012 Nat. Phys. 8 819

    [10]

    Fan H, Kumar S, Sedlacek J, Kbler H, Karimkashi S, Shaffer J P 2015 J. Phys. B 48 202001

    [11]

    Sedlacek J A, Schwettmann A, Kbler H, Shaffer J P 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 063001

    [12]

    Gordon J A, Holloway C L, Schwarzkopf A, Anderson D A, Miller S, Thaicharoen N, Raithel G 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 105 024104

    [13]

    Barredo D, Kbler H, Daschner R, Lw R, Pfau T 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 123002

    [14]

    Grimmel J, Mack M, Karlewski F, Jessen F, Reinschmidt M, Sndor N, Fortgh J 2015 New J. Phys. 17 053005

    [15]

    Zimmerman M L, Littman M G, Kash M M, Kleppner D 1979 Phys. Rev. A 20 2251

    [16]

    Zhu X B, Zhang H, Feng Z G, Zhang L J, Li C Y, Zhao J M, Jia S T 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 2401 (in Chinese) [朱兴波, 张好, 冯志刚, 张临杰, 李昌勇, 赵建明, 贾锁堂 2010 物理学报 59 2401]

    [17]

    Miller S A, Anderson D A, Raithel G 2016 New J. Phys. 18 053017

  • [1]

    Jiao Y C, Han X X, Yang Z W, Li J K, Raithel G, Zhao J M, Jia S T 2016 Phys. Rev. A 94 023832

    [2]

    Savukov I M, Seltzer S J, Romalis M V, Sauer K L 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 063004

    [3]

    Patton B, Versolato O O, Hovde D C, Corsini E, Higbie J M, Budker D 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 101 083502

    [4]

    Li J K, Yang W G, Song Z F, Zhang H, Zhang L J, Zhao J M, Jia S T 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 163201 (in Chinese) [李敬奎, 杨文广, 宋振飞, 张好, 张临杰, 赵建明, 贾锁堂 2015 物理学报 64 163201]

    [5]

    Gallagher T F 1994 Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

    [6]

    Mohapatra A K, Jackson T R, Adams C S 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 113003

    [7]

    Mohapatra A K, Bason M G, Butscher B, Weatherill K J, Adams C S 2008 Nat. Phys. 4 890

    [8]

    Holloway C, Gordon J, Jefferts S, Schwarzkopf A, Anderson D, Miller S, Thaicharoen N, Raithel G 2014 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 62 6169

    [9]

    Sedlacek J A, Schwettmann A, Kbler H, Lw R, Pfau T, Shaffer J P 2012 Nat. Phys. 8 819

    [10]

    Fan H, Kumar S, Sedlacek J, Kbler H, Karimkashi S, Shaffer J P 2015 J. Phys. B 48 202001

    [11]

    Sedlacek J A, Schwettmann A, Kbler H, Shaffer J P 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 063001

    [12]

    Gordon J A, Holloway C L, Schwarzkopf A, Anderson D A, Miller S, Thaicharoen N, Raithel G 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 105 024104

    [13]

    Barredo D, Kbler H, Daschner R, Lw R, Pfau T 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 123002

    [14]

    Grimmel J, Mack M, Karlewski F, Jessen F, Reinschmidt M, Sndor N, Fortgh J 2015 New J. Phys. 17 053005

    [15]

    Zimmerman M L, Littman M G, Kash M M, Kleppner D 1979 Phys. Rev. A 20 2251

    [16]

    Zhu X B, Zhang H, Feng Z G, Zhang L J, Li C Y, Zhao J M, Jia S T 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 2401 (in Chinese) [朱兴波, 张好, 冯志刚, 张临杰, 李昌勇, 赵建明, 贾锁堂 2010 物理学报 59 2401]

    [17]

    Miller S A, Anderson D A, Raithel G 2016 New J. Phys. 18 053017

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    [6] Zhu Xing-Bo, Zhang Hao, Feng Zhi-Gang, Zhang Lin-Jie, Li Chang-Yong, Zhao Jian-Ming, Jia Suo-Tang. Experimental investigation of Stark effect of ultra-cold 39D cesium Rydberg atoms. Acta Physica Sinica, 2010, 59(4): 2401-2405. doi: 10.7498/aps.59.2401
    [7] Shi Ting-Yun, Zhan Ming-Sheng, Meng Hui-Yan, Kang Shuai. Model potential calculations of oscillator strength spectra of lithium atoms in parallel electric and magnetic fields. Acta Physica Sinica, 2007, 56(6): 3198-3204. doi: 10.7498/aps.56.3198
    [8] Wang Li-Mei, Zhang Hao, Li Chang-Yong, Zhao Jian-Ming, Jia Suo-Tang. Observation of the avoided crossing of Cs Rydberg Stark states. Acta Physica Sinica, 2013, 62(1): 013201. doi: 10.7498/aps.62.013201
    [9] Jiao Yue-Chun, Zhao Jian-Ming, Jia Suo-Tang. Broadband Rydberg atom-based radio-frequency field sensor. Acta Physica Sinica, 2018, 67(7): 073201. doi: 10.7498/aps.67.20172636
    [10] Yan Dong, Wang Bin-Bin, Bai Wen-Jie, Liu Bing, Du Xiu-Guo, Ren Chun-Nian. Phase in Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency. Acta Physica Sinica, 2019, 68(8): 084203. doi: 10.7498/aps.68.20181938
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  • Received Date:  14 December 2016
  • Accepted Date:  04 February 2017
  • Published Online:  05 May 2017

Electromagnetically induced transparency of a cesium Rydberg atom in weak radio-frequency field

    Corresponding author: Zhao Jian-Ming, zhaojm@sxu.edu.cn
  • 1. State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921603), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274209, 61475090), and the Shanxi Scholarship Council of China (Grant No. 2014-009).

Abstract: Rydberg atoms are highly excited atoms with large principal quantum number n, big sizes (~n2) and long lifetimes (~n3). Rydberg atoms are very sensitive to an external field due to the large polarizabilities of Rydberg atoms (~n7). Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of Rydberg atom provides an ideal method to detect Rydberg atoms without destroying atoms, and can be used to measure the external direct current and radio frequency (RF) field. In this paper, we study the EIT effect of a cesium ladder-type three-level atom involving Rydberg state exposed to a weak RF field. The ground state (6S1/2), the excited state (6P3/2) and Rydberg state (48D5/2) constitute the Rydberg three-level system, in which the probe laser couples 6S1/2(F=4)6P3/2(F'=5) transition, whereas the coupling laser scans across the 6P3/248D5/2 Rydberg transition. The coupling laser (510 nm laser, propagating in the z-axis direction and linear polarization in the y-axis direction) and the probe laser (852 nm laser, linear polarization in the y-axis direction) counter-propagate through a 50-mm-long cesium vapor cell at room temperature, yielding Rydberg EIT spectra. Rydberg EIT signal is detected as a function of the detuning of the coupling laser. When a weak RF (80 MHz) electric field polarized in the x-axis direction is applied to a pair of electrode plates located on both sides of the cesium cell, the EIT spectrum of Rydberg 48D5/2 shows the Stark splitting and the even order harmonic sidebands. The experimental results are analyzed by using the Floquet theory. The simulation results accord well with the experimentally measured results. Furthermore, we also investigate the influence of the self-ionization effect of Rydberg atom on the Stark spectrum by changing the RF frequency. We put forward a proposal to avoid the effect of ionization by placing electrode plates in the cesium cell. In the weak RF-field domain, mj=5/2 Stark line crosses mj=1/2, 3/2 sidebands, these cross points provide an antenna-free method of accurately calibrating the RF electric field based on Rydberg atoms.

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