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热带海洋与中低纬大气相互作用的信息传输特征分析

张志森 封国林 龚志强 吴浩

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热带海洋与中低纬大气相互作用的信息传输特征分析

张志森, 封国林, 龚志强, 吴浩

Characteristics of information transfer of interaction between Mid and low-latitudes atmosphere

Zhang Zhi-Sen, Feng Guo-Lin, Gong Zhi-Qiang, Wu Hao
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  • 基于传递熵概念和方法定义气象场的信息源特征度、信息汇特征度和信息传输平衡特征度. 使用海表温度和高度场资料计算海气相互作用过程中的信息传递. 侧重分析赤道中东太平洋(20°S-20°N,170°E-100°W)与热带地区、北半球和南半球中高纬度地区大气之间的信息传递,给出信息传递的区域和全球分布特征;并提取海表温度指数和高度场指数分析赤道中东太平洋与大气信息传递特征的季节变化和年代际变化. 研究结果表明,海洋信息源主要分布在热带地区,大气信息汇主要分布在中纬度地区,从热带地区到中纬度地区,海洋对大气的强迫作用在减弱,而大气对海洋的强迫作用在增强;不同区域不同层次的高度场对赤道中东太平洋海表温度有着不同的响应,热带中东太平洋上空高度场最大延迟为4 个月. 欧亚大陆中部上空和北美大陆上空高度场均随时间延迟呈现波动性变化:欧亚大陆中部上空高度场随时间延迟呈现增强的趋势,而北美大陆上空高度场随时间延迟呈现减弱的趋势. 海表温度指数对热带中东太平洋上空850 hPa和欧亚大陆中部上空500 hPa高度场指数的传递熵以2000 s 最弱,而海表温度指数对北美大陆上空700 hPa高度场指数的传递熵以2000 s最强. 表明不同年代际背景下不同区域大气对赤道中东太平洋海表温度异常的响应是不同的. 然而不同季节的响应却十分相似:冬季最强,秋季次之,春季再次,夏季最弱.
    In this article, information source characteristic degree, information sink characteristic degree and transfer equilibrium characteristic degree are defined based on transfer entropy. According to the definition, the information transfer in air-sea interaction is examined with sea surface temperature (SST) and geopotential height (GH). And the information transfer between central and eastern equatorial Pacific (20°S–20°N, 170°E–100°W) and tropics (20°S–20°N), and that between atmospheres in high latitude regions of northern hemisphere (north of 20°N) and southern hemisphere (south of 20°S) are analyzed too. In addition, decadal changes and seasonal differences in information transfer between central and eastern equatorial Pacific ocean and atmosphere are discussed by the defined indices of SST and HG. In a word, the information source distribution of ocean is mainly in tropics and the information sink distribution of atmosphere is mainly in mid-latitude. From the low-latitude to the mid-latitude, the ocean forcing the atmosphere is weakened while the atmosphere forcing the ocean is strengthened. Significant regional difference, decadal change and seasonal difference exist in information transfer from the tropical ocean to the atmosphere.
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:40930952,411075067)、全球变化研究国家重大科学研究计划(批准号:2012CB955902)、国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号:2013CB430204)和公益性行业气象科研专项基金(批准号:GYHY201106016,GYHY201106015)资助的课题.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 40930952, 411075067), the Global Change Research of Major National Scientific Research Plan, China (Grant No. 2012CB955902), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB430204), and the Special Scientific Research Fund of Meteorological Public Welfare Profession of China (Grant Nos. GYHY201106016, GYHY201106015).
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    Peixoto J P, Oort A H 1992 Physics of Climate (New York: American Institute of Physics Press) p30

    [2]

    Wu G X, Li J P, Zhou T J, Lu R Y, Yu Y Q, Zhu J, Mu M, Duan A M, Ren R C, Ding Y H, Li W J, He J H, Wang F, Yu W D, Qiao F L, Yuan D L, Qi Y Q 2006 Advances in Earth Science 21 1109 (in Chinese) [吴国雄, 李建平, 周天军, 陆日宇, 俞永强, 朱江, 穆 穆, 段安民, 任荣彩, 丁一汇, 李维京, 何金海, 王凡, 于卫东, 乔方利, 袁东亮, 齐义泉 2006 地球科学进展 21 1109]

    [3]

    Ganachaud A, Wunsch C 2000 Nature 408 453

    [4]

    Walker G T 1923 Memoirs of the Indian Meteorological Department 24 75

    [5]

    Walker G T 1924 Memoirs of the Indian Meteorological Department 24 275

    [6]

    Walker G T 1928 Memories of the Royal Meteorological Society 2 97

    [7]

    Bjerknes J 1966 Tellus 18 20

    [8]

    Bjerknes J 1969 Monthly Weather Review 97 163

    [9]

    Klein S A, Soden B J, Lau N C 1999 J. Climate 12 917

    [10]

    Venzke S, Latif M, Villwock A 2000 J. Climate 13 1371

    [11]

    Saji N H, Goswami B H, Vinayachandran P N, Yamagata T 1999 Nature 401 360

    [12]

    Moura A D, Shukla J 1981 J. Atmosph. Sci. 38 2653

    [13]

    Philander S G H, Pacanowski R C 1986 Nature 322 251

    [14]

    Zebiak S E 1993 J. Climate 6 1567

    [15]

    Carton J A, Huang B 1994 J. Phys. Oceanography 24 888

    [16]

    Hoerling M P, Kumar A 2002 J. Climate 15 2184

    [17]

    Alexander M A, Bladé I, Newman M, Lanzante J R, Lau N C, Scott J D 2002 J. Climate 15 2205

    [18]

    Wang C Z, Xie S P, Carton J A 2004 Earth Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction (Washington D.C.: AGU) p121

    [19]

    Su H, Neelin J D, Meyerson J E 2005 J. Climate 18 4195

    [20]

    Yang J L, Liu Q Y, Liu Z Y 2010 J. Climate 23 5889

    [21]

    Zheng J, Liu Q Y, Wang C Z, Zheng X T 2012 Climate Dyn. 40 2023

    [22]

    Scaife A A, Kucharski F, Folland C K, Kinter J, Brönnimann S, Fereday D, Fischer A M, Grainger S, Jin E K, Kang I S, Knight J R, Kusunoki S, Lau N C, Nath M J, Nakaegawa T, Pegion P, Schubert S, Sporyshev P, Syktus J, Yoon J H, Zeng N, Zhou J 2009 Climate Dyn. 33 603

    [23]

    Zhou T J, Wu B, Scaife A A, Brönnimann S, Cherchi A, Fereday D, Fischer A M, Folland C K, Jin K E, Kinter J, Knight J R, Kucharski F, Kusunoki S, Lau N C, Li L J, Nath M J, Nakaegawa T, Navarra A, Pegion P, Rozanov E, Schubert S, Sporyshev P, Voldoire A, Wen X Y, Yoon J H, Zeng N 2009 Climate Dyn. 33 1051

    [24]

    Zhou T J, Wu B, Wang B 2009 J. Climate 22 1159

    [25]

    Wallace J M, Jiang Q 1987 Atmospheric and Oceanic Variability (London: Royal Meteorological Society) p17

    [26]

    Cayan D R 1992 J. Phys. Oceanography 22 859

    [27]

    Feng A X, Gong Z Q, Wang Q G, Sun S P, Feng G L 2011 Acta Pyhs. Sin. 60 059205 (in Chinese) [冯爱霞, 龚志强, 王启光, 孙树鹏, 封国林 2011 物理学报 60 059205]

    [28]

    Verdes P F 2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 026222

    [29]

    Kleeman R 2007 J. Atmos Sci. 64 1005

    [30]

    Hannisdal B, Peters S E 2011 Science 334 1121

    [31]

    Sharma S D, Ramesh D S, Bapanayya C, Raju P A 2012 J. Geophys. Res. 117 D13110

    [32]

    Zhang Z S, Gong Z Q, Zhi R 2013 Acta Pyhs. Sin. 62 129203 (in Chinese) [张志森, 龚志强, 支蓉 2013 物理学报 62 129203]

    [33]

    Schreiber T 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 461

    [34]

    Michelis D, Consolini G, Materassi M, Tozzi R 2011 J. Geophys. Res. 116 A08225

    [35]

    Zhang X H, Yu Y Q, Liu H 1998 J. Atmos. Sci. 22 511 (in Chinese) [张学洪, 俞永强, 刘辉 1998 大气科学 22 511]

    [36]

    Zhou T J, Yu R C, Gao Y Q, Helge D 2006 Acta Meteor. Sin. 64 1 (in Chinese) [周天军, 宇如聪, 郜永琪, Helge Drange 2006 气象学报 64 1]

    [37]

    Gong Z Q, Zhi R, Hou W, Wang X J, Feng G L 2012 Acta Pyhs. Sin. 61 029202 (in Chinese) [龚志强, 支蓉, 侯威, 王晓娟, 封国林 2012 物理学报 61 029202]

    [38]

    Gong Z Q, Wang X J, Zhi R, Feng A X 2011 Chin. Pyhs. B 20 079201

    [39]

    Zhang Z S, Gong Z Q, Zhi R, Feng G L, Hu J G 2011 Chin. Pyhs. B 20 019201

    [40]

    Wang X J, Zhi R, He W P, Gong Z Q 2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 029201

    [41]

    Feng G L, Dai X G, Wang A H, Chou J F 2001 Acta Pyhs. Sin. 50 606 (in Chinese) [封国林, 戴新刚, 王爱慧, 丑纪范 2001 物理学报 50 606]

    [42]

    He W P, Feng G L, Dong W J, Li J P 2006 Acta Pyhs. Sin. 55 969 (in Chinese) [何文平, 封国林, 董文杰, 李建平 2006 物理学报 55 969]

    [43]

    Tokinaga H, Xie S P, Deser C, Kosaka Y, Okumura Y M 2012 Nature 491 439

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2013-07-31
  • 修回日期:  2013-09-29
  • 刊出日期:  2014-01-05

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