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拉伸试验测试金属韧性的不确定性:中温脆性和应变速率脆性

徐庭栋 刘珍君 于鸿垚 王凯

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拉伸试验测试金属韧性的不确定性:中温脆性和应变速率脆性

徐庭栋, 刘珍君, 于鸿垚, 王凯

Measurement uncertainty of metallic ductility in tensile tests: intermediate temperature embrittlement and strain rate embrittlement

Xu Ting-Dong, Liu Zhen-Jun, Yu Hong-Yao, Wang Kai
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  • 金属高温拉伸试验国际技术标准ISO 6892-2-2011认定, 拉伸试验的拉伸温度或应变速率的改变会引起拉伸试验测试力学性能结果的不确定性, 危及到拉伸试验技术的可靠性. 本文综述了拉伸试验测试断面收缩率或延伸率的不确定性: 中温脆性和应变速率脆性的实验现象和特征, 简述了多晶金属弹性变形微观理论的基本结果, 以此微观理论解释了上述两种测试不确定性的试验现象, 阐明了这两种测试不确定性是拉伸试验弹性变形阶段杂质晶界偏聚, 脆化了晶界引起的. 为修正金属拉伸试验技术标准, 避免断面收缩率测试的不确定性提供了理论基础.
    International Standard, ISO 6892-2, Metallic Materials-Tensile Testing: Method of Test at Elevated Temperature maintained that the strain rate variations and test temperature variations can induce the measurement uncertainty of mechanical properties in tensile testing, which will imperil the reliability of tension tests. In this paper, the measurement uncertainties of shrinkage rate or elongation rate in tensile testing cross-section, intermediate temperature embrittlement and strain rate embrittlement are first described experimentally. Second, the fundamental results on the microscopic theory of elastic deformation in metals are briefly mentioned. Then the phenomena of the measurement uncertainties are explained based on the microscopic theory. It is expounded that the elastic deformation of tension tests induces the impurities to segregate to grain boundaries and the relative embrittlement which produces the measurement uncertainties of reduction in area. This work gives a theoretical basis for correcting the present standard method of tension testing to avoid the measurement uncertainty of reduction in area.
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:51171050)资助的课题.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51171050).
    [1]

    Zhang C L, Han P D, Wang X H, Zhang Z X, Wang L P, Xu H X 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 126802

    [2]

    ASTM International: 2003 Standard Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests of Metallic Materials ASTM International, Designation: E21-03a, 1

    [3]

    International Standard 2011 ISO 6892-2, Metallic Materials-Tensile Testing Part 2: Method of Test at Elevated Temperature (1st Ed.) 9

    [4]

    Sun D S, Yamane T, Hirao K 1991 J. Mater. Sci. 26 689

    [5]

    Sun D S, Yamane T, Hirao K 1991 J. Mater. Sci. 26 5767

    [6]

    Otsuka M, Horiuchi R 1984 J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 48 688

    [7]

    Nowosielski R, Sakiewicz P, Mazurkiewicz J 2006 J. Ach. Mater. Manuf. Eng. 17 93

    [8]

    Xu T D, Zheng L, Wang K, Misra R D K 2013 Inter. Mater. Rev. 58 263

    [9]

    Xu T D 2009 10000 Selected Problems in Sciences: Physics (Beijing: Science Press) p523 (in Chinese) [徐庭栋 2009 10000个科学难题· 物理学卷 (北京: 科学出版社) 第523页]

    [10]

    Suzuki H G 1997 ISIJ Inter. 37 250

    [11]

    Xu T D, Yu H Y, Liu Z J, Zheng Z W 2013 A Technical Report for ISO TC164 2013 Annual Meeting, 1

    [12]

    Nagasaki C, Aizawa A, Kihara J 1987 Trans. ISIJ 27 506

    [13]

    Kumar K S, Pang L X 1998 Mater. Sci. Eng. A 258 153

    [14]

    Xu T D 2000 J. Mater. Sci. 35 5621

    [15]

    Xu T D 2003 Phil. Mag. 83 889

    [16]

    Xu T D, Cheng B 2004 Prog. Mater. Sci. 49 109

    [17]

    Xu T D 2007 Phil. Mag. 87 1581

    [18]

    Zheng Z W, Xu T D, Wang K, Shao C 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 246202 (in Chinese) [郑宗文, 徐庭栋, 王凯, 邵冲 2012 物理学报 61 246202]

    [19]

    Zener C (translated by Kong Q P, Zhou B L, Qian Z Q, Ma Y L) 1965 Elastic and Anelastic of Metals (Beijing: Science Press) pp3-40 (in Chinese) [甄纳C著 (孔庆平, 周本濂, 钱知强, 马应良 译) 1965 金属的弹性与滞弹性 (北京: 科学出版社) 第3-40页]

    [20]

    Shinoda T, Nakamura T 1981 Acta Metall. 29 1631

    [21]

    Song S H, Wu J, Wang D Y, Weng L Q, Zheng L 2006 Mater. Sci. Eng. A 430 320

    [22]

    Misra R D K 1996 Acta Mater. 44 885

    [23]

    Horikawa K, Kuramoto S, Kanno M 2001 Acta Mater. 49 3981

  • [1]

    Zhang C L, Han P D, Wang X H, Zhang Z X, Wang L P, Xu H X 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 126802

    [2]

    ASTM International: 2003 Standard Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests of Metallic Materials ASTM International, Designation: E21-03a, 1

    [3]

    International Standard 2011 ISO 6892-2, Metallic Materials-Tensile Testing Part 2: Method of Test at Elevated Temperature (1st Ed.) 9

    [4]

    Sun D S, Yamane T, Hirao K 1991 J. Mater. Sci. 26 689

    [5]

    Sun D S, Yamane T, Hirao K 1991 J. Mater. Sci. 26 5767

    [6]

    Otsuka M, Horiuchi R 1984 J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 48 688

    [7]

    Nowosielski R, Sakiewicz P, Mazurkiewicz J 2006 J. Ach. Mater. Manuf. Eng. 17 93

    [8]

    Xu T D, Zheng L, Wang K, Misra R D K 2013 Inter. Mater. Rev. 58 263

    [9]

    Xu T D 2009 10000 Selected Problems in Sciences: Physics (Beijing: Science Press) p523 (in Chinese) [徐庭栋 2009 10000个科学难题· 物理学卷 (北京: 科学出版社) 第523页]

    [10]

    Suzuki H G 1997 ISIJ Inter. 37 250

    [11]

    Xu T D, Yu H Y, Liu Z J, Zheng Z W 2013 A Technical Report for ISO TC164 2013 Annual Meeting, 1

    [12]

    Nagasaki C, Aizawa A, Kihara J 1987 Trans. ISIJ 27 506

    [13]

    Kumar K S, Pang L X 1998 Mater. Sci. Eng. A 258 153

    [14]

    Xu T D 2000 J. Mater. Sci. 35 5621

    [15]

    Xu T D 2003 Phil. Mag. 83 889

    [16]

    Xu T D, Cheng B 2004 Prog. Mater. Sci. 49 109

    [17]

    Xu T D 2007 Phil. Mag. 87 1581

    [18]

    Zheng Z W, Xu T D, Wang K, Shao C 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 246202 (in Chinese) [郑宗文, 徐庭栋, 王凯, 邵冲 2012 物理学报 61 246202]

    [19]

    Zener C (translated by Kong Q P, Zhou B L, Qian Z Q, Ma Y L) 1965 Elastic and Anelastic of Metals (Beijing: Science Press) pp3-40 (in Chinese) [甄纳C著 (孔庆平, 周本濂, 钱知强, 马应良 译) 1965 金属的弹性与滞弹性 (北京: 科学出版社) 第3-40页]

    [20]

    Shinoda T, Nakamura T 1981 Acta Metall. 29 1631

    [21]

    Song S H, Wu J, Wang D Y, Weng L Q, Zheng L 2006 Mater. Sci. Eng. A 430 320

    [22]

    Misra R D K 1996 Acta Mater. 44 885

    [23]

    Horikawa K, Kuramoto S, Kanno M 2001 Acta Mater. 49 3981

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2014-06-26
  • 修回日期:  2014-07-10
  • 刊出日期:  2014-11-05

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