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超声复合电弧声调控特性研究

谢伟峰 范成磊 杨春利 林三宝 张玉岐

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超声复合电弧声调控特性研究

谢伟峰, 范成磊, 杨春利, 林三宝, 张玉岐

Characteristics of acoustic-controlled arc in ultrasonic wave-assisted arc

Xie Wei-Feng, Fan Cheng-Lei, Yang Chun-Li, Lin San-Bao, Zhang Yu-Qi
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  • 超声复合电弧作为一种新的焊接热源, 在电弧焊接过程中可利用超声实现对熔融金属的深度处理, 但是超声与电弧等离子体间相互作用机理还不清晰, 这成为阻碍该技术工程应用的关键问题. 本文通过实验与相应理论针对外加超声场对焊接电弧调控特性进行了研究. 为说明电弧特性, 针对试验中高速摄像采集的电弧图片进行了处理. 对比未加超声情况, 超声复合电弧受内外声场共同作用等离子体拘束程度明显提高, 电弧亮度增强, 弧柱高温区范围扩展至阳极, 中间粒子出现团聚并以一定频率上下抖动. 通过改变超声激励电流大小和声发射端高度, 电弧结构产生显著变化, 在谐振点附近, 电弧挺直度最强, 脉动频率最大. 试验结果显示通过外加超声可以达到对焊接电弧热等离子体调控的目的. 最后结合波动方程和二维声边界元模型, 分析了电弧内部声传播过程以及声场结构对等离子体粒子的作用规律, 这为进一步理解超声对电弧的调控机理打下良好基础.
    As a new welding method, ultrasound has been successfully introduced into the pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. However, the interaction mechanism between the ultrasound and the arc plasma is not clear, thus preflenting the new technique from engineering applications. In this paper, the characteristic of arc regulation by external ultrasonic field is investigated based on the experimental data and the corresponding theory. In order to figure out the characteristics of arc, the arc images obtained by high-speed camera are processed. Compared with the conventional welding arc, ultrasonic wave-assisted arc is more contracted and becomes brighter, the high-temperature region in an arc column greatly expands, and there are internal particle agglomerations shaking up and down at a constant frequency. The arc shape varies with ultrasound excitation current and the height of ultrasonic radiator. In the vicinity of the resonance point, the straight-degree of the arc is the strongest and the ripple frequency is also the largest. Results show that the purpose of using external ultrasound field to regulate the thermal plasma has basically achieved. Analyzing the acoustic pressure wave equation for the neutral component shows that the spatial distribution of acoustic wave can be generated in the arc and its intensity is proportional to the local amplitude of acoustic waves. Acoustic pressure field can be calculated based on the dependence of the electron temperature and density on time and space. In addition to the action of acoustic field within the arc, the arc plasma is also controlled by the acoustic field structure. A two-cylinder model incorporating boundary element method is developed, establishing a relationship between the binding capability and the geometric parameters of an ultrasonic radiator with reflerence to wavelength. This model is successful in predicting resonant modes of the acoustic field and explaining the influences of the ultrasonic radiator height on welding arc. Variation of arc shape is the result of the combined effect of axial and radial acoustic radiation forces on particles (electron, ion and neutral). The thermal efficiency will be significantly enhanced since the particle density increases in the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc. The acoustic propagation in the arc is the interacting process between acoustic and thermal plasmas. The mechanism of ultrasound acting on the arc can be reasonably explained in this study. And the results may provide a reflerence for plasma engineering applications. However, it also needs further reflearch on the impact of an arc on the acoustic field.
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 51275134)和国家自然科学基金重点项目(批准号: 51435004) 资助的课题.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51275134), and the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No. 51435004).
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    Liu T L, Wang Y L, Lu Y Z 2015 Chin. Phys. B 24 025202

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    Jin D, Li Y H, Jia M, Li F Y, Cui W, Sun Q, Zhang B L, Li J 2014 Chin. Phys. B 23 035201

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    Wojaczek K 1960 Beitr. Plasma. Physik. 1 127

    [7]

    Gentle K W, Ingard U 1964 Appl. Phys. Lett. 5 105

    [8]

    Subertova S 1965 Czech. J. Phys. B 15 701

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    Galechyan G A 1995 Phys. Uspekhi. 38 1309

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    Zavershinskii I P, Kogan E Y 1994 Plasma. Phys. Rep. 20 838

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    Antinyan M A, Galechyan G A, Tavakalyan L B 1991 High. Temp. 29 870

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    Sun Q J, Lin S B, Yang C L, Fan C L, Zhao G Q 2008 China. Weld. 17 52

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    Fan C L, Yang C L, Lin S B, Liu W G. 2013 Weld. J. 91 375

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    Sun Q J, Lin S B, Yang C L, Zhao G Q 2009 Sci. Technol. Weld. Joi. 14 765

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    Yuan H R, Lin S B, Yang C L, Fan C L 2011 China. Weld. 20 39

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2014-10-16
  • 修回日期:  2014-12-29
  • 刊出日期:  2015-05-05

超声复合电弧声调控特性研究

  • 1. 哈尔滨工业大学, 先进焊接与连接国家重点实验室, 哈尔滨 150001
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 51275134)和国家自然科学基金重点项目(批准号: 51435004) 资助的课题.

摘要: 超声复合电弧作为一种新的焊接热源, 在电弧焊接过程中可利用超声实现对熔融金属的深度处理, 但是超声与电弧等离子体间相互作用机理还不清晰, 这成为阻碍该技术工程应用的关键问题. 本文通过实验与相应理论针对外加超声场对焊接电弧调控特性进行了研究. 为说明电弧特性, 针对试验中高速摄像采集的电弧图片进行了处理. 对比未加超声情况, 超声复合电弧受内外声场共同作用等离子体拘束程度明显提高, 电弧亮度增强, 弧柱高温区范围扩展至阳极, 中间粒子出现团聚并以一定频率上下抖动. 通过改变超声激励电流大小和声发射端高度, 电弧结构产生显著变化, 在谐振点附近, 电弧挺直度最强, 脉动频率最大. 试验结果显示通过外加超声可以达到对焊接电弧热等离子体调控的目的. 最后结合波动方程和二维声边界元模型, 分析了电弧内部声传播过程以及声场结构对等离子体粒子的作用规律, 这为进一步理解超声对电弧的调控机理打下良好基础.

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