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用于铯原子内态操控的双光子拉曼激光的产生及应用

王志辉 田亚莉 李刚 张天才

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用于铯原子内态操控的双光子拉曼激光的产生及应用

王志辉, 田亚莉, 李刚, 张天才

Generation and application of two-photon Raman laser for manipulation of internal state of Cs atom

Wang Zhi-Hui, Tian Ya-Li, Li Gang, Zhang Tian-Cai
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  • 双光子拉曼过程是一种有效制备和控制原子内态的方法, 在原子内态操控和基于原子的量子信息处理中具有重要意义. 研制用于特定原子的拉曼激光是实现该过程的重要一步. 报道了利用光纤波导相位调制器及滤波器等实现用于铯原子内态操控的拉曼激光的方法, 并成功用于单个铯原子的内态精密操控. 通过4.6 GHz的微波信号源直接驱动波导相位调制器高效地获得光场的调制边带, 并利用自由光谱区为9.19 GHz的法布里-珀罗腔将载波及二阶边带滤掉, 获得了频率精确、相差9.19 GHz的拉曼激光. 经过基于光纤振幅调制器的功率稳定系统, 最终可以获得总功率为73 μupW、长时间内波动为2.2%的拉曼激光束, 并将此光束用于激发单个铯原子, 实现了|6S1/2, F=4, mF=0和|6S1/2, F=3, mF=0 之间的可控拉比操作.
    Two-photon Raman process (TPRP) is an important technique in controlling the atomic internal states. It plays an important role in quantum manipulation and quantum information process. A reliable Raman laser for specific atom is the first step to demonstrate TPRP and quantum manipulation of an atom. In this paper, we theoretically analyze the two-photon Raman process regarding to Cesium “clock states” |6S1/2, F=4, mF=0 and |6S1/2, F=3, mF=0, and we obtain the dependences of the corresponding Rabi frequency on one-and two-photon detunings and one-photon Rabi frequencies in a realistic multi-level Cesium atom system. We find that to obtain an atom state flopping efficiency of 0.99 the Raman laser power fluctuation should be controlled to be smaller than 3.2%. We also report our simple experimental Raman laser system for TPRP of Cesium atom based on a fiber waveguide phase modulator. The phase modulator is driven by a 4.6 GHz microwave source and the two first-order sidebands with a frequency difference of 9.19 GHz are filtered out by a Fabry-Pérot cavity with a finesse of 48. After an amplitude-modulator-based intensity stabilization system, a total power of 73 μupW with a fluctuation of 2.2% within 90 min is obtained. By applying this Raman laser to a single Cesium atom trapped in a micrometer size far-off resonant trap (FORT), we obtain Raman spectra between Cesium “clock states” |6S1/2, F=4, mF=0 and |6S1/2, F=3, mF=0. The discrepancy between the two-photon resonance frequency and the defined clock frequency 9.192631770 GHz is due to the differential Stark shifts by FORT beam and Raman beams as well as the inaccuracy of the microwave source. By varying the Raman pulse length we also show the corresponding Rabi flopping with a rate of 153 kHz, which is consistent with the theoretical calculation. The obtained state transfer efficiency of 0.75 is much smaller than theoretical expectation 0.99, which is mainly limited by the state initialization efficiency. The Raman laser system reported in this paper is simple and reliable to realize and it provides a reliable method to manipulate the Cesium internal state. Moreover it could also be easily extended to other system for quantum manipulation of other species of atom.
      通信作者: 李刚, gangli@sxu.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 11125418, 91336107, 61275210, 61227902)和国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号: 2012CB921601)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Li Gang, gangli@sxu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11125418, 91336107, 61275210, 61227902) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921601).
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  • [1]

    Kuhr S, Alt W, Schrader D, Dotsenko I, Miroshnychenko Y, Rosenfeld W, Khudaverdyan M, Gomer V, Rauschenbeutel A, Meschede D 2003 Phys. Rev. A 21 213002

    [2]

    Khudaverdyan M, Alt W, Dotsenko I, Förster L, Kuhr S, Meschede D, Miroshnychenko Y, Schrader D, Rauschenbeutel A 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 031404

    [3]

    Yavuz D D, Kulatunga P B, Urban E, Johnson T A, Proite N, Henage T, Walker T G, Saffman M 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 063001

    [4]

    Jones M P A, Beugnon J, Gaëtan A, Zhang J, Messin G, Browaeys A, Grangier P 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 040301(R)

    [5]

    Li G, Zhang S, Isenhower L, Maller K, Saffman M 2012 Opt. Lett. 37 851

    [6]

    Choi K S, Deng H, Laurat J, Kimble H J 2008 Nature 452 67

    [7]

    Vo C, Riedl S, Baur S, Rempe G, Drr S 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 263602

    [8]

    Sangouard N, Guérin S, Yatsenko L P, Halfmann T 2004 Phys. Rev. A 70 013415

    [9]

    Jin S Q, Gong S Q, Li R X, Xu Z Z 2004 Phys. Rev. A 69 023408

    [10]

    Li Z H, Li G, Zhang Y C, Zhang P F, Zhao D M, Guo Y Q, Wang J M, Zhang T C 2011 Acta Optica Sinica 31 0102002 (in Chinese) [李卓恒, 李刚, 张玉驰, 张鹏飞, 赵冬梅, 郭龑强, 王军民, 张天才 2011 光学学报 31 0102002]

    [11]

    Bouyer P, Gustavson T L, Haritos K G, Kasevich M A 1993 Opt. Lett. 18 649

    [12]

    Szymaniec K, Ghezali S, Coghnet L, Clairon A 1997 Opt. Commun. 144 51

    [13]

    Liu S P, Zhang Y C, Zhang P F, Li G, Wang J M, Zhang T C 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 285(in Chinese) [刘四平, 张玉驰, 张鹏飞, 李刚, 王军民, 张天才 2009 物理学报 58 285]

    [14]

    Zhang Y C, Wang X Y, Li G, Wang J M, Zhang T C 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 2202(in Chinese) [张玉驰, 王晓勇, 李刚, 王军民, 张天才 2007 物理学报 56 2202]

    [15]

    Zhang Y F, Li G, Zhang Y C, Zhang P F, Wang J M, Zhang T C 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 104206(in Chinese) [张艳峰, 李刚, 张玉驰, 张鹏飞, 王军民, 张天才 2011 物理学报 60 104206]

    [16]

    Frese D, Ueberholz B, Kuhr S, Alt W, Schrader D, Gomer V, Meschede D 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 3777

    [17]

    Snadden M J, Clarke R B M, Riis E 1997 Opt. Lett. 22 892

    [18]

    Santarelli G, Clairon A, Lea S N, Tino G 1994 Opt. Commun. 104 339

    [19]

    Grimm R , Weidemuller M 1999 arxiv: Physics 9902072

    [20]

    Guo Y Q, Li G, Zhang Y F, Zhang P F, Wang J M, Zhang T C 2012 Sci. China: Phys. Mech. Astron. 55 1523

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  • 收稿日期:  2015-03-26
  • 修回日期:  2015-05-05
  • 刊出日期:  2015-09-05

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