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差频可调谐太赫兹技术的新进展

柴路 牛跃 栗岩锋 胡明列 王清月

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差频可调谐太赫兹技术的新进展

柴路, 牛跃, 栗岩锋, 胡明列, 王清月

Recent progress of tunable terahertz sources based on difference frequency generation

Chai Lu, Niu Yue, Li Yan-Feng, Hu Ming-Lie, Wang Qing-Yue
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  • 太赫兹技术在最近30年来得到快速发展, 并在医学、生物、农业、材料、安检、通信、天文等领域得到广泛应用. 从太赫兹源的频谱特性可以分为窄带(单频)太赫兹源和宽带太赫兹源. 从频谱技术方面来说, 相干的宽带和窄带太赫兹谱是一种互补性关系, 具有各自的技术特点和应用范围. 宽带太赫兹谱可以用于快速获取较宽频谱范围的分子振转谱, 实现混合特征谱的快速检测或成像. 窄带太赫兹源具有很好的光谱灵敏度和分辨率, 适用于太赫兹抽运-探测、分子振转能级谱精细结构分辨 以及太赫兹远程探测和成像. 因此研制具有可调谐的高峰值功率的窄带太赫兹源是适用于探测和识别分子振转能级指纹谱的应用需求, 而差频技术是获得高功率和宽调谐窄带太赫兹源最重要的技术之一. 为了突出该技术的最新进展, 本综述引证论文仅仅限于近5 年来基于差频技术产生太赫兹波的研究进展, 分为光学激光差频源和量子级联激光器差频源两大部分. 对于光学激光差频源, 分别对目前文献报道的各种双波长差频源和太赫兹产生用的非线性晶体进行分类介绍, 并给出所采用的技术和实验结果; 对于量子级联激光器差频源, 分别介绍了量子级联激光器中的差频产生技术和波长调谐技术的最新进展. 量子级联激光器差频太赫兹源是目前实现量子级联激光器在太赫兹波段室温运转的惟一技术, 是实现小型化、窄带宽调谐和室温运转太赫兹源的新发展领域, 值得关注.
    Terahertz technology has been developed rapidly in the past 30 years. Numerous applications in medicine, biology, agriculture, materials, security, communication and astronomy have been demonstrated. Terahertz sources can be divided into narrowband (monochromatic) source and broadband source according to their spectral characteristics. From a spectral perspective, coherent broadband and narrowband terahertz sources are mutually complementary, each having its own characteristics and scope of applications. Broadband terahertz sources can be used for quick access to the hybrid spectra of rotational and vibrational molecular fingerprints or imaging in a wider spectral range. Narrowband terahertz source with good spectral resolution and sensitivity, is suitable for pump-probe, fine structure resolution of molecular fingerprints and terahertz remote detection and imaging. Therefore, developing the tunable high peak power and narrowband terahertz sources is very important for the applications in the detection and identification of molecular fingerprints. The difference frequency generation is one of the most important techniques for obtaining widely tunable, high power and narrowband terahertz sources. In this review, the recent progress of tunable terahertz sources based on the difference frequency generation in the last five years is reviewed, including the two fields of optical laser-based difference frequency sources and quantum cascade laser-based difference frequency sources. For the former class, the experimental results from reports with different difference frequency sources and several typical nonlinear crystals are classified, and the corresponding experimental techniques and results are introduced. For terahertz wave generation, different optical difference frequency sources by a dual-wavelength laser, double laser, a laser and an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), the signal and idler waves of an OPO, and double OPOs are demonstrated in increasing their tunabilities. Significant progress has been made in the nonlinear crystals used to generate terahertz wave by the difference frequency process, for example, by improving the property of inorganic crystals with ion doping, taking advantage of waveguide and PPLN structures, and especially developing novel nonlinear organic crystals. For the quantum cascade laser-based difference frequency sources, the latest advances in the techniques of difference frequency generation and wavelength tunability are presented. GaAs-based terahertz quantum cascade lasers are powerful semiconductor THz sources but cryogenic cooling is still a necessity. Recently, difference frequency generation was combined with the mid-infrared quantum cascade laser technology, thus becoming a leading room temperature semiconductor source in the terahertz range. To improve the frequency tuning range in the difference frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser, wavelength tuning techniques of the inner cavity and the external cavity have been developed. The difference frequency generation quantum cascade terahertz laser source has been the only technique workable at room temperature for the quantum cascade laser so far, which opens the door for developing the compact and widely tunable room temperature terahertz sources.
      通信作者: 柴路, lu_chai@tju.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号: 2011CB808101, 2014CB339800)、国家自然科学基金(批准号: 61377041, 61377047, 61322502)、教育部长江学者和创新团队发展计划(批准号: IRT13033)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Chai Lu, lu_chai@tju.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB808101, 2014CB339800), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61377041, 61377047, 61322502), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT13033).
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2015-12-22
  • 修回日期:  2016-01-21
  • 刊出日期:  2016-04-05

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