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强场隧穿电离模式下的氦原子电离时间问题研究

王艳海

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强场隧穿电离模式下的氦原子电离时间问题研究

王艳海

Ionization time of He atom in the strong field tunnelling ionization mode

Wang Yan-Hai
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  • 电子隧穿电离动力学在阿秒物理学领域具有极为重要的作用,电子隧穿电离时间是该领域的最基本问题之一,在理论和实验上仍然存在着广泛的争议. 本文通过数值求解含时薛定谔方程,计算了阶跃强激光场作用下He原子中单电子隧穿电离时间,计算结果表明电子隧穿合成势垒的最大概率流密度时间和基态波函数演化到连续态的时间与Keldysh时间非常接近. 讨论了电子隧穿时间为什么不能定义为最大电离率和激光峰值之间的延时的原因. 相比其他文献给出的隧穿时间定义,基态波函数演化到连续态的时间与实际的电离过程更为相符,把该时间定义为电子隧穿合成势垒的时间更为确切. 根据本文的分析结果,提出了采用光场合成技术测量电子实际的隧穿电离时间的实验方案.
    The question of how long it takes for a particle to tunnel through a barrier, which was first put forward by MacColl (Phys. Rev. 40 621 (1932)), belongs to the fundamental process of quantum physics and has been the subject of intense debate since then. Many efforts have been devoted to addressing this question about how to define, explain and measure this tunneling time, but widespread controversies still exist in theories and experiments. Attosecond physics offers insights into ultrafast electron dynamics in atoms and moleculars on the attosecond (10-18 s) timescales, and therefore, ionization of atoms or moleculars in a strong laser filed allows for tackling this question in an experimentally and conceptually well-defined manner. The tunneling ionization dynamics of electrons plays an extremely important role in the field, since tunneling is the first crucial step in strong field ionizations of atoms and molecules and underlies virtually all present experiments in attosecond science. In the present paper, the tunneling ionization time of a single-active electron tunneling through a He atom subjected to a step static electric field, defined as a nonvanishing positive time delay between the instant of switch-on of the step static electric field and the one of ionization, is obtained from the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrdinger equation in one dimension. The results show that the time delay between the instant of maximum probability current at the potential barrier exit and the one of switch-on of the step static electric field and the time delay needed by the ground wave function evolving to the continuum, which can be expressed as the transition element of the incident and transmitted parts of the wave function, are both very close to the Keldysh time explained as the time it takes for the bound electron having velocity = iIp/2 to cross the tunneling barrier. Compared with the definition of tunneling time delay in other literature, the one of the ground wave function evolution to the continuous state is much consistent with the actual ionization process. The reason why the electron tunneling time cannot be defined as the time delay between the maximum ionization rate and the instant of the laser peak field is that the wave function could penetrate the tunneling barrier earlier if a few-cycle optical field is adopted in experiment. According to the analysis in this article, an experimental method of measuring the actual electron tunneling ionization time using the optical field synthesis technique is proposed. The results of this paper will be helpful in tackling the problem of tunneling time in strong ionization.
      通信作者: 王艳海, wangyanhai@hotmail.com
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:11504081)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Wang Yan-Hai, wangyanhai@hotmail.com
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11504081).
    [1]

    Maccoll L A 1932 Phys. Rev. 40 621

    [2]

    Keldysh L {1965 Sov. Phys. JETP 20 1307

    [3]

    Perelomov A, Popov V, Terent'ev M {1966 Sov. Phys. JETP 23 924

    [4]

    Bttiker M, Landauer R {1985 Phys. Scr. 49 711

    [5]

    Landauer R, Martin T 1994 Rev. Mod. Phys. 66 217

    [6]

    Yamada N 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 170401

    [7]

    Eckle P, Pfeiffer A, Cirelli C, Staudte A, Drner R, Muller H, Bttiker M, Keller U 2008 Science 322 1525

    [8]

    Pfeiffer A N, Cirelli C, Smolarski M, Dimitrovski D, Abu-Samha M, Madsen L B, Keller U 2011 Nature Phys. 8 76

    [9]

    Shafir D, Soifer H, Bruner B D, Dagan M, Mairesse Y, Patchkovskii S, Ivanov M Y, Smirnova O, Dudovich N. 2012 Nature 485 343

    [10]

    Mcdonald C R, Orlando G, Vampa G, Brabec T 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 090405

    [11]

    Hassan M T, Luu T, Moulet A, Raskazovskaya O, Zhokhov P, Garg M, Karpowicz N, Zheltikov A, Pervak V, Krausz F 2016 Nature 530 66

    [12]

    Krausz F, Ivanov M 2009 Rev. Mod. Phys. 81 163

    [13]

    Corkum P B 2011 Phys. Today 64 36

    [14]

    Luo X Y, Liu H F, Ben S, Liu X S 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 123201 (in Chinese) [罗香怡, 刘海凤, 贲帅, 刘学深 2016 物理学报 65 123201]

    [15]

    Liu Y, Jia C, Guo F M, Yang Y J 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 033201 (in Chinese) [刘艳, 贾成, 郭福明, 杨玉军 2016 物理学报 65 033201]

    [16]

    Schultze M, Fie M, Karpowicz N, Gagnon J, Korbman M, Hofstetter M, Neppl S, Cavalieri A L, Komninos Y, Mercouris T 2010 Science 328 1658

    [17]

    Goulielmakis E, Loh Z H, Wirth A, Santra R, Rohringer N, Yakovlev V S, Zherebtsov S, Pfeifer T, Azzeer A M, Kling M F 2010 Nature 466 739

    [18]

    Gallmann L, Landsman A, Weger M, Maurer J, Boge R, Ludwig A, Heuser S, Cirelli C, Keller U 2013 Conference on and International Quantum Electronics Conference San Jose, Califonia, United States, June 9-14, 2013 p1

    [19]

    Landsman A S, Keller U 2015 Phys. Rep. 547 1

    [20]

    Zhao J, Lein M 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 043901

    [21]

    Su Q, Eberly J H 1991 Phys. Rev. A 44 5997

    [22]

    Lehtovaara L, Toivanen J, Eloranta J 2007 J. Comput. Phys. 221 148

    [23]

    Zhang G T 2011 Ph. D. Dissertation (Jilin: Jilin University) (in Chinese) [张刚台 2011 博士学位论文 (吉林: 吉林大学)]

    [24]

    Feit M, Fleck J, Steiger A 1982 J. Comput. Phys. 47 412

    [25]

    Teeny N, Yakaboylu E, Bauke H, Keitel C H 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 063003

    [26]

    Feynman R P, Hibbs A R (Translated by Zhang B G) 1986 Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals (Beijing: Science Press) pp171-178 (in Chinese) [费曼, 希布斯 著 (张邦固 译) 1986 量子力学与路径积分 (北京: 科学出版社) 第171-178页]

    [27]

    Landsman A S, Keller U 2014 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47 204024

    [28]

    Yudin G L, Ivanov M Y {2001 Phys. Rev. A 64 289

    [29]

    Orlando G, Mcdonald C R, Protik N H, Vampa G, Brabec T {2014 J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 47 44

    [30]

    Pfeiffer A N, Cirelli C, Smolarski M, Keller U 2013 Chem. Phys. 414 84

    [31]

    Wirth A, Hassan M T, Grgura I, Gagnon J, Moulet A, Luu T, Pabst S, Santra R, Alahmed Z, Azzeer A 2011 Science 334 195

    [32]

    Hassan M T, Wirth A, Grguras I, Moulet A, Luu T, Gagnon J, Pervak V, Goulielmakis E 2012 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83 111301

  • [1]

    Maccoll L A 1932 Phys. Rev. 40 621

    [2]

    Keldysh L {1965 Sov. Phys. JETP 20 1307

    [3]

    Perelomov A, Popov V, Terent'ev M {1966 Sov. Phys. JETP 23 924

    [4]

    Bttiker M, Landauer R {1985 Phys. Scr. 49 711

    [5]

    Landauer R, Martin T 1994 Rev. Mod. Phys. 66 217

    [6]

    Yamada N 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 170401

    [7]

    Eckle P, Pfeiffer A, Cirelli C, Staudte A, Drner R, Muller H, Bttiker M, Keller U 2008 Science 322 1525

    [8]

    Pfeiffer A N, Cirelli C, Smolarski M, Dimitrovski D, Abu-Samha M, Madsen L B, Keller U 2011 Nature Phys. 8 76

    [9]

    Shafir D, Soifer H, Bruner B D, Dagan M, Mairesse Y, Patchkovskii S, Ivanov M Y, Smirnova O, Dudovich N. 2012 Nature 485 343

    [10]

    Mcdonald C R, Orlando G, Vampa G, Brabec T 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 090405

    [11]

    Hassan M T, Luu T, Moulet A, Raskazovskaya O, Zhokhov P, Garg M, Karpowicz N, Zheltikov A, Pervak V, Krausz F 2016 Nature 530 66

    [12]

    Krausz F, Ivanov M 2009 Rev. Mod. Phys. 81 163

    [13]

    Corkum P B 2011 Phys. Today 64 36

    [14]

    Luo X Y, Liu H F, Ben S, Liu X S 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 123201 (in Chinese) [罗香怡, 刘海凤, 贲帅, 刘学深 2016 物理学报 65 123201]

    [15]

    Liu Y, Jia C, Guo F M, Yang Y J 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 033201 (in Chinese) [刘艳, 贾成, 郭福明, 杨玉军 2016 物理学报 65 033201]

    [16]

    Schultze M, Fie M, Karpowicz N, Gagnon J, Korbman M, Hofstetter M, Neppl S, Cavalieri A L, Komninos Y, Mercouris T 2010 Science 328 1658

    [17]

    Goulielmakis E, Loh Z H, Wirth A, Santra R, Rohringer N, Yakovlev V S, Zherebtsov S, Pfeifer T, Azzeer A M, Kling M F 2010 Nature 466 739

    [18]

    Gallmann L, Landsman A, Weger M, Maurer J, Boge R, Ludwig A, Heuser S, Cirelli C, Keller U 2013 Conference on and International Quantum Electronics Conference San Jose, Califonia, United States, June 9-14, 2013 p1

    [19]

    Landsman A S, Keller U 2015 Phys. Rep. 547 1

    [20]

    Zhao J, Lein M 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 043901

    [21]

    Su Q, Eberly J H 1991 Phys. Rev. A 44 5997

    [22]

    Lehtovaara L, Toivanen J, Eloranta J 2007 J. Comput. Phys. 221 148

    [23]

    Zhang G T 2011 Ph. D. Dissertation (Jilin: Jilin University) (in Chinese) [张刚台 2011 博士学位论文 (吉林: 吉林大学)]

    [24]

    Feit M, Fleck J, Steiger A 1982 J. Comput. Phys. 47 412

    [25]

    Teeny N, Yakaboylu E, Bauke H, Keitel C H 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 063003

    [26]

    Feynman R P, Hibbs A R (Translated by Zhang B G) 1986 Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals (Beijing: Science Press) pp171-178 (in Chinese) [费曼, 希布斯 著 (张邦固 译) 1986 量子力学与路径积分 (北京: 科学出版社) 第171-178页]

    [27]

    Landsman A S, Keller U 2014 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47 204024

    [28]

    Yudin G L, Ivanov M Y {2001 Phys. Rev. A 64 289

    [29]

    Orlando G, Mcdonald C R, Protik N H, Vampa G, Brabec T {2014 J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 47 44

    [30]

    Pfeiffer A N, Cirelli C, Smolarski M, Keller U 2013 Chem. Phys. 414 84

    [31]

    Wirth A, Hassan M T, Grgura I, Gagnon J, Moulet A, Luu T, Pabst S, Santra R, Alahmed Z, Azzeer A 2011 Science 334 195

    [32]

    Hassan M T, Wirth A, Grguras I, Moulet A, Luu T, Gagnon J, Pervak V, Goulielmakis E 2012 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83 111301

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2016-04-24
  • 修回日期:  2016-05-27
  • 刊出日期:  2016-08-05

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