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石墨烯纳米带的制备与电学特性调控

张辉 蔡晓明 郝振亮 阮子林 卢建臣 蔡金明

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石墨烯纳米带的制备与电学特性调控

张辉, 蔡晓明, 郝振亮, 阮子林, 卢建臣, 蔡金明

Fabrication and electrical engineering of graphene nanoribbons

Zhang Hui, Cai Xiao-Ming, Hao Zhen-Liang, Ruan Zi-Lin, Lu Jian-Chen, Cai Jin-Ming
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  • 石墨烯由于其独特的晶体结构展现出了特殊的电学特性,其导带与价带相交于第一布里渊区的六个顶点处,形成带隙为零的半金属材料,具有优异的电子传输特性的同时也限制了其在电子学器件中的使用.因而科研人员尝试各种方法来打开其带隙并调控其能带特性,主要有利用缺陷、应力、掺杂、表面吸附、结构调控等手段.其中石墨烯纳米带由于量子边界效应和限制效应,存在带隙.本综述主要介绍了制备各类石墨烯纳米带的方法,并通过精确调控其细微结构,从而对其进行精确的能带调控,改变其电学特性,为其在电子学器件中的应用提供一些可行的方向.
    Graphene, as a typical representative of advanced materials, exhibits excellent electronical properties due to its unique and unusual crystal structure. The valence band and conduction band of pristine graphene meet at the corners of the Brillouin zone, leading to a half-metal material with zero bandgap. However, although the extraordinary electronical properties make graphene possess excellent electrical conductivity, it also restricts its applications in electronic devices, which usually needs an appropriate bandgap. Therefore, opening and tuning the bandgap of graphene has aroused great scientific interest. To date, many efforts have been made to open the bandgap of graphene, including defects, strain, doping, surface adsorptions, structure tunning, etc. Among these methods, graphene nanoribbon, the quasi-one-dimensional strips of graphene with finite width ( 10 nm) and high aspect ratios, possesses a band gap opening at the Dirac point due to the quantum confinement effects. Thus, graphene nanoribbon has been considered as one of the most promising candidates for the future electronic devices due to its unique electronic and magnetic properties. Specifically, the band gap of graphene nanoribbons is strongly dependent on the lateral size and the edge geometry, which has attracted tremendous attention. Furthermore, it has been reported that armchair graphene nanoribbons possess gaps inversely proportional to their width, and numerous efforts have been devoted to fabricating the graphene nanoribbons with different widths by top-down or bottom-up approaches. Moreover, based on the on-surface reaction, the bottom-up approach shows the capability of controlling the width and edge structures, and it is almost contamination-free processing, which is suitable to performing further characterizations. Ultra-high-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope is a valid tool to fabricate and characterize the graphene nanorribons, and it can also obtain the band structure information when combined with the scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Taking the advantage of the bottom-up synthetic technique, the nearly perfect graphene nanoribbons can be fabricated based on the organic molecule reaction on surface, which is a promising strategy to study the original electronic properties. To precisely tuning the band engineering of graphene nanoribbons, the researchers have adopted various effective methods, such as changing the widths and topological morphologies of graphene nanoribbons, doping the graphene nanoribbons with heteroatoms, fabricating the heterojunctions under a controlable condition. The precise control of graphene synthesis is therefore crucial for probing their fundamental physical properties. Here we highlight the methods of fabricating the graphene nanoribbons and the precise tuning of graphene bandgap structure in order to provide a feasible way to put them into application.
      通信作者: 蔡金明, j.cai@kmust.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:11674136)和云南省中青年学术带头人预备人才项目(批准号:2017HB010)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Cai Jin-Ming, j.cai@kmust.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11674136) and the Preparatory Talent Project for the Academic Leaders of Yunnan Province, China (Contract No. 2017HB010).
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  • [1]

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    [4]

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    [6]

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    [7]

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    [8]

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    [9]

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    [14]

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    [15]

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    [16]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-08-29
  • 修回日期:  2017-09-25
  • 刊出日期:  2017-11-05

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