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1.5 T关节磁共振成像超导磁体的设计、制作与测试

杜晓纪 王为民 兰贤辉 李超

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1.5 T关节磁共振成像超导磁体的设计、制作与测试

杜晓纪, 王为民, 兰贤辉, 李超

Design, fabrication and test of superconducting magnet for 1.5 T dedicated extremity magnetic resonance imaging system

Du Xiao-Ji, Wang Wei-Min, Lan Xian-Hui, Li Chao
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  • 磁共振成像(magnetic resonance imaging,MRI)是当今世界上最先进的医学影像技术之一,现阶段MRI技术正朝着成像质量更清晰、功能更强大、效率更高、个体化更强的趋势发展.与全身MRI设备相比,专科型MRI设备具有体积小、重量轻、成本低、病人舒适度高、成像质量高、功能更强等优点.但是关节专用超导MRI系统需要长度方向上被严格限制的超导磁体在160 mm直径球域(diameter sphere volume,DSV)内产生高均匀度的磁场.本文综合考虑了超导线用量、中心磁感应强度和成像区磁场不均匀度等因素,使用0-1规划和遗传算法相结合的方法设计了一种非屏蔽型1.5 T关节MRI超导磁体,该磁体的室温孔径为280 mm,总长度为520 mm,液氦量为30 L,载流区最大磁场为5.48 T,5高斯线范围为径向3.2 m、轴向2.6 m,160 mm DSV的磁场不均匀度设计值为22 ppm,考虑加工误差及冷缩因素,磁体加工完成并经过被动匀场后的预估值为60 ppm.经过绕制、固化、组装、焊接等工序,该磁体已制作完成.经过3次锻炼后成功励磁到1.5 T,经过被动匀场后160 mm DSV的磁场不均匀度达到50 ppm,各项指标均达到设计目标.
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been a primary diagnostic technique due to its high imaging quality, noninvasion and non-radiation capacity. However, the application of conventional whole body MRI is restricted by its massive size, high installation and management cost. Dedicated MRI overcomes the shortcomings of whole body MRI and has great importance in medical diagnosis. The challenge is that the design of superconducting magnet for extremity MRI is largely constrained by physiological structure of human body. As a result, a limited longitudinal length with high field homogeneity in a 160 mm diameter sphere volume (DSV) is required for superconducting magnet of extremity MRI. In this article, a non-shielded 1.5 T extremity dedicated superconducting magnet is designed by using both 0-1 integer programming and genetic algorithm and fabricated with a comprehensive consideration of superconductivity wire consumption, central magnetic field intensity and imaging region homogeneity. The NbTi superconducting wire is chosen for coil winding, and copper-to-superconducting ratio of the wire is 1.3. The sizes of cross-section of the bare wire and the insulated wire are 0.75 mm×1.20 mm and 0.83 mm×1.28 mm respectively, and the critical currents at 4.2 K and 5 T are both about 935 A.According to the size constraint of the magnet, we first calculate the current carrying zone of the superconducting coils and divide it into grid elements with parallel current. The size of each grid element is equal to that of the superconducting wire, and the distribution of non-rectangular coils is obtained by using 0-1 integer programming. In order to obtain a higher homogeneity of magnetic field, a reverse current zone is manually created in the wide blank area of the feasible current carrying zone. Using the results above, we then optimize the distribution of coils and build a rectangular model which facilitates the fabrication by using genetic algorithm. The inductance of the magnet is 1.8094 H, the operating current is 402.09 A, the stored energy is 146.27 kJ and the peak magnetic field of current carrying zone is 5.48 T. The calculated peak-to-peak homogeneity in 160 mm DSV is about 22 ppm. Taking into consideration the factors such as mechanical error and cold shrinkage, the estimated homogeneity would reach 60 ppm (peak-to-peak) with passive shimming.The 1.5 T extremity dedicated superconducting magnet is successfully fabricated through a series of processes such as winding, curing, assembly and welding. The prototype magnet has a room temperature bore of 280 mm in diameter and a total length of 520 mm, and the volume of liquid helium vessel is about 30 liters. To reduce the evaporation of liquid helium, a 1.5 Watt two-stage Gifford-McMahon refrigerator is employed to cool the system and maintain the evaporation rate of Helium at zero level. The range of 5 Gauss line of the magnet is 3.2 m in the radial direction and 2.6 m in the axial direction. Moreover, the magnet is magnetized to 1.5 T after being conditioned three times and the measured homogeneity in 160 mm DSV achieves 55 ppm (peak-to-peak) and 3.4 ppm (Vrms) after passive shimming using silicon steel pieces.
      通信作者: 王为民, wmw@pku.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:51477168)、国家自然科学基金重点项目(批准号:61531002)、国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号:2015CB250902)和中国科学院B类先导科技专项培育项目(批准号:XDPB01)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Wang Wei-Min, wmw@pku.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51477168), the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61531002), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB250902), and the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDPB01).
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    Lvovsky Y, Jarvis P 2005 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15 1317

    [2]

    Cosmus T, Parich M 2011 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21 2104

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    Lvovsky Y, Stautner E, Zhang T 2013 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 26 093001

    [4]

    Kitaguchi H, Ozaki O, Miyazaki T, Ayai N, Sato K, Urayama S, Fukuyama H 2010 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 20 710

    [5]

    Ling J, Voccio J, Hahn S, Kim Y, Song J, Bascunan J, Iwasa Y 2015 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 25 4601705

    [6]

    Slade R, Parkinson B, Walsh R 2014 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 24 4400705

    [7]

    Cheng Y, Brown R, Thompson M, Eagan T, Shvartsman S 2004 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 14 2008

    [8]

    Cavaliere V, Formisano A, Martone R, Primizia M 2000 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 10 1376

    [9]

    Campelo F, Noguchi S, Igarashi H 2006 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 16 1316

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    Tieng Q, Vegh V, Brereton I 2009 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19 3645

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    Du X, Wang W 2014 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 24 4402104

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-07-19
  • 修回日期:  2017-08-31
  • 刊出日期:  2017-12-05

1.5 T关节磁共振成像超导磁体的设计、制作与测试

  • 1. 中国科学院应用超导重点实验室, 北京 100190;
  • 2. 中国科学院电工研究所, 北京 100190;
  • 3. 北京大学信息科学技术学院, 北京 100871;
  • 4. 西安聚能超导磁体科技有限公司, 西安 710018
  • 通信作者: 王为民, wmw@pku.edu.cn
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:51477168)、国家自然科学基金重点项目(批准号:61531002)、国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号:2015CB250902)和中国科学院B类先导科技专项培育项目(批准号:XDPB01)资助的课题.

摘要: 磁共振成像(magnetic resonance imaging,MRI)是当今世界上最先进的医学影像技术之一,现阶段MRI技术正朝着成像质量更清晰、功能更强大、效率更高、个体化更强的趋势发展.与全身MRI设备相比,专科型MRI设备具有体积小、重量轻、成本低、病人舒适度高、成像质量高、功能更强等优点.但是关节专用超导MRI系统需要长度方向上被严格限制的超导磁体在160 mm直径球域(diameter sphere volume,DSV)内产生高均匀度的磁场.本文综合考虑了超导线用量、中心磁感应强度和成像区磁场不均匀度等因素,使用0-1规划和遗传算法相结合的方法设计了一种非屏蔽型1.5 T关节MRI超导磁体,该磁体的室温孔径为280 mm,总长度为520 mm,液氦量为30 L,载流区最大磁场为5.48 T,5高斯线范围为径向3.2 m、轴向2.6 m,160 mm DSV的磁场不均匀度设计值为22 ppm,考虑加工误差及冷缩因素,磁体加工完成并经过被动匀场后的预估值为60 ppm.经过绕制、固化、组装、焊接等工序,该磁体已制作完成.经过3次锻炼后成功励磁到1.5 T,经过被动匀场后160 mm DSV的磁场不均匀度达到50 ppm,各项指标均达到设计目标.

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