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一种聚焦型X射线探测器在轨性能标定方法

周庆勇 魏子卿 姜坤 邓楼楼 刘思伟 姬剑锋 任红飞 王奕迪 马高峰

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一种聚焦型X射线探测器在轨性能标定方法

周庆勇, 魏子卿, 姜坤, 邓楼楼, 刘思伟, 姬剑锋, 任红飞, 王奕迪, 马高峰

A method of calibrating effective area of focusing X-ray detector by using normal spectrum of Crab pulsar

Zhou Qing-Yong, Wei Zi-Qing, Jiang Kun, Deng Lou-Lou, Liu Si-Wei, Ji Jian-Feng, Ren Hong-Fei, Wang Yi-Di, Ma Gao-Feng
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  • X射线探测器是X射线天文观测及脉冲星导航的核心器件,受发射振动、高能粒子辐射损伤及元器件老化等影响,X射线探测器空间观测性能会逐渐变化,X射线探测器在轨标定有利于观测天体X射线辐射信息的准确获取及精确建模.研究利用了脉冲星辐射能谱标定X射线探测器性能的方法,能较好地消除探测器本底及空间环境噪声的影响,通过处理脉冲星导航试验卫星(XPNAV-1卫星)的Crab脉冲星观测数据,评估了我国首款聚焦型X射线探测器的在轨性能.计算结果表明,XPNAV-1卫星上聚焦型X射线探测器的有效面积在0.6–1.9 keV能段内优于2 cm2,其中在0.7 keV能量处取得最大值3.06 cm2,探测效率约10%;有效面积随着探测能量增大而减小,在2–3.5 keV能段内有效面积约为1 cm2,而大于5 keV能段的有效面积约为0.1 cm2,且此能段估计精度明显受光子统计误差影响.同时研究了考虑能量响应矩阵的探测器有效面积标定新方法,利用地面性能测试中五个特征能谱处的能量分辨率重构其能量响应矩阵,重新标定了聚焦型X射线探测器有效面积,发现该能量响应矩阵对结果影响较小.最后建议观测某些超新星遗迹监测能量分辨率及能量线性等指标的变化.
    X-ray detector is a core component for X-ray astronomical observation and pulsar navigation.The on-orbit observation performance of X-ray detector will change gradually,owing to the influences of emission vibration,radiation damage of high-energy particles,and the aging of the components.The on-orbit calibration of X-ray detector facilitates the accurate acquisition and the precise modeling of X-ray radiation of the observation celestial bodies.In this paper a new method of calibrating the performance of X-ray detector is studied by using the radiation spectrum of the pulsar, which can effectively eliminate the influences from detector background and space environment noise.The on-orbit performance of the first focusing X-ray detector in China has been evaluated by analyzing the observations of the X-ray pulsar-based navigation satellite-1(XPNAV-1) for the Crab pulsar.The XPNAV-1 was launched in November 2016, with the aim of conducting the test of the feasibility of applying the regular emission of X-ray signals from pulsars to spacecraft navigation.Now,the first batch of scientific data about the Crab pulsar observations gained by the focusing X-ray detector for almost one month has been released.The pulse profiles of 124 observations and the total observational spectrum of Crab pulsar are achieved from those data.According to the international accurate X-ray radiation parameters of Crab pulsar,which have been determined by other X-ray space satellites,together with the absorption effect of the neutral hydrogen gas in the universe,the effective area of the focusing X-ray detector is estimated.The result shows that the effective area of the focusing X-ray detector on XPNAV-1 in an energy range of 0.6-1.9 keV is better than 2 cm2.The maximum effective area is 3.06 cm2 at an energy of 0.7 keV,which means that its detection efficiency is about 10%.As the observed energy increases,the effective area decreases.The area of the focusing X-ray detector in an energy range of 2-3.5 keV is about 1 cm2,and it is about 0.1 cm2 at energies above 5 keV,and its estimation accuracy is affected seriously by the statistical errors of X-ray photons.At the same time,another method of calibrating the effective area is studied by considering the energy response matrix of detector.The energy response matrix of the focusing X-ray detector is estimated by using the five ground test values of energy resolution.The effective area of the focusing X-ray detector is re-calibrated.However,the result shows that the energy response matrix exerts little effect on the effective area of the focusing X-ray detector.Finally,we suggest that the XPNAV-1 should observe some supernova remnants to monitor the changes of energy resolution and energy linearity and so on.
      通信作者: 周庆勇, zjlzqy1986@163.com
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:41374003,41304006,41574013,41374042)资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Zhou Qing-Yong, zjlzqy1986@163.com
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41374003, 41304006, 41574013, 41374042).
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    Zhang S N 2012 Science in China G 42 1308 (in Chinese) [张双南 2012 中国科学: 物理学 力学 天文学 42 1308]

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    Andrew L, Francis G S 2006 Pulsar Astronomy (3rd Ed.) (London: Cambridge University Press)

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    Wang S G, Zhou Y Y 1999 X-Ray Astrophysics (Beijing: Science Press) (in Chinese) [王绶琯, 周又元 1999 X射线天体物理学 (北京: 科学出版社)]

    [4]

    Lorimer D R, Kramer M 2005 Handbook of Pulsar Astronomy (London: Cambridge University Press)

    [5]

    Shuai P, Li M, Chen S L, Huang Z 2009 The Principle and Methods of X-Ray Pulsar Navigation System (Beijing: China Aerospace Press) (in Chinese) [帅平, 李明, 陈绍龙, 黄震 2009 X射线脉冲星导航系统原理与方法 (北京: 中国宇航出版社)]

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    Zheng S J, Ge M Y, Han D W, Wang W B, Chen Y, Lu F J, Bao T W, Chai J Y, Dong Y W, Feng M Z, He J J, Huang Y, Kong M N, Li H C, Li L, Li Z H, Liu J T, Liu X, Shi H L, Song L M, Sun J C, Wang R J, Wang Y H, Wen X, Wu B B, Xiao H L, Xiong S L, Xu H H, Xu M, Zhang J, Zhang L Y, Zhang L, Zhang X F, Zhang Y J, Zhao Y, Zhang S N 2017 Science China-Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy 47 099505 (in Chinese) [郑世界, 葛明玉, 韩大炜, 王文彬, 陈勇, 卢方军, 鲍天威, 柴军营, 董永伟, 冯旻子, 贺健健, 黄跃, 孔敏南, 李汉成, 李陆, 李正恒, 刘江涛, 刘鑫, 师昊礼, 宋黎明, 孙建超, 王瑞杰, 王源浩, 文星, 吴伯冰, 肖华林, 熊少林, 许寒晖, 徐明, 张娟, 张来宇, 张力, 张晓峰, 张永杰, 赵一, 张双南 2017 中国科学: 物理学 力学 天文学 47 099505]

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    Wang Y D, Zheng W, Sun S M, et al. 2014 Aerospace Sci. Technol. 36 27

    [8]

    Sheikh S I 2005 Ph. D. Dissertation (Maryland: University of Maryland)

    [9]

    Shuai P, Zhang X Y, Huang L W, et al. 2017 Aerospace Control and Application 43 1 (in Chinese) [帅平, 张新源, 黄良伟 2017 空间控制技术与应用 43 1]

    [10]

    Huang L W, Shuai P, Zhang X Y, Chen S L, Xu L H, Yang Z, Deng L L, Chen J W, Shi Y Q, Xue L J, Ding Q Q, Wu Y J, Bei X M, Meng J, Lin Q Q, Chen Q, Zhang Q, Zhang H B 2017 Chinese Space Science and Technology 37 1 (in Chinese) [黄良伟, 帅平, 张新源,陈绍龙, 徐立宏, 杨哲, 邓楼楼, 陈建武, 石永强, 薛力军, 丁强强, 吴耀军, 贝晓敏, 蒙静, 林晴晴, 陈强, 张倩, 张恒彬 2017 中国空间科学技术 37 1]

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    Zhao D C 2016 Ph.D. Dissertation (Changchun: Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, CAS) (in Chinese) [赵大春 2016 博士学位论文 (长春: 中国科学院长春光学精密机械与物理研究所)]

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    Ren H F 2011 Ph.D. Dissertation (Zhengzhou: PLA Information Engineering University) (in Chinese) [任红飞 2011 博士学位论文 (郑州: 解放军信息工程大学)]

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    Zhou Q Y, Ji J F, Ren H F 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 139701 (in Chinese) [周庆勇. 姬剑锋, 任红飞 2013 物理学报 62 139701]

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    Li H C, Ge M Y, Wu B B 2017 35th International Cosmic Ray Conference–ICRC2017 Bexco, Busan, Korea July 10-20, 2017 P820

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    Ge M Y 2012 Ph.D. Dissertation (Beijing: Chinese Academy of Sciences) (in Chinese) [葛明玉 2012 博士学位论文 (北京: 中国科学院)]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-10-31
  • 修回日期:  2017-12-11
  • 刊出日期:  2018-03-05

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