搜索

x

留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

二维平面和范德瓦耳斯异质结的可控制备与光电应用

姚文乾 孙健哲 陈建毅 郭云龙 武斌 刘云圻

引用本文:
Citation:

二维平面和范德瓦耳斯异质结的可控制备与光电应用

姚文乾, 孙健哲, 陈建毅, 郭云龙, 武斌, 刘云圻

Controllable preparation and photoelectric applications of two-dimensional in-plane and van der Waals heterostructures

Yao Wen-Qian, Sun Jian-Zhe, Chen Jian-Yi, Guo Yun-Long, Wu Bin, Liu Yun-Qi
PDF
HTML
导出引用
  • 自石墨烯被发现以来, 二维材料因其优异的特性获得了持续且深入的探索与发展, 以石墨烯、六方氮化硼、过渡金属硫化物、黑磷等为代表的二维材料相关研究层出不穷. 随着二维新材料制备与应用探索的不断发展, 单一材料性能的不足逐渐凸显, 研究者们开始考虑采用平面拼接和层间堆垛所产生的协同效应来弥补单一材料的不足, 甚至获得一些新的性能. 利用二维材料晶格结构的匹配构建异质结, 实现特定的功能化, 或利用范德瓦耳斯力进行堆垛, 将不同二维材料排列组合, 从而在体系里引入新的自由度, 为二维材料的性质研究和实际应用打开了新的窗口. 本文从原子制造角度, 介绍了二维平面和范德瓦耳斯异质结材料的可控制备和光电应用. 首先简要介绍了应用于异质结制备的常见二维材料的分类及异质结的相关概念, 然后从原理上分类列举了常用的表征方法, 随后介绍了平面和垂直异质结的制备方法, 并对其光电性质及器件应用做了简要介绍. 最后, 对领域内存在的问题进行了讨论, 对未来发展方向做出了展望.
    Since the discovery of graphene, two-dimensional (2D) materials have received continuous attention and carried out in-depth exploration and development due to their excellent properties. With the exploration of the preparation of new 2D materials, one began to consider the synergistic effects produced by the in-plane junction and interlayer stacking to compensate for the defects of a single material and obtain some new properties. Matching the lattice structure to achieve specific functionalization, or using van der Waals force to achieve stacking, helps to introduce a new degree of freedom by combining different 2D materials, and open a new window for the research and practical application of 2D materials.From the perspective of atomic manufacturing, in this article we introduce the controllable preparation and optoelectronic applications of 2D planar and van der Waals heterojunction materials. First, we briefly introduce the common 2D materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus used in the preparation of heterojunctions and related concepts of heterojunctions. Second, we review, in principle, the commonly used characterization methods including scanning probe-based techniques, spectrum-based, electron-based imaging techniques and others. Third, we summarize the preparation methods of planar and vertical heterojunctions. Basically, mechanical transfer method such as wet or dry method can be used to produce various vertical heterostructures of 2D materials, but usually lack the scalability. On the other hand, chemical vapor deposition method provides a scalable route to producing the planar heterostructure and vertical structure of 2D materials. Several strategies have been developed to produce various heterostructures. In addition, the recent development of twist-angle and quasi-crystalline bi-layer graphene is briefly reviewed. Fourth, the properties and applications of 2D van der Waals heterostructures such as field-effect transistor, light emitting diode, solar cell, flexible optoelectronic devices and plasmonic applications are introduced. Finally, the problems in the field are discussed, and the outlook is provided.
      通信作者: 武斌, wubin@iccas.ac.cn ; 刘云圻, liuyq@iccas.ac.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号: 2016YFA0200101)、国家自然科学基金(批准号: 21633012, 61890940)、中国科学院先导B (批准号: XDB30000000)和中国科学院前沿科学重点研究计划(批准号: QYZDY-SSW-SLH029)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Wu Bin, wubin@iccas.ac.cn ; Liu Yun-Qi, liuyq@iccas.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0200101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21633012, 61890940), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. XDB30000000), and the CAS Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, China (Grant No. QYZDY-SSW-SLH029)
    [1]

    Geim A K, Grigorieva I V 2013 Nature 499 419Google Scholar

    [2]

    Cai Z, Liu B, Zou X, Cheng H M 2018 Chem. Rev. 118 6091Google Scholar

    [3]

    Britnell L, Gorbachev R V, Jalil R, Belle B D, Schedin F, Mishchenko A, Georgiou T, Katsnelson M I, Eaves L, Morozov S V, Peres N M R, Leist J, Geim A K, Novoselov K S, Ponomarenko L A 2012 Science 335 947Google Scholar

    [4]

    Liu Y, Weiss N O, Duan X, Cheng H C, Huang Y, Duan X 2016 Nat. Rev. Mater. 1 1

    [5]

    Yao W, Wu B, Liu Y 2020 ACS Nano 14 9320Google Scholar

    [6]

    姚文乾, 孙健哲, 陈建毅, 武斌, 刘云圻 2020 科学通报 65Google Scholar

    Yao W Q, Sun J Z, Chen J Y, Wu B, Liu Y Q 2020 Sci. Bull. 65Google Scholar

    [7]

    Novoselov K S, Fal'ko V I, Colombo L, Gellert P R, Schwab M G, Kim K 2012 Nature 490 192Google Scholar

    [8]

    Zhang Y, Tang T T, Girit C, Hao Z, Martin M C, Zettl A, Crommie M F, Shen Y R, Wang F 2009 Nature 459 820Google Scholar

    [9]

    Luican A, Li G, Reina A, Kong J, Nair R R, Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Andrei E Y 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 126802Google Scholar

    [10]

    Chittari B L, Chen G, Zhang Y, Wang F, Jung J 2019 Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 016401Google Scholar

    [11]

    Cao Y, Fatemi V, Fang S, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Kaxiras E, Jarillo-Herrero P 2018 Nature 556 43Google Scholar

    [12]

    Dean C R, Young A F, Meric I, Lee C, Wang L, Sorgenfrei S, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Kim P, Shepard K L, Hone J 2010 Nat. Nanotechnol. 5 722Google Scholar

    [13]

    Mak K F, Lee C, Hone J, Shan J, Heinz T F 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 136805Google Scholar

    [14]

    Pan Y, Folsch S, Nie Y, Waters D, Lin Y C, Jariwala B, Zhang K, Cho K, Robinson J A, Feenstra R M 2018 Nano Lett. 18 1849Google Scholar

    [15]

    Tran K, Moody G, Wu F, Lu X, Choi J, Kim K, Rai A, Sanchez D A, Quan J, Singh A, Embley J, Zepeda A, Campbell M, Autry T, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Lu N, Banerjee S K, Silverman K L, Kim S, Tutuc E, Yang L, MacDonald A H, Li X 2019 Nature 567 71Google Scholar

    [16]

    Seyler K L, Rivera P, Yu H, Wilson N P, Ray E L, Mandrus D G, Yan J, Yao W, Xu X 2019 Nature 567 66Google Scholar

    [17]

    Jin C, Regan E C, Yan A, Iqbal Bakti Utama M, Wang D, Zhao S, Qin Y, Yang S, Zheng Z, Shi S, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Tongay S, Zettl A, Wang F 2019 Nature 567 76Google Scholar

    [18]

    Alexeev E M, Ruiz-Tijerina D A, Danovich M, Hamer M J, Terry D J, Nayak P K, Ahn S, Pak S, Lee J, Sohn J I, Molas M R, Koperski M, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Novoselov K S, Gorbachev R V, Shin H S, Fal'ko V I, Tartakovskii A I 2019 Nature 567 81Google Scholar

    [19]

    Qiao J, Kong X, Hu Z X, Yang F, Ji W 2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4475Google Scholar

    [20]

    Liu H, Neal A T, Zhu Z, Luo Z, Xu X, Tománek D, Ye P D 2014 ACS Nano 8 4033Google Scholar

    [21]

    Mannix A J, Zhou X F, Kiraly B, Wood J D, Alducin D, Myers B D, Liu X l, Fisher B L, Santiago U, Guest J R, Yacaman M J, Ponce A, Oganov A R, Hersam M C, Guisinger N P 2015 Science 350 1513Google Scholar

    [22]

    Novoselov K S, Mishchenko A, Carvalho A, Castro Neto A H 2016 Science 353 aac9439Google Scholar

    [23]

    Das P, Fu Q, Bao X, Wu Z S 2018 J. Mater. Chem. A 6 21747Google Scholar

    [24]

    Woods C R, Britnell L, Eckmann A, Ma R S, Lu J C, Guo H M, Lin X, Yu G L, Cao Y, Gorbachev R V, Kretinin A V, Park J, Ponomarenko L A, Katsnelson M I, Gornostyrev Y N, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Casiraghi C, Gao H J, Geim A K, Novoselov K S 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 451Google Scholar

    [25]

    Melitz W, Shen J, Kummel A C, Lee S 2011 Surf. Sci. Rep. 66 1Google Scholar

    [26]

    Li H, Qi X, Wu J, Zeng Z, Wei J, Zhang H 2013 ACS Nano 7 2842Google Scholar

    [27]

    Zhang X, Tan Q H, Wu J B, Shi W, Tan P H 2016 Nanoscale 8 6435Google Scholar

    [28]

    Li M, Shi Y, Cheng C, Lu L, Lin Y, Tang H, Tsai M, Chu C W, Wei K H, He J H, Chang W H, Suenaga K, Li L J 2015 Science 349 524Google Scholar

    [29]

    Li H, Wu J B, Ran F, Lin M L, Liu X L, Zhao Y, Lu X, Xiong Q, Zhang J, Huang W, Zhang H, Tan P H 2017 ACS Nano 11 11714Google Scholar

    [30]

    Fang H, Battaglia C, Carraro C, Nemsak S, Ozdol B, Kang J S, Bechtel H A, Desai S B, Kronast F, Unal A A, Conti G, Conlon C, Palsson G K, Martin M C, Minor A M, Fadley C S, Yablonovitch E, Maboudian R, Javey A 2014 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111 6198Google Scholar

    [31]

    Muller D A 2009 Nat. Mater. 8 263Google Scholar

    [32]

    Zhao C, Wang X, Kong J, Ang J M, Lee P S, Liu Z, Lu X 2016 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8 2372Google Scholar

    [33]

    Zhang X Q, Lin C H, Tseng Y W, Huang K H, Lee Y H 2015 Nano Lett. 15 410Google Scholar

    [34]

    Krivanek O L, Chisholm M F, Nicolosi V, Pennycook T J, Corbin G J, Dellby N, Murfitt M F, Own C S, Szilagyi Z S, Oxley M P, Pantelides S T, Pennycook S J 2010 Nature 464 571Google Scholar

    [35]

    Wang L, Meric I, Huang P Y, Gao Q, Gao Y, Tran H, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Campos L M, Muller D A, Guo J, Kim P, Hone J, Shepard K L, Dean C R 2013 Science 342 614Google Scholar

    [36]

    Wang J, Liu D, Huang H, Yang N, Yu B, Wen M, Wang X, Chu P K, Yu X F 2018 Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 57 2600Google Scholar

    [37]

    Zhang K, Borys N J, Bersch B M, Bhimanapati G R, Xu K, Wang B, Wang K, Labella M, Williams T A, Haque M A, Barnard E S, Fullerton-Shirey S, Schuck P J, Robinson J A 2017 Sci. Rep. 7 16938Google Scholar

    [38]

    Gao T, Song X, Du H, Nie Y, Chen Y, Ji Q, Sun J, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Liu Z 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 6835Google Scholar

    [39]

    Zeng D, Xiao L, Ong W J, Wu P, Zheng H, Chen Y, Peng D L 2017 ChemSusChem 10 4624Google Scholar

    [40]

    Frank O, Dresselhaus M S, Kalbac M 2015 Acc. Chem. Res. 48 111Google Scholar

    [41]

    Pena-Alvarez M, del Corro E, Morales-Garcia A, Kavan L, Kalbac M, Frank O 2015 Nano Lett. 15 3139Google Scholar

    [42]

    Frisenda R, Navarro-Moratalla E, Gant P, Perez De Lara D, Jarillo-Herrero P, Gorbachev R V, Castellanos-Gomez A 2018 Chem. Soc. Rev. 47 53Google Scholar

    [43]

    Schneider G F, Calado V E, Zandbergen H, Vandersypen L M, Dekker C 2010 Nano Lett. 10 1912Google Scholar

    [44]

    Zomer P J, Dash S P, Tombros N, van Wees B J 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 232104Google Scholar

    [45]

    Pizzocchero F, Gammelgaard L, Jessen B S, Caridad J M, Wang L, Hone J, Boggild P, Booth T J 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 11894Google Scholar

    [46]

    Xu J, Singh S, Katoch J, Wu G, Zhu T, Zutic I, Kawakami R K 2018 Nat. Commun. 9 2869Google Scholar

    [47]

    Zomer P J, Guimarães M H D, Brant J C, Tombros N, van Wees B J 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 105 013101Google Scholar

    [48]

    Shim J, Bae S H, Kong W, Lee D, Qiao K, Nezich D, Park Y J, Zhao R, Sundaram S, Li X, Yeon H, Choi C, Kum H, Yue R, Zhou G, Ou Y, Lee K, Moodera J, Zhao X, Ahn J H, Hinkle C, Ougazzaden A, J K 2018 Science 362 665Google Scholar

    [49]

    Liu F, Wu W, Bai Y, Chae S H, Li Q, Wang J, Hone J, Zhu X Y 2020 Science 367 903Google Scholar

    [50]

    Haigh S J, Gholinia A, Jalil R, Romani S, Britnell L, Elias D C, Novoselov K S, Ponomarenko L A, Geim A K, Gorbachev R 2012 Nat. Mater. 11 764Google Scholar

    [51]

    Kretinin A V, Cao Y, Tu J S, Yu G L, Jalil R, Novoselov K S, Haigh S J, Gholinia A, Mishchenko A, Lozada M, Georgiou T, Woods C R, Withers F, Blake P, Eda G, Wirsig A, Hucho C, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Geim A K, Gorbachev R V 2014 Nano Lett. 14 3270Google Scholar

    [52]

    Chiu M H, Zhang C, Shiu H W, Chuu C P, Chen C H, Chang C Y, Chen C H, Chou M Y, Shih C K, Li L J 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 7666Google Scholar

    [53]

    Furchi M M, Pospischil A, Libisch F, Burgdorfer J, Mueller T 2014 Nano Lett. 14 4785Google Scholar

    [54]

    Huo N, Kang J, Wei Z, Li S S, Li J, Wei S H 2014 Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 7025Google Scholar

    [55]

    Chen P, Zhang T T, zhang J, Xiang J, Yu H, Wu S, Lu X, Wang G, Wen F, Liu Z, Yang R, Shi D, Zhang G 2016 Nanoscale 8 3254Google Scholar

    [56]

    Li D, Wang B, Chen M, Zhou J, Zhang Z 2017 Small 13 1603726Google Scholar

    [57]

    Ye L, Wang P, Luo W, Gong F, Liao L, Liu T, Tong L, Zang J, Xu J, Hu W 2017 Nano Energy 37 53Google Scholar

    [58]

    Yu L, Lee Y H, Ling X, Santos E J, Shin Y C, Lin Y, Dubey M, Kaxiras E, Kong J, Wang H, Palacios T 2014 Nano Lett. 14 3055Google Scholar

    [59]

    Roy K, Padmanabhan M, Goswami S, Sai T P, Ramalingam G, Raghavan S, Ghosh A 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 826Google Scholar

    [60]

    Loan P T, Zhang W, Lin C T, Wei K H, Li L J, Chen C H 2014 Adv. Mater. 26 4838Google Scholar

    [61]

    Georgiou T, Jalil R, Belle B D, Britnell L, Gorbachev R V, Morozov S V, Kim Y J, Gholinia A, Haigh S J, Makarovsky O, Eaves L, Ponomarenko L A, Geim A K, Novoselov K S, Mishchenko A 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 100Google Scholar

    [62]

    Wang J, Li Z, Chen H, Deng G, Niu X 2019 Nano-Micro Lett. 11 48Google Scholar

    [63]

    Ci L, Song L, Jin C, Jariwala D, Wu D, Li Y, Srivastava A, Wang Z F, Storr K, Balicas L, Liu F, Ajayan P M 2010 Nat. Mater. 9 430Google Scholar

    [64]

    Duan X, Wang C, Shaw J C, Cheng R, Chen Y, Li H, Wu X, Tang Y, Zhang Q, Pan A, Jiang J, Yu R, Huang Y, Duan X 2014 Nat. Nanotechnol. 9 1024Google Scholar

    [65]

    Gong Y, Lin J, Wang X, Shi G, Lei S, Lin Z, Zou X, Ye G, Vajtai R, Yakobson B I, Terrones H, Terrones M, Tay B K, Lou J, Pantelides S T, Liu Z, Zhou W, Ajayan P M 2014 Nat. Mater. 13 1135Google Scholar

    [66]

    Chen K, Wan X, Xie W, Wen J, Kang Z, Zeng X, Chen H, Xu J 2015 Adv. Mater. 27 6431Google Scholar

    [67]

    Levendorf M P, Kim C J, Brown L, Huang P Y, Havener R W, Muller D A, Park J 2012 Nature 488 627Google Scholar

    [68]

    Liu Z, Ma L, Shi G, Zhou W, Gong Y, Lei S, Yang X, Zhang J, Yu J, Hackenberg K P, Babakhani A, Idrobo J C, Vajtai R, Lou J, Ajayan P M 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 119Google Scholar

    [69]

    Han G H, Rodrı ′guez-Manzo J A, Lee C W, Kybert N J, Lerner M B, Qi Z J, Dattoli E N, Rappe A M, Drndic M, Johnson A T 2013 ACS Nano 7 10129Google Scholar

    [70]

    Liu L, Park J, Siegel D A, McCarty K F, Clark K W, Deng W, Basile L, Idrobo J C, Li A P, Gu G 2014 Science 343 163Google Scholar

    [71]

    Ling X, Lin Y, Ma Q, Wang Z, Song Y, Yu L, Huang S, Fang W, Zhang X, Hsu A L, Bie Y, Lee Y H, Zhu Y, Wu L, Li J, Jarillo-Herrero P, Dresselhaus M, Palacios T, Kong J 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 2322Google Scholar

    [72]

    Behranginia A, Yasaei P, Majee A K, Sangwan V K, Long F, Foss C J, Foroozan T, Fuladi S, Hantehzadeh M R, Shahbazian-Yassar R, Hersam M C, Aksamija Z, Salehi-Khojin A 2017 Small 13 1604301Google Scholar

    [73]

    Zheng C, Zhang Q, Weber B, Ilatikhameneh H, Chen F, Sahasrabudhe H, Rahman R, Li S, Chen Z, Hellerstedt J, Zhang Y, Duan W H, Bao Q, Fuhrer M S 2017 ACS Nano 11 2785Google Scholar

    [74]

    Sun J, Wang Y, Guo S, Wan B, Dong L, Gu Y, Song C, Pan C, Zhang Q, Gu L, Pan F, Zhang J 2020 Adv. Mater. 32 e1906499Google Scholar

    [75]

    Gong Y, Lei S, Ye G, Li B, He Y, Keyshar K, Zhang X, Wang Q, Lou J, Liu Z, Vajtai R, Zhou W, Ajayan P M 2015 Nano Lett. 15 6135Google Scholar

    [76]

    Chen K, Wan X, Wen J, Xie W, Kang Z, Zeng X, Chen H, Xu J B 2015 ACS Nano 9 9868Google Scholar

    [77]

    Chen X, Yang H, Wu B, Wang L, Fu Q, Liu Y 2019 Adv. Mater. 31 e1805582Google Scholar

    [78]

    Geng D, Dong J, Kee Ang L, Ding F, Yang H Y 2019 NPG Asia Mater. 11 56Google Scholar

    [79]

    Zhang Z, Chen P, Duan X, Zang K, Luo J, Duan X 2017 Science 357 788Google Scholar

    [80]

    Sahoo P K, Memaran S, Xin Y, Balicas L, Gutierrez H R 2018 Nature 553 63Google Scholar

    [81]

    Zhang C, Chen Y, Huang J K, Wu X, Li L J, Yao W, Tersoff J, Shih C K 2016 Nat. Commun. 6 10349

    [82]

    He Y, Sobhani A, Lei S, Zhang Z, Gong Y, Jin Z, Zhou W, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Wang X, Yakobson B, Vajtai R, Halas N J, Li B, Xie E, Ajayan P 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 5126Google Scholar

    [83]

    Mahjouri-Samani M, Lin M W, Wang K, Lupini A R, Lee J, Basile L, Boulesbaa A, Rouleau C M, Puretzky A A, Ivanov I N, Xiao K, Yoon M, Geohegan D B 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 7749Google Scholar

    [84]

    Afaneh T, Sahoo P K, Nobrega I A P, Xin Y, Gutiérrez H R 2018 Adv. Funct. Mater. 28 1802949Google Scholar

    [85]

    Yang S, Wang C, Sahin H, Chen H, Li Y, Li S S, Suslu A, Peeters F M, Liu Q, Li J, Tongay S 2015 Nano Lett. 15 1660Google Scholar

    [86]

    Reserbat-Plantey A, Kalita D, Han Z, Ferlazzo L, Autier-Laurent S, Komatsu K, Li C, Weil R, Ralko A, Marty L, Gueron S, Bendiab N, Bouchiat H, Bouchiat V 2014 Nano Lett. 14 5044Google Scholar

    [87]

    Tian Z, Zhao M, Xue X, Xia W, Guo C, Guo Y, Feng Y, Xue J 2018 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10 12831Google Scholar

    [88]

    Choudhary N, Islam M R, Kang N, Tetard L, Jung Y, Khondaker S I 2016 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28 364002Google Scholar

    [89]

    Liu Z, Song L, Zhao S, Huang J, Ma L, Zhang J, Lou J, Ajayan P M 2011 Nano Lett. 11 2032Google Scholar

    [90]

    Li Y, Qin J K, Xu C Y, Cao J, Sun Z Y, Ma L P, Hu P A, Ren W, Zhen L 2016 Adv. Funct. Mater. 26 4319Google Scholar

    [91]

    Yu W J, Liu Y, Zhou H, Yin A, Li Z, Huang Y, Duan X 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 952Google Scholar

    [92]

    Shi Y, Zhou W, Lu A Y, Fang W, Lee Y H, Hsu A L, Kim S M, Kim K K, Yang H Y, Li L J, Idrobo J C, Kong J 2012 Nano Lett. 12 2784Google Scholar

    [93]

    Seo J, Lee J, Jeong G, Park H 2019 Small 15 e1804133

    [94]

    Shi J, Liu M, Wen J, Ren X, Zhou X, Ji Q, Ma D, Zhang Y, Jin C, Chen H, Deng S, Xu N, Liu Z, Zhang Y 2015 Adv. Mater. 27 7086Google Scholar

    [95]

    Kim S, Kim Y C, Choi Y J, Woo H J, Song Y J, Kang M S, Lee C, Cho J H 2019 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11 35444Google Scholar

    [96]

    Zhang X, Zhang F, Wang Y, Schulman D S, Zhang T, Bansal A, Alem N, Das S, Crespi V H, Terrones M, Redwing J M 2019 ACS Nano 13 3341Google Scholar

    [97]

    Fu L, Sun Y, Wu N, Mendes R G, Chen L, Xu Z, Zhang T, Rummeli M H, Rellinghaus B, Pohl D, Zhuang L, Fu L 2016 ACS Nano 10 2063Google Scholar

    [98]

    Shanshan Wang, Xiaochen Wang, Warner J H 2015 ACS Nano 9 5246Google Scholar

    [99]

    Yan A, Velasco J Jr, Kahn S, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Wang F, Crommie M F, Zettl A 2015 Nano Lett. 15 6324Google Scholar

    [100]

    Cui X, Lee G H, Kim Y D, Arefe G, Huang P Y, Lee C H, Chenet D A, Zhang X, Wang L, Ye F, Pizzocchero F, Jessen B S, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Muller D A, Low T, Kim P, Hone J 2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 534Google Scholar

    [101]

    Zhang Z, Ji X, Shi J, Zhou X, Zhang S, Hou Y, Qi Y, Fang Q, Ji Q, Zhang Y, Hong M, Yang P, Liu X, Zhang Q, Liao L, Jin C, Liu Z, Zhang Y 2017 ACS Nano 11 4328Google Scholar

    [102]

    Yang T, Zheng B, Wang Z, Xu T, Pan C, Zou J, Zhang X, Qi Z, Liu H, Feng Y, Hu W, Miao F, Sun L, Duan X, Pan A 2017 Nat. Commun. 8 1906Google Scholar

    [103]

    Wu R, Tao Q, Dang W, Liu Y, Li B, Li J, Zhao B, Zhang Z, Ma H, Sun G, Duan X, Duan X 2019 Adv. Funct. Mater. 29 1806611Google Scholar

    [104]

    Zhou N, Wang R, Zhou X, Song H, Xiong X, Ding Y, Lu J, Gan L, Zhai T 2018 Small 14 1702731Google Scholar

    [105]

    Xue Y, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Liu H, Song J, Sophia J, Liu J, Xu Z, Xu Q, Wang Z, Zheng J, Liu Y, Li S, Bao Q 2016 ACS Nano 10 573Google Scholar

    [106]

    Shi J, Tong R, Zhou X, Gong Y, Zhang Z, Ji Q, Zhang Y, Fang Q, Gu L, Wang X, Liu Z, Zhang Y 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 10664Google Scholar

    [107]

    Li J, Yang X, Liu Y, Huang B, Wu R, Zhang Z, Zhao B, Ma H, Dang W, Wei Z, Wang K, Lin Z, Yan X, Sun M, Li B, Pan X, Luo J, Zhang G, Liu Y, Huang Y, Duan X, Duan X 2020 Nature 579 368Google Scholar

    [108]

    Liu D, Hong J, Li X, Zhou X, Jin B, Cui Q, Chen J, Feng Q, Xu C, Zhai T, Suenaga K, Xu H 2020 Adv. Funct. Mater. 30 1910169Google Scholar

    [109]

    Zhao Y, Jin S 2019 ACS Mater. Lett. 2 42

    [110]

    Deng Y, Luo Z, Conrad N J, Liu H, Gong Y, Najmaei S, Ajayan P M, Lou J, Xu X, Ye P D 2014 ACS Nano 8 8292Google Scholar

    [111]

    Azizi A, Eichfeld S, Geschwind G, Zhang K, Jiang B, Mukherjee D, Hossain L, Piasecki A F, Kabius B, Robinson J A, Alem N 2015 ACS Nano 9 4882Google Scholar

    [112]

    Xu Z, Khanaki A, Tian H, Zheng R, Suja M, Zheng J G, Liu J 2016 Appl. Phys. Lett. 109 043110Google Scholar

    [113]

    Ogikubo T, Shimazu H, Fujii Y, Ito K, Ohta A, Araidai M, Kurosawa M, Le Lay G, Yuhara J 2020 Adv. Mater. Interfaces 7 1902132Google Scholar

    [114]

    Liu X, Hersam M C 2019 Sci. Adv. 5 eaax6444Google Scholar

    [115]

    Cao Y, Luo J Y, Fatemi V, Fang S, Sanchez-Yamagishi J D, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Kaxiras E, Jarillo-Herrero P 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 117 116804Google Scholar

    [116]

    Yankowitz M, Xue J, Cormode D, Sanchez-Yamagishi J D, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Jarillo-Herrero P, Jacquod P, LeRoy B J 2012 Nat. Phys. 8 382Google Scholar

    [117]

    Hunt B, Sanchez-Yamagishi J D, Young A F, Yankowitz M, LeRoy B J, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Moon P, Koshino M, Jarillo-Herrero P, Ashoori R C 2013 Science 340 1427Google Scholar

    [118]

    Dean C R, Wang L, Maher P, Forsythe C, Ghahari F, Gao Y, Katoch J, Ishigami M, Moon P, Koshino M, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Shepard K L, Hone J, Kim P 2013 Nature 497 598Google Scholar

    [119]

    Ponomarenko L A, Gorbachev R V, Yu G L, Elias D C, Jalil R, Patel A A, Mishchenko A, Mayorov A S, Woods C R, Wallbank J R, Mucha-Kruczynski M, Piot B A, Potemski M, Grigorieva I V, Novoselov K S, Guinea F, Fal'ko V I, Geim A K 2013 Nature 497 594Google Scholar

    [120]

    Kim K, Yankowitz M, Fallahazad B, Kang S, Movva H C, Huang S, Larentis S, Corbet C M, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Banerjee S K, LeRoy B J, Tutuc E 2016 Nano Lett. 16 1989Google Scholar

    [121]

    Kim K, DaSilva A, Huang S, Fallahazad B, Larentis S, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, LeRoy B J, MacDonald A H, Tutuc E 2017 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114 3364Google Scholar

    [122]

    Li Y, Wu B, Guo W, Wang L, Li J, Liu Y 2017 Nanotechnology 28 265101Google Scholar

    [123]

    Cao Y, Fatemi V, Demir A, Fang S, Tomarken S L, Luo J Y, Sanchez-Yamagishi J D, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Kaxiras E, Ashoori R C, Jarillo-Herrero P 2018 Nature 556 80Google Scholar

    [124]

    Liu X, Hao Z, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Halperin B I, Kim P 2019 Nat. Phys. 15 893Google Scholar

    [125]

    Lee J Y, Khalaf E, Liu S, Liu X, Hao Z, Kim P, Vishwanath A 2019 Nat. Commun. 10 5333Google Scholar

    [126]

    Liu X, Hao Z, Khalaf E, Lee J Y, Ronen Y, Yoo H, Haei Najafabadi D, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Vishwanath A, Kim P 2020 Nature 583 221Google Scholar

    [127]

    Chen G, Sharpe A L, Gallagher P, Rosen I T, Fox E J, Jiang L, Lyu B, Li H, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Jung J, Shi Z, Goldhaber-Gordon D, Zhang Y, Wang F 2019 Nature 572 215Google Scholar

    [128]

    Liu K, Zhang L, Cao T, Jin C, Qiu D, Zhou Q, Zettl A, Yang P, Louie S G, Wang F 2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4966Google Scholar

    [129]

    Yao W, Wang E, Bao C, Zhang Y, Zhang K, Bao K, Chan C K, Chen C, Avila J, Asensio M C, Zhu J, Zhou S 2018 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115 6928Google Scholar

    [130]

    Ahn S J, Moon P, Kim T H, Kim H W, Shin H C, Kim E H, Cha H W, Kahng S J, Kim P, Koshino M, Son Y W, Yang C W, Ahn J R 2018 Science 361 782Google Scholar

    [131]

    Suzuki T, Iimori T, Ahn S J, Zhao Y, Watanabe M, Xu J, Fujisawa M, Kanai T, Ishii N, Itatani J, Suwa K, Fukidome H, Tanaka S, Ahn J R, Okazaki K, Shin S, Komori F, Matsuda I 2019 ACS Nano 13 11981Google Scholar

    [132]

    Deng B, Wang B, Li N, Li R, Wang Y, Tang J, Fu Q, Tian Z, Gao P, Xue J, Peng H 2020 ACS Nano 14 1656Google Scholar

    [133]

    Shi Y, Zhou W, Lu A Y, Fang W, Lee Y H, Hsu A L, Kim S M, Kim K K, Yang H Y, Li L J, Idrobo J C, Kong J 2013 ACS Nano 7 791Google Scholar

    [134]

    Das S, Zhang W, Demarteau M, Hoffmann A, Dubey M, Roelofs A 2014 Nano Lett. 14 5733Google Scholar

    [135]

    Chiu M H, Li X M Y, Zhang X W, Hsu W T, Chang W H, Terrones M, Terrones H, Li L J 2014 ACS Nano 8 9649Google Scholar

    [136]

    Avsar A, Vera-Marun I J, Tan J Y, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Castro Neto A H, Ozyilmaz B 2015 ACS Nano 9 4138Google Scholar

    [137]

    Wu L, Chen Y, Zhou H, Zhu H 2019 ACS Nano 13 2341

    [138]

    Rivera P, Schaibley J R, Jones A M, Ross J S, Wu S, Aivazian G, Klement P, Seyler K, Clark G, Ghimire N J, Yan J, Mandrus D G, Yao W, Xu X 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 6242Google Scholar

    [139]

    Liu Y, Zhang S, He J, Wang Z M, Liu Z 2019 Nano-Micro Lett. 11 13Google Scholar

    [140]

    Gong C, Zhang X 2019 Science 363 706

    [141]

    Huang B, Clark G, Navarro-Moratalla E, Klein D R, Cheng R, Seyler K L, Zhong D, Schmidgall E, McGuire M A, Cobden D H, Yao W, Xiao D, Jarillo-Herrero P, Xu X 2017 Nature 546 270Google Scholar

    [142]

    Zhong D, Seyler K L, Linpeng X, Cheng R, Sivadas N, Huang B, Schmidgall E, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, McGuire M A, Yao W, Xiao D, Fu K M C, X X 2017 Sci. Adv. 3 e1603113Google Scholar

    [143]

    Liu Y, Yudhistira I, Yang M, Laksono E, Luo Y Z, Chen J, Lu J, Feng Y P, Adam S, Loh K P 2018 Nano Lett. 18 3377Google Scholar

    [144]

    Zhang D, Liu Y, He M, Zhang A, Chen S, Tong Q, Huang L, Zhou Z, Zheng W, Chen M, Braun K, Meixner A J, Wang X, Pan A 2020 Nat. Commun. 11 4442Google Scholar

    [145]

    Britnell L, Ribeiro R M, Eckmann A, Jalil R, Belle B D, Mishchenko A, Kim Y J, Gorbachev R V, Georgiou T, Morozov S V, Grigorenko A N, Geim A K, Casiraghi C, Castro Neto A H, Novoselov K S 2013 Science 340 1311Google Scholar

    [146]

    Zhang W, Wang Q, Chen Y, Wang Z, Wee A T S 2016 2 D Mater. 3 022001

    [147]

    Yang W, Chen G, Shi Z, Liu C C, Zhang L, Xie G, Cheng M, Wang D, Yang R, Shi D, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Yao Y, Zhang Y, Zhang G 2013 Nat. Mater. 12 792Google Scholar

    [148]

    Logoteta D, Fiori G, Iannaccone G 2014 Sci. Rep. 4 6607

    [149]

    Roy T, Tosun M, Cao X, Fang H, Lien D H, Zhao P, Chen Y Z, Chueh Y L, Guo J, Javey A 2015 ACS Nano 9 2071Google Scholar

    [150]

    Nourbakhsh A, Zubair A, Dresselhaus M S, Palacios T 2016 Nano Lett. 16 1359Google Scholar

    [151]

    Roy T, Tosun M, Hettick M, Ahn G H, Hu C, Javey A 2016 Appl. Phys. Lett. 108 083111Google Scholar

    [152]

    Xu J, Jia J, Lai S, Ju J, Lee S 2017 Appl. Phys. Lett. 110 03313

    [153]

    Pezeshki A, Shokouh S H, Nazari T, Oh K, Im S 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 3216Google Scholar

    [154]

    Pak J, Lee I, Cho K, Kim J K, Jeong H, Hwang W T, Ahn G H, Kang K, Yu W J, Javey A, Chung S, Lee T 2019 ACS Nano 13 9638Google Scholar

    [155]

    Lyu J, Pei J, Guo Y, Gong J, Li H 2020 Adv. Mater. 32 e1906000Google Scholar

    [156]

    Wang X, Yu P, Lei Z, Zhu C, Cao X, Liu F, You L, Zeng Q, Deng Y, Zhu C, Zhou J, Fu Q, Wang J, Huang Y, Liu Z 2019 Nat. Commun. 10 3037Google Scholar

    [157]

    Ross J S, Klement P, Jones A M, Ghimire N J, Yan J, Mandrus D G, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Kitamura K, Yao W, Cobden D H, Xu X 2014 Nat. Nanotechnol. 9 268Google Scholar

    [158]

    Pospischil A, Furchi M M, Mueller T 2014 Nat. Nanotechnol. 9 257Google Scholar

    [159]

    Baugher B W, Churchill H O, Yang Y, Jarillo-Herrero P 2014 Nat. Nanotechnol. 9 262Google Scholar

    [160]

    Cheng R, Li D, Zhou H, Wang C, Yin A, Jiang S, Liu Y, Chen Y, Huang Y, Duan X 2014 Nano Lett. 14 5590Google Scholar

    [161]

    Withers F, Del Pozo-Zamudio O, Mishchenko A, Rooney A P, Gholinia A, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Haigh S J, Geim A K, Tartakovskii A I, Novoselov K S 2015 Nat. Mater. 14 301Google Scholar

    [162]

    Gaskell J, Eaves L, Novoselov K S, Mishchenko A, Geim A K, Fromhold T M, Greenaway M T 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 107 103105Google Scholar

    [163]

    Baines Y, Buckley J, Biscarrat J, Garnier G, Charles M, Vandendaele W, Gillot C, Plissonnier M 2017 Sci. Rep. 7 8177Google Scholar

    [164]

    Nazir G, Kim H, Kim J, Kim K S, Shin D H, Khan M F, Lee D S, Hwang J Y, Hwang C, Suh J, Eom J, Jung S 2018 Nat. Commun. 9 5371Google Scholar

    [165]

    Wang Y, Xiang D, Zheng Y, Liu T, Ye X, Gao J, Yang H, Han C, Chen W 2020 Adv. Opt. Mater. 8 1901867Google Scholar

    [166]

    Paur M, Molina-Mendoza A J, Bratschitsch R, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Mueller T 2019 Nat. Commun. 10 1709Google Scholar

    [167]

    Bie Y Q, Grosso G, Heuck M, Furchi M M, Cao Y, Zheng J, Bunandar D, Navarro-Moratalla E, Zhou L, Efetov D K, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Kong J, Englund D, Jarillo-Herrero P 2017 Nat. Nanotechnol. 12 1124Google Scholar

    [168]

    Sheng Y, Chen T, Lu Y, Chang R J, Sinha S, Warner J H 2019 ACS Nano 13 4530Google Scholar

    [169]

    Chang H, Chen Z, Li W, Yan J, Hou R, Yang S, Liu Z, Yuan G, Wang J, Li J, Gao P, Wei T 2019 Appl. Phys. Lett. 114 091107Google Scholar

    [170]

    Jariwala D, Davoyan A R, Wong J, Atwater H A 2017 ACS Photonics 4 2962Google Scholar

    [171]

    Flöry N, Jain A, Bharadwaj P, Parzefall M, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Novotny L 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 107 123106Google Scholar

    [172]

    Wong J, Jariwala D, Tagliabue G, Tat K, Davoyan A R, Sherrott M C, Atwater H A 2017 ACS Nano 11 7230Google Scholar

    [173]

    Murthy A A, Stanev T K, Cain J D, Hao S, LaMountain T, Kim S, Speiser N, Watanabe K,Taniguchi T, Wolverton C, Stern N P, Dravid V P 2018 Nano Lett. 18 2990Google Scholar

    [174]

    Lee C H, Lee G H, van der Zande A M, Chen W, Li Y, Han M, Cui X, Arefe G, Nuckolls C, Heinz T F, Guo J, Hone J, Kim P 2014 Nat. Nanotechnol. 9 676Google Scholar

    [175]

    Long M, Liu E, Wang P, Gao A, Xia H, Luo W, Wang B, Zeng J, Fu Y, Xu K, Zhou W, Lv Y, Yao S, Lu M, Chen Y, Ni Z, You Y, Zhang X, Qin S, Shi Y, Hu W, Xing D, Miao F 2016 Nano Lett. 16 2254Google Scholar

    [176]

    Wu W, Wang L, Li Y, Zhang F, Lin L, Niu S, Chenet D, Zhang X, Hao Y, Heinz T F, Hone J, Wang Z L 2014 Nature 514 470Google Scholar

    [177]

    Blees M K, Barnard A W, Rose P A, Roberts S P, McGill K L, Huang P Y, Ruyack A R, Kevek J W, Kobrin B, Muller D A, McEuen P L 2015 Nature 524 204Google Scholar

    [178]

    Shyu T C, Damasceno P F, Dodd P M, Lamoureux A, Xu L, Shlian M, Shtein M, Glotzer S C, Kotov N A 2015 Nat. Mater. 14 785Google Scholar

    [179]

    De Fazio D, Goykhman I, Yoon D, Bruna M, Eiden A, Milana S, Sassi U, Barbone M, Dumcenco D, Marinov K, Kis A, Ferrari A C 2016 ACS Nano 10 8252Google Scholar

    [180]

    Choi C, Choi M K, Liu S, Kim M S, Park O K, Im C, Kim J, Qin X, Lee G J, Cho K W, Kim M, Joh E, Lee J, Son D, Kwon S H, Jeon N L, Song Y M, Lu N, Kim D H 2017 Nat. Commun. 8 1664Google Scholar

    [181]

    He Y, Yang Y, Zhang Z, Gong Y, Zhou W, Hu Z, Ye G, Zhang X, Bianco E, Lei S, Jin Z, Zou X, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Xie E, Lou J, Yakobson B, Vajtai R, Li B, Ajayan P 2016 Nano Lett. 16 3314Google Scholar

    [182]

    Lei Y, Pakhira S, Fujisawa K, Wang X, Iyiola O O, Perea Lopez N, Laura Elias A, Pulickal Rajukumar L, Zhou C, Kabius B, Alem N, Endo M, Lv R, Mendoza-Cortes J L, Terrones M 2017 ACS Nano 11 5103Google Scholar

    [183]

    Grigorenko A N, Polini M, Novoselov K S 2012 Nat. Photonics 6 749Google Scholar

    [184]

    Dai S, Fei Z, Ma Q, Rodin A S, Wagner M, McLeod A S, Liu M K, Gannett W, Regan W, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Thiemens M, Dominguez G, Castro Neto A H, Zettl A, Keilmann F, Jarillo-Herrero P, Fogler M M, Basov D N 2014 Science 343 1125Google Scholar

    [185]

    Chen J, Ouyang W, Yang W, He J H, Fang X 2020 Adv. Funct. Mater. 30 1603884

    [186]

    Woessner A, Lundeberg M B, Gao Y, Principi A, Alonso-Gonzalez P, Carrega M, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Vignale G, Polini M, Hone J, Hillenbrand R, Koppens F H 2015 Nat. Mater. 14 421Google Scholar

    [187]

    Zhang K, Yap F L, Li K, Ng C T, Li L J, Loh K P 2014 Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 731Google Scholar

    [188]

    Dai S, Ma Q, Liu M K, Andersen T, Fei Z, Goldflam M D, Wagner M, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Thiemens M, Keilmann F, Janssen G C, Zhu S E, Jarillo-Herrero P, Fogler M M, Basov D N 2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 682Google Scholar

    [189]

    Yang X, Zhai F, Hu H, Hu D, Liu R, Zhang S, Sun M, Sun Z, Chen J, Dai Q 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 2931Google Scholar

  • 图 1  机械转移制备vdWHs示意图 (a) 楔形转移法[43]; (b)干法转移[47]

    Fig. 1.  Schematic of mechanical transfer for the preparation of vdWHs: (a) Wedge-transfer[43]; (b) dry transfer method[47].

    图 2  h-BN沿石墨烯不同边界的外延生长 (a)刻蚀的单晶石墨烯过程示意图, 从左到右分别显示六边形单晶石墨烯、具有zigzag边界的石墨烯刻蚀孔洞、十二边形的石墨烯刻蚀图案以及具有armchair外边界图案; (b), (c) h-BN沿armchair边界生长的SEM图; (d), (e) h-BN沿zigzag和armchair边界生长的SEM图; (f) h-BN沿十二边形石墨烯边界生长的SEM图[77]

    Fig. 2.  h-BN growth along different graphene edges: (a) Schematic of different etched stages of a graphene flake showing a flake (I), etched hole with zigzag edges (II), etched dodecagonal perimeters (III), and etched perimeters with armchair edges (IV); (b), (c) SEM images of h-BN grown along armchair edges of graphene taken with different magnification; (d), (e) SEM images of h-BN stripes grown along both zigzag and armchair edges of graphene; (f) SEM image of h-BN stripes grown along edges of dodecagon graphene[77].

    图 3  MoSe2/WSe2异质结的制备 (a)以MoSe2为模板生长WSe2的示意图; (b), (c), (d)分别为MoSe2、类型I、类型II的光学显微图[75]

    Fig. 3.  The growth of MoSe2/WSe2 vdWH: (a) Diagram of MoSe2-templated WSe2 growth; (b), (c), (d) optical images of as-grown MoSe2, type I and type II[75].

    图 4  石墨烯的层层生长差异 (a), (b)铜上生长的单层定向石墨烯片SEM 图和示意图; (c), (d)铜上生长的双层石墨烯片SEM 图和示意图; (e)−(g)双层石墨烯的生长随氢气量的不同而变化[122]

    Fig. 4.  (a), (b) SEM image of aligned single layer graphene flakes grown on a solid Cu and the corresponding diagram of (a); (c), (d) SEM images of bi-layer graphene flakes grown on a solid Cu surface and the corresponding diagram of (c); (e)−(g) typical SEM images of bi-layer graphene flakes grown with H2 flow rates of 20, 35 and 50 sccm (1 sccm=1 mL/min), respectively[122].

    图 5  文章结构示意图

    Fig. 5.  Schematic diagram of materials, characterizations, synthesis, properties and applications of 2D heterostructures.

  • [1]

    Geim A K, Grigorieva I V 2013 Nature 499 419Google Scholar

    [2]

    Cai Z, Liu B, Zou X, Cheng H M 2018 Chem. Rev. 118 6091Google Scholar

    [3]

    Britnell L, Gorbachev R V, Jalil R, Belle B D, Schedin F, Mishchenko A, Georgiou T, Katsnelson M I, Eaves L, Morozov S V, Peres N M R, Leist J, Geim A K, Novoselov K S, Ponomarenko L A 2012 Science 335 947Google Scholar

    [4]

    Liu Y, Weiss N O, Duan X, Cheng H C, Huang Y, Duan X 2016 Nat. Rev. Mater. 1 1

    [5]

    Yao W, Wu B, Liu Y 2020 ACS Nano 14 9320Google Scholar

    [6]

    姚文乾, 孙健哲, 陈建毅, 武斌, 刘云圻 2020 科学通报 65Google Scholar

    Yao W Q, Sun J Z, Chen J Y, Wu B, Liu Y Q 2020 Sci. Bull. 65Google Scholar

    [7]

    Novoselov K S, Fal'ko V I, Colombo L, Gellert P R, Schwab M G, Kim K 2012 Nature 490 192Google Scholar

    [8]

    Zhang Y, Tang T T, Girit C, Hao Z, Martin M C, Zettl A, Crommie M F, Shen Y R, Wang F 2009 Nature 459 820Google Scholar

    [9]

    Luican A, Li G, Reina A, Kong J, Nair R R, Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Andrei E Y 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 126802Google Scholar

    [10]

    Chittari B L, Chen G, Zhang Y, Wang F, Jung J 2019 Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 016401Google Scholar

    [11]

    Cao Y, Fatemi V, Fang S, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Kaxiras E, Jarillo-Herrero P 2018 Nature 556 43Google Scholar

    [12]

    Dean C R, Young A F, Meric I, Lee C, Wang L, Sorgenfrei S, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Kim P, Shepard K L, Hone J 2010 Nat. Nanotechnol. 5 722Google Scholar

    [13]

    Mak K F, Lee C, Hone J, Shan J, Heinz T F 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 136805Google Scholar

    [14]

    Pan Y, Folsch S, Nie Y, Waters D, Lin Y C, Jariwala B, Zhang K, Cho K, Robinson J A, Feenstra R M 2018 Nano Lett. 18 1849Google Scholar

    [15]

    Tran K, Moody G, Wu F, Lu X, Choi J, Kim K, Rai A, Sanchez D A, Quan J, Singh A, Embley J, Zepeda A, Campbell M, Autry T, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Lu N, Banerjee S K, Silverman K L, Kim S, Tutuc E, Yang L, MacDonald A H, Li X 2019 Nature 567 71Google Scholar

    [16]

    Seyler K L, Rivera P, Yu H, Wilson N P, Ray E L, Mandrus D G, Yan J, Yao W, Xu X 2019 Nature 567 66Google Scholar

    [17]

    Jin C, Regan E C, Yan A, Iqbal Bakti Utama M, Wang D, Zhao S, Qin Y, Yang S, Zheng Z, Shi S, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Tongay S, Zettl A, Wang F 2019 Nature 567 76Google Scholar

    [18]

    Alexeev E M, Ruiz-Tijerina D A, Danovich M, Hamer M J, Terry D J, Nayak P K, Ahn S, Pak S, Lee J, Sohn J I, Molas M R, Koperski M, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Novoselov K S, Gorbachev R V, Shin H S, Fal'ko V I, Tartakovskii A I 2019 Nature 567 81Google Scholar

    [19]

    Qiao J, Kong X, Hu Z X, Yang F, Ji W 2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4475Google Scholar

    [20]

    Liu H, Neal A T, Zhu Z, Luo Z, Xu X, Tománek D, Ye P D 2014 ACS Nano 8 4033Google Scholar

    [21]

    Mannix A J, Zhou X F, Kiraly B, Wood J D, Alducin D, Myers B D, Liu X l, Fisher B L, Santiago U, Guest J R, Yacaman M J, Ponce A, Oganov A R, Hersam M C, Guisinger N P 2015 Science 350 1513Google Scholar

    [22]

    Novoselov K S, Mishchenko A, Carvalho A, Castro Neto A H 2016 Science 353 aac9439Google Scholar

    [23]

    Das P, Fu Q, Bao X, Wu Z S 2018 J. Mater. Chem. A 6 21747Google Scholar

    [24]

    Woods C R, Britnell L, Eckmann A, Ma R S, Lu J C, Guo H M, Lin X, Yu G L, Cao Y, Gorbachev R V, Kretinin A V, Park J, Ponomarenko L A, Katsnelson M I, Gornostyrev Y N, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Casiraghi C, Gao H J, Geim A K, Novoselov K S 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 451Google Scholar

    [25]

    Melitz W, Shen J, Kummel A C, Lee S 2011 Surf. Sci. Rep. 66 1Google Scholar

    [26]

    Li H, Qi X, Wu J, Zeng Z, Wei J, Zhang H 2013 ACS Nano 7 2842Google Scholar

    [27]

    Zhang X, Tan Q H, Wu J B, Shi W, Tan P H 2016 Nanoscale 8 6435Google Scholar

    [28]

    Li M, Shi Y, Cheng C, Lu L, Lin Y, Tang H, Tsai M, Chu C W, Wei K H, He J H, Chang W H, Suenaga K, Li L J 2015 Science 349 524Google Scholar

    [29]

    Li H, Wu J B, Ran F, Lin M L, Liu X L, Zhao Y, Lu X, Xiong Q, Zhang J, Huang W, Zhang H, Tan P H 2017 ACS Nano 11 11714Google Scholar

    [30]

    Fang H, Battaglia C, Carraro C, Nemsak S, Ozdol B, Kang J S, Bechtel H A, Desai S B, Kronast F, Unal A A, Conti G, Conlon C, Palsson G K, Martin M C, Minor A M, Fadley C S, Yablonovitch E, Maboudian R, Javey A 2014 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111 6198Google Scholar

    [31]

    Muller D A 2009 Nat. Mater. 8 263Google Scholar

    [32]

    Zhao C, Wang X, Kong J, Ang J M, Lee P S, Liu Z, Lu X 2016 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8 2372Google Scholar

    [33]

    Zhang X Q, Lin C H, Tseng Y W, Huang K H, Lee Y H 2015 Nano Lett. 15 410Google Scholar

    [34]

    Krivanek O L, Chisholm M F, Nicolosi V, Pennycook T J, Corbin G J, Dellby N, Murfitt M F, Own C S, Szilagyi Z S, Oxley M P, Pantelides S T, Pennycook S J 2010 Nature 464 571Google Scholar

    [35]

    Wang L, Meric I, Huang P Y, Gao Q, Gao Y, Tran H, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Campos L M, Muller D A, Guo J, Kim P, Hone J, Shepard K L, Dean C R 2013 Science 342 614Google Scholar

    [36]

    Wang J, Liu D, Huang H, Yang N, Yu B, Wen M, Wang X, Chu P K, Yu X F 2018 Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 57 2600Google Scholar

    [37]

    Zhang K, Borys N J, Bersch B M, Bhimanapati G R, Xu K, Wang B, Wang K, Labella M, Williams T A, Haque M A, Barnard E S, Fullerton-Shirey S, Schuck P J, Robinson J A 2017 Sci. Rep. 7 16938Google Scholar

    [38]

    Gao T, Song X, Du H, Nie Y, Chen Y, Ji Q, Sun J, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Liu Z 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 6835Google Scholar

    [39]

    Zeng D, Xiao L, Ong W J, Wu P, Zheng H, Chen Y, Peng D L 2017 ChemSusChem 10 4624Google Scholar

    [40]

    Frank O, Dresselhaus M S, Kalbac M 2015 Acc. Chem. Res. 48 111Google Scholar

    [41]

    Pena-Alvarez M, del Corro E, Morales-Garcia A, Kavan L, Kalbac M, Frank O 2015 Nano Lett. 15 3139Google Scholar

    [42]

    Frisenda R, Navarro-Moratalla E, Gant P, Perez De Lara D, Jarillo-Herrero P, Gorbachev R V, Castellanos-Gomez A 2018 Chem. Soc. Rev. 47 53Google Scholar

    [43]

    Schneider G F, Calado V E, Zandbergen H, Vandersypen L M, Dekker C 2010 Nano Lett. 10 1912Google Scholar

    [44]

    Zomer P J, Dash S P, Tombros N, van Wees B J 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 232104Google Scholar

    [45]

    Pizzocchero F, Gammelgaard L, Jessen B S, Caridad J M, Wang L, Hone J, Boggild P, Booth T J 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 11894Google Scholar

    [46]

    Xu J, Singh S, Katoch J, Wu G, Zhu T, Zutic I, Kawakami R K 2018 Nat. Commun. 9 2869Google Scholar

    [47]

    Zomer P J, Guimarães M H D, Brant J C, Tombros N, van Wees B J 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 105 013101Google Scholar

    [48]

    Shim J, Bae S H, Kong W, Lee D, Qiao K, Nezich D, Park Y J, Zhao R, Sundaram S, Li X, Yeon H, Choi C, Kum H, Yue R, Zhou G, Ou Y, Lee K, Moodera J, Zhao X, Ahn J H, Hinkle C, Ougazzaden A, J K 2018 Science 362 665Google Scholar

    [49]

    Liu F, Wu W, Bai Y, Chae S H, Li Q, Wang J, Hone J, Zhu X Y 2020 Science 367 903Google Scholar

    [50]

    Haigh S J, Gholinia A, Jalil R, Romani S, Britnell L, Elias D C, Novoselov K S, Ponomarenko L A, Geim A K, Gorbachev R 2012 Nat. Mater. 11 764Google Scholar

    [51]

    Kretinin A V, Cao Y, Tu J S, Yu G L, Jalil R, Novoselov K S, Haigh S J, Gholinia A, Mishchenko A, Lozada M, Georgiou T, Woods C R, Withers F, Blake P, Eda G, Wirsig A, Hucho C, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Geim A K, Gorbachev R V 2014 Nano Lett. 14 3270Google Scholar

    [52]

    Chiu M H, Zhang C, Shiu H W, Chuu C P, Chen C H, Chang C Y, Chen C H, Chou M Y, Shih C K, Li L J 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 7666Google Scholar

    [53]

    Furchi M M, Pospischil A, Libisch F, Burgdorfer J, Mueller T 2014 Nano Lett. 14 4785Google Scholar

    [54]

    Huo N, Kang J, Wei Z, Li S S, Li J, Wei S H 2014 Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 7025Google Scholar

    [55]

    Chen P, Zhang T T, zhang J, Xiang J, Yu H, Wu S, Lu X, Wang G, Wen F, Liu Z, Yang R, Shi D, Zhang G 2016 Nanoscale 8 3254Google Scholar

    [56]

    Li D, Wang B, Chen M, Zhou J, Zhang Z 2017 Small 13 1603726Google Scholar

    [57]

    Ye L, Wang P, Luo W, Gong F, Liao L, Liu T, Tong L, Zang J, Xu J, Hu W 2017 Nano Energy 37 53Google Scholar

    [58]

    Yu L, Lee Y H, Ling X, Santos E J, Shin Y C, Lin Y, Dubey M, Kaxiras E, Kong J, Wang H, Palacios T 2014 Nano Lett. 14 3055Google Scholar

    [59]

    Roy K, Padmanabhan M, Goswami S, Sai T P, Ramalingam G, Raghavan S, Ghosh A 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 826Google Scholar

    [60]

    Loan P T, Zhang W, Lin C T, Wei K H, Li L J, Chen C H 2014 Adv. Mater. 26 4838Google Scholar

    [61]

    Georgiou T, Jalil R, Belle B D, Britnell L, Gorbachev R V, Morozov S V, Kim Y J, Gholinia A, Haigh S J, Makarovsky O, Eaves L, Ponomarenko L A, Geim A K, Novoselov K S, Mishchenko A 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 100Google Scholar

    [62]

    Wang J, Li Z, Chen H, Deng G, Niu X 2019 Nano-Micro Lett. 11 48Google Scholar

    [63]

    Ci L, Song L, Jin C, Jariwala D, Wu D, Li Y, Srivastava A, Wang Z F, Storr K, Balicas L, Liu F, Ajayan P M 2010 Nat. Mater. 9 430Google Scholar

    [64]

    Duan X, Wang C, Shaw J C, Cheng R, Chen Y, Li H, Wu X, Tang Y, Zhang Q, Pan A, Jiang J, Yu R, Huang Y, Duan X 2014 Nat. Nanotechnol. 9 1024Google Scholar

    [65]

    Gong Y, Lin J, Wang X, Shi G, Lei S, Lin Z, Zou X, Ye G, Vajtai R, Yakobson B I, Terrones H, Terrones M, Tay B K, Lou J, Pantelides S T, Liu Z, Zhou W, Ajayan P M 2014 Nat. Mater. 13 1135Google Scholar

    [66]

    Chen K, Wan X, Xie W, Wen J, Kang Z, Zeng X, Chen H, Xu J 2015 Adv. Mater. 27 6431Google Scholar

    [67]

    Levendorf M P, Kim C J, Brown L, Huang P Y, Havener R W, Muller D A, Park J 2012 Nature 488 627Google Scholar

    [68]

    Liu Z, Ma L, Shi G, Zhou W, Gong Y, Lei S, Yang X, Zhang J, Yu J, Hackenberg K P, Babakhani A, Idrobo J C, Vajtai R, Lou J, Ajayan P M 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 119Google Scholar

    [69]

    Han G H, Rodrı ′guez-Manzo J A, Lee C W, Kybert N J, Lerner M B, Qi Z J, Dattoli E N, Rappe A M, Drndic M, Johnson A T 2013 ACS Nano 7 10129Google Scholar

    [70]

    Liu L, Park J, Siegel D A, McCarty K F, Clark K W, Deng W, Basile L, Idrobo J C, Li A P, Gu G 2014 Science 343 163Google Scholar

    [71]

    Ling X, Lin Y, Ma Q, Wang Z, Song Y, Yu L, Huang S, Fang W, Zhang X, Hsu A L, Bie Y, Lee Y H, Zhu Y, Wu L, Li J, Jarillo-Herrero P, Dresselhaus M, Palacios T, Kong J 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 2322Google Scholar

    [72]

    Behranginia A, Yasaei P, Majee A K, Sangwan V K, Long F, Foss C J, Foroozan T, Fuladi S, Hantehzadeh M R, Shahbazian-Yassar R, Hersam M C, Aksamija Z, Salehi-Khojin A 2017 Small 13 1604301Google Scholar

    [73]

    Zheng C, Zhang Q, Weber B, Ilatikhameneh H, Chen F, Sahasrabudhe H, Rahman R, Li S, Chen Z, Hellerstedt J, Zhang Y, Duan W H, Bao Q, Fuhrer M S 2017 ACS Nano 11 2785Google Scholar

    [74]

    Sun J, Wang Y, Guo S, Wan B, Dong L, Gu Y, Song C, Pan C, Zhang Q, Gu L, Pan F, Zhang J 2020 Adv. Mater. 32 e1906499Google Scholar

    [75]

    Gong Y, Lei S, Ye G, Li B, He Y, Keyshar K, Zhang X, Wang Q, Lou J, Liu Z, Vajtai R, Zhou W, Ajayan P M 2015 Nano Lett. 15 6135Google Scholar

    [76]

    Chen K, Wan X, Wen J, Xie W, Kang Z, Zeng X, Chen H, Xu J B 2015 ACS Nano 9 9868Google Scholar

    [77]

    Chen X, Yang H, Wu B, Wang L, Fu Q, Liu Y 2019 Adv. Mater. 31 e1805582Google Scholar

    [78]

    Geng D, Dong J, Kee Ang L, Ding F, Yang H Y 2019 NPG Asia Mater. 11 56Google Scholar

    [79]

    Zhang Z, Chen P, Duan X, Zang K, Luo J, Duan X 2017 Science 357 788Google Scholar

    [80]

    Sahoo P K, Memaran S, Xin Y, Balicas L, Gutierrez H R 2018 Nature 553 63Google Scholar

    [81]

    Zhang C, Chen Y, Huang J K, Wu X, Li L J, Yao W, Tersoff J, Shih C K 2016 Nat. Commun. 6 10349

    [82]

    He Y, Sobhani A, Lei S, Zhang Z, Gong Y, Jin Z, Zhou W, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Wang X, Yakobson B, Vajtai R, Halas N J, Li B, Xie E, Ajayan P 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 5126Google Scholar

    [83]

    Mahjouri-Samani M, Lin M W, Wang K, Lupini A R, Lee J, Basile L, Boulesbaa A, Rouleau C M, Puretzky A A, Ivanov I N, Xiao K, Yoon M, Geohegan D B 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 7749Google Scholar

    [84]

    Afaneh T, Sahoo P K, Nobrega I A P, Xin Y, Gutiérrez H R 2018 Adv. Funct. Mater. 28 1802949Google Scholar

    [85]

    Yang S, Wang C, Sahin H, Chen H, Li Y, Li S S, Suslu A, Peeters F M, Liu Q, Li J, Tongay S 2015 Nano Lett. 15 1660Google Scholar

    [86]

    Reserbat-Plantey A, Kalita D, Han Z, Ferlazzo L, Autier-Laurent S, Komatsu K, Li C, Weil R, Ralko A, Marty L, Gueron S, Bendiab N, Bouchiat H, Bouchiat V 2014 Nano Lett. 14 5044Google Scholar

    [87]

    Tian Z, Zhao M, Xue X, Xia W, Guo C, Guo Y, Feng Y, Xue J 2018 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10 12831Google Scholar

    [88]

    Choudhary N, Islam M R, Kang N, Tetard L, Jung Y, Khondaker S I 2016 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28 364002Google Scholar

    [89]

    Liu Z, Song L, Zhao S, Huang J, Ma L, Zhang J, Lou J, Ajayan P M 2011 Nano Lett. 11 2032Google Scholar

    [90]

    Li Y, Qin J K, Xu C Y, Cao J, Sun Z Y, Ma L P, Hu P A, Ren W, Zhen L 2016 Adv. Funct. Mater. 26 4319Google Scholar

    [91]

    Yu W J, Liu Y, Zhou H, Yin A, Li Z, Huang Y, Duan X 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 952Google Scholar

    [92]

    Shi Y, Zhou W, Lu A Y, Fang W, Lee Y H, Hsu A L, Kim S M, Kim K K, Yang H Y, Li L J, Idrobo J C, Kong J 2012 Nano Lett. 12 2784Google Scholar

    [93]

    Seo J, Lee J, Jeong G, Park H 2019 Small 15 e1804133

    [94]

    Shi J, Liu M, Wen J, Ren X, Zhou X, Ji Q, Ma D, Zhang Y, Jin C, Chen H, Deng S, Xu N, Liu Z, Zhang Y 2015 Adv. Mater. 27 7086Google Scholar

    [95]

    Kim S, Kim Y C, Choi Y J, Woo H J, Song Y J, Kang M S, Lee C, Cho J H 2019 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11 35444Google Scholar

    [96]

    Zhang X, Zhang F, Wang Y, Schulman D S, Zhang T, Bansal A, Alem N, Das S, Crespi V H, Terrones M, Redwing J M 2019 ACS Nano 13 3341Google Scholar

    [97]

    Fu L, Sun Y, Wu N, Mendes R G, Chen L, Xu Z, Zhang T, Rummeli M H, Rellinghaus B, Pohl D, Zhuang L, Fu L 2016 ACS Nano 10 2063Google Scholar

    [98]

    Shanshan Wang, Xiaochen Wang, Warner J H 2015 ACS Nano 9 5246Google Scholar

    [99]

    Yan A, Velasco J Jr, Kahn S, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Wang F, Crommie M F, Zettl A 2015 Nano Lett. 15 6324Google Scholar

    [100]

    Cui X, Lee G H, Kim Y D, Arefe G, Huang P Y, Lee C H, Chenet D A, Zhang X, Wang L, Ye F, Pizzocchero F, Jessen B S, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Muller D A, Low T, Kim P, Hone J 2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 534Google Scholar

    [101]

    Zhang Z, Ji X, Shi J, Zhou X, Zhang S, Hou Y, Qi Y, Fang Q, Ji Q, Zhang Y, Hong M, Yang P, Liu X, Zhang Q, Liao L, Jin C, Liu Z, Zhang Y 2017 ACS Nano 11 4328Google Scholar

    [102]

    Yang T, Zheng B, Wang Z, Xu T, Pan C, Zou J, Zhang X, Qi Z, Liu H, Feng Y, Hu W, Miao F, Sun L, Duan X, Pan A 2017 Nat. Commun. 8 1906Google Scholar

    [103]

    Wu R, Tao Q, Dang W, Liu Y, Li B, Li J, Zhao B, Zhang Z, Ma H, Sun G, Duan X, Duan X 2019 Adv. Funct. Mater. 29 1806611Google Scholar

    [104]

    Zhou N, Wang R, Zhou X, Song H, Xiong X, Ding Y, Lu J, Gan L, Zhai T 2018 Small 14 1702731Google Scholar

    [105]

    Xue Y, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Liu H, Song J, Sophia J, Liu J, Xu Z, Xu Q, Wang Z, Zheng J, Liu Y, Li S, Bao Q 2016 ACS Nano 10 573Google Scholar

    [106]

    Shi J, Tong R, Zhou X, Gong Y, Zhang Z, Ji Q, Zhang Y, Fang Q, Gu L, Wang X, Liu Z, Zhang Y 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 10664Google Scholar

    [107]

    Li J, Yang X, Liu Y, Huang B, Wu R, Zhang Z, Zhao B, Ma H, Dang W, Wei Z, Wang K, Lin Z, Yan X, Sun M, Li B, Pan X, Luo J, Zhang G, Liu Y, Huang Y, Duan X, Duan X 2020 Nature 579 368Google Scholar

    [108]

    Liu D, Hong J, Li X, Zhou X, Jin B, Cui Q, Chen J, Feng Q, Xu C, Zhai T, Suenaga K, Xu H 2020 Adv. Funct. Mater. 30 1910169Google Scholar

    [109]

    Zhao Y, Jin S 2019 ACS Mater. Lett. 2 42

    [110]

    Deng Y, Luo Z, Conrad N J, Liu H, Gong Y, Najmaei S, Ajayan P M, Lou J, Xu X, Ye P D 2014 ACS Nano 8 8292Google Scholar

    [111]

    Azizi A, Eichfeld S, Geschwind G, Zhang K, Jiang B, Mukherjee D, Hossain L, Piasecki A F, Kabius B, Robinson J A, Alem N 2015 ACS Nano 9 4882Google Scholar

    [112]

    Xu Z, Khanaki A, Tian H, Zheng R, Suja M, Zheng J G, Liu J 2016 Appl. Phys. Lett. 109 043110Google Scholar

    [113]

    Ogikubo T, Shimazu H, Fujii Y, Ito K, Ohta A, Araidai M, Kurosawa M, Le Lay G, Yuhara J 2020 Adv. Mater. Interfaces 7 1902132Google Scholar

    [114]

    Liu X, Hersam M C 2019 Sci. Adv. 5 eaax6444Google Scholar

    [115]

    Cao Y, Luo J Y, Fatemi V, Fang S, Sanchez-Yamagishi J D, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Kaxiras E, Jarillo-Herrero P 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 117 116804Google Scholar

    [116]

    Yankowitz M, Xue J, Cormode D, Sanchez-Yamagishi J D, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Jarillo-Herrero P, Jacquod P, LeRoy B J 2012 Nat. Phys. 8 382Google Scholar

    [117]

    Hunt B, Sanchez-Yamagishi J D, Young A F, Yankowitz M, LeRoy B J, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Moon P, Koshino M, Jarillo-Herrero P, Ashoori R C 2013 Science 340 1427Google Scholar

    [118]

    Dean C R, Wang L, Maher P, Forsythe C, Ghahari F, Gao Y, Katoch J, Ishigami M, Moon P, Koshino M, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Shepard K L, Hone J, Kim P 2013 Nature 497 598Google Scholar

    [119]

    Ponomarenko L A, Gorbachev R V, Yu G L, Elias D C, Jalil R, Patel A A, Mishchenko A, Mayorov A S, Woods C R, Wallbank J R, Mucha-Kruczynski M, Piot B A, Potemski M, Grigorieva I V, Novoselov K S, Guinea F, Fal'ko V I, Geim A K 2013 Nature 497 594Google Scholar

    [120]

    Kim K, Yankowitz M, Fallahazad B, Kang S, Movva H C, Huang S, Larentis S, Corbet C M, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Banerjee S K, LeRoy B J, Tutuc E 2016 Nano Lett. 16 1989Google Scholar

    [121]

    Kim K, DaSilva A, Huang S, Fallahazad B, Larentis S, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, LeRoy B J, MacDonald A H, Tutuc E 2017 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114 3364Google Scholar

    [122]

    Li Y, Wu B, Guo W, Wang L, Li J, Liu Y 2017 Nanotechnology 28 265101Google Scholar

    [123]

    Cao Y, Fatemi V, Demir A, Fang S, Tomarken S L, Luo J Y, Sanchez-Yamagishi J D, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Kaxiras E, Ashoori R C, Jarillo-Herrero P 2018 Nature 556 80Google Scholar

    [124]

    Liu X, Hao Z, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Halperin B I, Kim P 2019 Nat. Phys. 15 893Google Scholar

    [125]

    Lee J Y, Khalaf E, Liu S, Liu X, Hao Z, Kim P, Vishwanath A 2019 Nat. Commun. 10 5333Google Scholar

    [126]

    Liu X, Hao Z, Khalaf E, Lee J Y, Ronen Y, Yoo H, Haei Najafabadi D, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Vishwanath A, Kim P 2020 Nature 583 221Google Scholar

    [127]

    Chen G, Sharpe A L, Gallagher P, Rosen I T, Fox E J, Jiang L, Lyu B, Li H, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Jung J, Shi Z, Goldhaber-Gordon D, Zhang Y, Wang F 2019 Nature 572 215Google Scholar

    [128]

    Liu K, Zhang L, Cao T, Jin C, Qiu D, Zhou Q, Zettl A, Yang P, Louie S G, Wang F 2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4966Google Scholar

    [129]

    Yao W, Wang E, Bao C, Zhang Y, Zhang K, Bao K, Chan C K, Chen C, Avila J, Asensio M C, Zhu J, Zhou S 2018 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115 6928Google Scholar

    [130]

    Ahn S J, Moon P, Kim T H, Kim H W, Shin H C, Kim E H, Cha H W, Kahng S J, Kim P, Koshino M, Son Y W, Yang C W, Ahn J R 2018 Science 361 782Google Scholar

    [131]

    Suzuki T, Iimori T, Ahn S J, Zhao Y, Watanabe M, Xu J, Fujisawa M, Kanai T, Ishii N, Itatani J, Suwa K, Fukidome H, Tanaka S, Ahn J R, Okazaki K, Shin S, Komori F, Matsuda I 2019 ACS Nano 13 11981Google Scholar

    [132]

    Deng B, Wang B, Li N, Li R, Wang Y, Tang J, Fu Q, Tian Z, Gao P, Xue J, Peng H 2020 ACS Nano 14 1656Google Scholar

    [133]

    Shi Y, Zhou W, Lu A Y, Fang W, Lee Y H, Hsu A L, Kim S M, Kim K K, Yang H Y, Li L J, Idrobo J C, Kong J 2013 ACS Nano 7 791Google Scholar

    [134]

    Das S, Zhang W, Demarteau M, Hoffmann A, Dubey M, Roelofs A 2014 Nano Lett. 14 5733Google Scholar

    [135]

    Chiu M H, Li X M Y, Zhang X W, Hsu W T, Chang W H, Terrones M, Terrones H, Li L J 2014 ACS Nano 8 9649Google Scholar

    [136]

    Avsar A, Vera-Marun I J, Tan J Y, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Castro Neto A H, Ozyilmaz B 2015 ACS Nano 9 4138Google Scholar

    [137]

    Wu L, Chen Y, Zhou H, Zhu H 2019 ACS Nano 13 2341

    [138]

    Rivera P, Schaibley J R, Jones A M, Ross J S, Wu S, Aivazian G, Klement P, Seyler K, Clark G, Ghimire N J, Yan J, Mandrus D G, Yao W, Xu X 2015 Nat. Commun. 6 6242Google Scholar

    [139]

    Liu Y, Zhang S, He J, Wang Z M, Liu Z 2019 Nano-Micro Lett. 11 13Google Scholar

    [140]

    Gong C, Zhang X 2019 Science 363 706

    [141]

    Huang B, Clark G, Navarro-Moratalla E, Klein D R, Cheng R, Seyler K L, Zhong D, Schmidgall E, McGuire M A, Cobden D H, Yao W, Xiao D, Jarillo-Herrero P, Xu X 2017 Nature 546 270Google Scholar

    [142]

    Zhong D, Seyler K L, Linpeng X, Cheng R, Sivadas N, Huang B, Schmidgall E, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, McGuire M A, Yao W, Xiao D, Fu K M C, X X 2017 Sci. Adv. 3 e1603113Google Scholar

    [143]

    Liu Y, Yudhistira I, Yang M, Laksono E, Luo Y Z, Chen J, Lu J, Feng Y P, Adam S, Loh K P 2018 Nano Lett. 18 3377Google Scholar

    [144]

    Zhang D, Liu Y, He M, Zhang A, Chen S, Tong Q, Huang L, Zhou Z, Zheng W, Chen M, Braun K, Meixner A J, Wang X, Pan A 2020 Nat. Commun. 11 4442Google Scholar

    [145]

    Britnell L, Ribeiro R M, Eckmann A, Jalil R, Belle B D, Mishchenko A, Kim Y J, Gorbachev R V, Georgiou T, Morozov S V, Grigorenko A N, Geim A K, Casiraghi C, Castro Neto A H, Novoselov K S 2013 Science 340 1311Google Scholar

    [146]

    Zhang W, Wang Q, Chen Y, Wang Z, Wee A T S 2016 2 D Mater. 3 022001

    [147]

    Yang W, Chen G, Shi Z, Liu C C, Zhang L, Xie G, Cheng M, Wang D, Yang R, Shi D, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Yao Y, Zhang Y, Zhang G 2013 Nat. Mater. 12 792Google Scholar

    [148]

    Logoteta D, Fiori G, Iannaccone G 2014 Sci. Rep. 4 6607

    [149]

    Roy T, Tosun M, Cao X, Fang H, Lien D H, Zhao P, Chen Y Z, Chueh Y L, Guo J, Javey A 2015 ACS Nano 9 2071Google Scholar

    [150]

    Nourbakhsh A, Zubair A, Dresselhaus M S, Palacios T 2016 Nano Lett. 16 1359Google Scholar

    [151]

    Roy T, Tosun M, Hettick M, Ahn G H, Hu C, Javey A 2016 Appl. Phys. Lett. 108 083111Google Scholar

    [152]

    Xu J, Jia J, Lai S, Ju J, Lee S 2017 Appl. Phys. Lett. 110 03313

    [153]

    Pezeshki A, Shokouh S H, Nazari T, Oh K, Im S 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 3216Google Scholar

    [154]

    Pak J, Lee I, Cho K, Kim J K, Jeong H, Hwang W T, Ahn G H, Kang K, Yu W J, Javey A, Chung S, Lee T 2019 ACS Nano 13 9638Google Scholar

    [155]

    Lyu J, Pei J, Guo Y, Gong J, Li H 2020 Adv. Mater. 32 e1906000Google Scholar

    [156]

    Wang X, Yu P, Lei Z, Zhu C, Cao X, Liu F, You L, Zeng Q, Deng Y, Zhu C, Zhou J, Fu Q, Wang J, Huang Y, Liu Z 2019 Nat. Commun. 10 3037Google Scholar

    [157]

    Ross J S, Klement P, Jones A M, Ghimire N J, Yan J, Mandrus D G, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Kitamura K, Yao W, Cobden D H, Xu X 2014 Nat. Nanotechnol. 9 268Google Scholar

    [158]

    Pospischil A, Furchi M M, Mueller T 2014 Nat. Nanotechnol. 9 257Google Scholar

    [159]

    Baugher B W, Churchill H O, Yang Y, Jarillo-Herrero P 2014 Nat. Nanotechnol. 9 262Google Scholar

    [160]

    Cheng R, Li D, Zhou H, Wang C, Yin A, Jiang S, Liu Y, Chen Y, Huang Y, Duan X 2014 Nano Lett. 14 5590Google Scholar

    [161]

    Withers F, Del Pozo-Zamudio O, Mishchenko A, Rooney A P, Gholinia A, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Haigh S J, Geim A K, Tartakovskii A I, Novoselov K S 2015 Nat. Mater. 14 301Google Scholar

    [162]

    Gaskell J, Eaves L, Novoselov K S, Mishchenko A, Geim A K, Fromhold T M, Greenaway M T 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 107 103105Google Scholar

    [163]

    Baines Y, Buckley J, Biscarrat J, Garnier G, Charles M, Vandendaele W, Gillot C, Plissonnier M 2017 Sci. Rep. 7 8177Google Scholar

    [164]

    Nazir G, Kim H, Kim J, Kim K S, Shin D H, Khan M F, Lee D S, Hwang J Y, Hwang C, Suh J, Eom J, Jung S 2018 Nat. Commun. 9 5371Google Scholar

    [165]

    Wang Y, Xiang D, Zheng Y, Liu T, Ye X, Gao J, Yang H, Han C, Chen W 2020 Adv. Opt. Mater. 8 1901867Google Scholar

    [166]

    Paur M, Molina-Mendoza A J, Bratschitsch R, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Mueller T 2019 Nat. Commun. 10 1709Google Scholar

    [167]

    Bie Y Q, Grosso G, Heuck M, Furchi M M, Cao Y, Zheng J, Bunandar D, Navarro-Moratalla E, Zhou L, Efetov D K, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Kong J, Englund D, Jarillo-Herrero P 2017 Nat. Nanotechnol. 12 1124Google Scholar

    [168]

    Sheng Y, Chen T, Lu Y, Chang R J, Sinha S, Warner J H 2019 ACS Nano 13 4530Google Scholar

    [169]

    Chang H, Chen Z, Li W, Yan J, Hou R, Yang S, Liu Z, Yuan G, Wang J, Li J, Gao P, Wei T 2019 Appl. Phys. Lett. 114 091107Google Scholar

    [170]

    Jariwala D, Davoyan A R, Wong J, Atwater H A 2017 ACS Photonics 4 2962Google Scholar

    [171]

    Flöry N, Jain A, Bharadwaj P, Parzefall M, Taniguchi T, Watanabe K, Novotny L 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 107 123106Google Scholar

    [172]

    Wong J, Jariwala D, Tagliabue G, Tat K, Davoyan A R, Sherrott M C, Atwater H A 2017 ACS Nano 11 7230Google Scholar

    [173]

    Murthy A A, Stanev T K, Cain J D, Hao S, LaMountain T, Kim S, Speiser N, Watanabe K,Taniguchi T, Wolverton C, Stern N P, Dravid V P 2018 Nano Lett. 18 2990Google Scholar

    [174]

    Lee C H, Lee G H, van der Zande A M, Chen W, Li Y, Han M, Cui X, Arefe G, Nuckolls C, Heinz T F, Guo J, Hone J, Kim P 2014 Nat. Nanotechnol. 9 676Google Scholar

    [175]

    Long M, Liu E, Wang P, Gao A, Xia H, Luo W, Wang B, Zeng J, Fu Y, Xu K, Zhou W, Lv Y, Yao S, Lu M, Chen Y, Ni Z, You Y, Zhang X, Qin S, Shi Y, Hu W, Xing D, Miao F 2016 Nano Lett. 16 2254Google Scholar

    [176]

    Wu W, Wang L, Li Y, Zhang F, Lin L, Niu S, Chenet D, Zhang X, Hao Y, Heinz T F, Hone J, Wang Z L 2014 Nature 514 470Google Scholar

    [177]

    Blees M K, Barnard A W, Rose P A, Roberts S P, McGill K L, Huang P Y, Ruyack A R, Kevek J W, Kobrin B, Muller D A, McEuen P L 2015 Nature 524 204Google Scholar

    [178]

    Shyu T C, Damasceno P F, Dodd P M, Lamoureux A, Xu L, Shlian M, Shtein M, Glotzer S C, Kotov N A 2015 Nat. Mater. 14 785Google Scholar

    [179]

    De Fazio D, Goykhman I, Yoon D, Bruna M, Eiden A, Milana S, Sassi U, Barbone M, Dumcenco D, Marinov K, Kis A, Ferrari A C 2016 ACS Nano 10 8252Google Scholar

    [180]

    Choi C, Choi M K, Liu S, Kim M S, Park O K, Im C, Kim J, Qin X, Lee G J, Cho K W, Kim M, Joh E, Lee J, Son D, Kwon S H, Jeon N L, Song Y M, Lu N, Kim D H 2017 Nat. Commun. 8 1664Google Scholar

    [181]

    He Y, Yang Y, Zhang Z, Gong Y, Zhou W, Hu Z, Ye G, Zhang X, Bianco E, Lei S, Jin Z, Zou X, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Xie E, Lou J, Yakobson B, Vajtai R, Li B, Ajayan P 2016 Nano Lett. 16 3314Google Scholar

    [182]

    Lei Y, Pakhira S, Fujisawa K, Wang X, Iyiola O O, Perea Lopez N, Laura Elias A, Pulickal Rajukumar L, Zhou C, Kabius B, Alem N, Endo M, Lv R, Mendoza-Cortes J L, Terrones M 2017 ACS Nano 11 5103Google Scholar

    [183]

    Grigorenko A N, Polini M, Novoselov K S 2012 Nat. Photonics 6 749Google Scholar

    [184]

    Dai S, Fei Z, Ma Q, Rodin A S, Wagner M, McLeod A S, Liu M K, Gannett W, Regan W, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Thiemens M, Dominguez G, Castro Neto A H, Zettl A, Keilmann F, Jarillo-Herrero P, Fogler M M, Basov D N 2014 Science 343 1125Google Scholar

    [185]

    Chen J, Ouyang W, Yang W, He J H, Fang X 2020 Adv. Funct. Mater. 30 1603884

    [186]

    Woessner A, Lundeberg M B, Gao Y, Principi A, Alonso-Gonzalez P, Carrega M, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Vignale G, Polini M, Hone J, Hillenbrand R, Koppens F H 2015 Nat. Mater. 14 421Google Scholar

    [187]

    Zhang K, Yap F L, Li K, Ng C T, Li L J, Loh K P 2014 Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 731Google Scholar

    [188]

    Dai S, Ma Q, Liu M K, Andersen T, Fei Z, Goldflam M D, Wagner M, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Thiemens M, Keilmann F, Janssen G C, Zhu S E, Jarillo-Herrero P, Fogler M M, Basov D N 2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 682Google Scholar

    [189]

    Yang X, Zhai F, Hu H, Hu D, Liu R, Zhang S, Sun M, Sun Z, Chen J, Dai Q 2016 Adv. Mater. 28 2931Google Scholar

  • [1] 马泽成, 刘增霖, 程斌, 梁世军, 缪峰. 范德瓦耳斯材料的原位应变工程与应用. 物理学报, 2024, 73(11): 110701. doi: 10.7498/aps.73.20240353
    [2] 宜子琪, 王彦明, 王硕, 隋雪, 石佳辉, 杨壹涵, 王德煜, 冯秋菊, 孙景昌, 梁红伟. 基于机械剥离制备PEDOT: PSS/β-Ga2O3微米片异质结紫外光电探测器的性能研究. 物理学报, 2024, 0(0): . doi: 10.7498/aps.73.20240630
    [3] 王爱伟, 祝鲁平, 单衍苏, 刘鹏, 曹学蕾, 曹丙强. 利用脉冲激光沉积外延制备CsSnBr3/Si异质结高性能光电探测器. 物理学报, 2024, 73(5): 058503. doi: 10.7498/aps.73.20231645
    [4] 毕文杰, 杨爽, 周静, 金伟, 陈文. Cu3Mo2O9/MoO3纳米复合材料制备及三甲胺气敏性能研究. 物理学报, 2023, 72(16): 168103. doi: 10.7498/aps.72.20230720
    [5] 贾燕伟, 何健, 何萌, 朱肖华, 赵上熳, 刘金龙, 陈良贤, 魏俊俊, 李成明. h-BN/diamond异质结的制备与沟道载流子输运性质. 物理学报, 2022, 71(22): 228101. doi: 10.7498/aps.71.20220995
    [6] 郭越, 孙一鸣, 宋伟东. 多孔GaN/CuZnS异质结窄带近紫外光电探测器. 物理学报, 2022, 71(21): 218501. doi: 10.7498/aps.71.20220990
    [7] 邓霖湄, 司君山, 吴绪才, 张卫兵. 过渡金属二硫化物/三卤化铬范德瓦耳斯异质结的反折叠能带. 物理学报, 2022, 71(14): 147101. doi: 10.7498/aps.71.20220326
    [8] 雷挺, 吕伟明, 吕文星, 崔博垚, 胡瑞, 时文华, 曾中明. 光栅局域调控二维光电探测器. 物理学报, 2021, 70(2): 027801. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20201325
    [9] 白亮, 赵启旭, 沈健伟, 杨岩, 袁清红, 钟成, 孙海涛, 孙真荣. 基于MXene涂层保护Cs3Sb异质结光阴极材料的计算筛选. 物理学报, 2021, 70(21): 218504. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20210956
    [10] 王文旭, 任衍彪, 张世超, 张临财, 亓敬波, 何小武. 类化学气相沉积法制备缺陷可控的三维石墨烯泡沫及其复合电极电化学性能. 物理学报, 2020, 69(14): 148101. doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20200454
    [11] 龙慧, 胡建伟, 吴福根, 董华锋. 基于二维材料异质结可饱和吸收体的超快激光器. 物理学报, 2020, 69(18): 188102. doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20201235
    [12] 武佩, 胡潇, 张健, 孙连峰. 硅基底石墨烯器件的现状及发展趋势. 物理学报, 2017, 66(21): 218102. doi: 10.7498/aps.66.218102
    [13] 钟青, 王雪深, 李劲劲, 鲁云峰, 李正坤, 王文新, 孙庆灵. 1 k量子霍尔阵列电阻标准器件研制. 物理学报, 2016, 65(22): 227301. doi: 10.7498/aps.65.227301
    [14] 魏纪周, 张铭, 邓浩亮, 楚上杰, 杜敏永, 严辉. Bi0.8Ba0.2FeO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3异质结制备及其交换偏置效应研究. 物理学报, 2015, 64(8): 088101. doi: 10.7498/aps.64.088101
    [15] 曹宁通, 张雷, 吕路, 谢海鹏, 黄寒, 牛冬梅, 高永立. 酞菁铜与MoS2(0001)范德瓦耳斯异质结研究. 物理学报, 2014, 63(16): 167903. doi: 10.7498/aps.63.167903
    [16] 冯秋菊, 蒋俊岩, 唐凯, 吕佳音, 刘洋, 李荣, 郭慧颖, 徐坤, 宋哲, 李梦轲. CVD法制备p-ZnO薄膜/n-Si异质结发光二极管及其性能研究. 物理学报, 2013, 62(5): 057802. doi: 10.7498/aps.62.057802
    [17] 伍楷舜, 龙兴腾, 董建文, 陈弟虎, 汪河洲. 光子晶体异质结的位相和应用. 物理学报, 2008, 57(10): 6381-6385. doi: 10.7498/aps.57.6381
    [18] 张伟英, 邬小鹏, 孙利杰, 林碧霞, 傅竹西. ZnO/Si异质结的光电转换特性研究. 物理学报, 2008, 57(7): 4471-4475. doi: 10.7498/aps.57.4471
    [19] 张国辉, 华玉林, 吴晓明, 印寿根, 牛 霞, 惠娟利, 王 宇, 张丽娟. 一种多层白色磷光有机电致发光器件的制备及性能研究. 物理学报, 2007, 56(9): 5408-5412. doi: 10.7498/aps.56.5408
    [20] 刘 鲁, 范广涵, 廖常俊, 曹明德, 陈贵楚, 陈练辉. AlGaInP四元系材料渐变异质结及其在高亮度发光二级管器件中的应用. 物理学报, 2003, 52(5): 1264-1271. doi: 10.7498/aps.52.1264
计量
  • 文章访问数:  13131
  • PDF下载量:  782
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-08-27
  • 修回日期:  2020-09-14
  • 上网日期:  2021-01-09
  • 刊出日期:  2021-01-20

/

返回文章
返回