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基于量子隐形传态的量子保密通信方案

杨璐 马鸿洋 郑超 丁晓兰 高健存 龙桂鲁

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基于量子隐形传态的量子保密通信方案

杨璐, 马鸿洋, 郑超, 丁晓兰, 高健存, 龙桂鲁

Quantum communication scheme based on quantum teleportation

Yang Lu, Ma Hong-Yang, Zheng Chao, Ding Xiao-Lan, Gao Jian-Cun, Long Gui-Lu
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  • 量子保密通信包括量子密钥分发、量子安全直接通信和量子秘密共享等主要形式.在量子密钥分发和秘密共享中,传输的是随机数而不是信息,要再经过一次经典通信才能完成信息的传输.在量子信道直接传输信息的量子通信形式是量子安全直接通信.基于量子隐形传态的量子通信(简称量子隐形传态通信)是否属于量子安全直接通信尚需解释.构造了一个量子隐形传态通信方案,给出了具体的操作步骤.与一般的量子隐形传态不同,量子隐形传态通信所传输的量子态是计算基矢态,大大简化了贝尔基测量和单粒子操作.分析结果表明,量子隐形传态通信等价于包含了全用型量子密钥分发和经典通信的复合过程,不是量子安全直接通信,其传输受到中间介质和距离的影响,所以不比量子密钥分发更有优势.将该方案与量子密钥分发、量子安全直接通信和经典一次性便笺密码方案进行对比,通过几个通信参数的比较给出各个方案的特点,还特别讨论了各方案在空间量子通信方面的特点.
    Quantum communication protects information security by means of the basic laws of quantum mechanics and has aroused the wide public interest over the recent years.Quantum communication consists of quantum key distribution, quantum secure direct communication,quantum teleportation,quantum dense coding,and quantum secret sharing.The purpose of quantum key distribution,quantum secure direct communication and quantum secret sharing is to protect the security of information and thus they are called quantum cryptography.In quantum key distribution and secret sharing,data transmitted in the quantum channel are random keys rather than information,and the information is sent through another classical communication.The direct communication of information through quantum channel is realized in quantum secure direct communication.In this paper,we present a protocol for quantum communication by using quantum teleportation (QCUQT),and analyze it in detail.First,we answer the question whether QCUQT is a type of quantum secure direct communication.In QCUQT,only computational basis states are teleported,and both the Bell-basis measurement and the single particle operations can be simplified.It is found that the QCUQT is equivalent to the combined process of a quantum key distribution plus a classical communication rather than a type of quantum secure direct communication.In order to read out the information in the quantum channel,classical communication is required by QCUQT.Some misunderstandings about QCUQT are discussed and clarified in the paper.It was mistaken that the transmission of quantum state in QCUQT is irrelevant to the channel noise nor the distance between two parties,and QCUQT can even be used to realize superluminal communication.Our study shows that the QCUQT is affected by the medium and also the distance between two parties,and it does not have an advantage over quantum key distribution,and cannot realize quantum superluminal communication either.We also compare the QCUQT with quantum key distribution,quantum secure direct communication,and classical one-time-pad in several aspects such as the nature of the data in quantum channel,the way of reading out the key,the way of transmitting messages,and the amount of data carried in the process.We also point out the characteristics of each type of communication.It is concluded that single-photon quantum key distribution is easier to realize than QCUQT because single-photon detection and generation are easier to realize than the Bell-basis measurement and generation of EPR pairs.In particular,we discuss the use of these protocols in space communication and it is suggested that quantum secure direct communication be a better choice in outer-space quantum communication because of the low loss in quantum channels there.
      通信作者: 龙桂鲁, gllong@tsinghua.edu.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:91221205,11405093,11547035)、国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号:2015CB921002)和北方工业大学科研启动基金资助的课题.
      Corresponding author: Long Gui-Lu, gllong@tsinghua.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91221205, 11405093, 11547035), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921002), and the Scientific Research Starting Foundation of North China University of Technology.
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-04-24
  • 修回日期:  2017-07-24
  • 刊出日期:  2017-12-05

基于量子隐形传态的量子保密通信方案

  • 1. 清华大学物理系, 低维量子物理国家重点实验室, 北京 100084;
  • 2. 通信网信息传输与分发技术重点实验室, 石家庄 050081;
  • 3. 青岛理工大学理学院, 青岛 266033;
  • 4. 北方工业大学理学院, 北京 100144;
  • 5. 重庆大学通信工程学院, 重庆 400044;
  • 6. 清华大学信息科学与技术国家实验室(筹), 北京 100084
  • 通信作者: 龙桂鲁, gllong@tsinghua.edu.cn
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号:91221205,11405093,11547035)、国家重点基础研究发展计划(批准号:2015CB921002)和北方工业大学科研启动基金资助的课题.

摘要: 量子保密通信包括量子密钥分发、量子安全直接通信和量子秘密共享等主要形式.在量子密钥分发和秘密共享中,传输的是随机数而不是信息,要再经过一次经典通信才能完成信息的传输.在量子信道直接传输信息的量子通信形式是量子安全直接通信.基于量子隐形传态的量子通信(简称量子隐形传态通信)是否属于量子安全直接通信尚需解释.构造了一个量子隐形传态通信方案,给出了具体的操作步骤.与一般的量子隐形传态不同,量子隐形传态通信所传输的量子态是计算基矢态,大大简化了贝尔基测量和单粒子操作.分析结果表明,量子隐形传态通信等价于包含了全用型量子密钥分发和经典通信的复合过程,不是量子安全直接通信,其传输受到中间介质和距离的影响,所以不比量子密钥分发更有优势.将该方案与量子密钥分发、量子安全直接通信和经典一次性便笺密码方案进行对比,通过几个通信参数的比较给出各个方案的特点,还特别讨论了各方案在空间量子通信方面的特点.

English Abstract

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