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低维半导体材料在非线性光学领域的研究进展

白瑞雪 杨珏晗 魏大海 魏钟鸣

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低维半导体材料在非线性光学领域的研究进展

白瑞雪, 杨珏晗, 魏大海, 魏钟鸣

Research progress of low-dimensional semiconductor materials in field of nonlinear optics

Bai Rui-Xue, Yang Jue-Han, Wei Da-Hai, Wei Zhong-Ming
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  • 自从第一台红宝石激光器发明以来, 研究人员将目光集中到激光这种普通光源达不到的强光上, 由此发现了非线性光学材料以及一系列丰富多彩的相关特性—饱和吸收、反饱和吸收和非线性折射等, 并将其运用到光电子器件、光开关器件和光通信当中. 同时, 随着工业生产对于器件集成度需求的提升, 以普通三维材料为基础的器件已经难以达到应用要求, 低维半导体器件的兴起将有望解决这个问题. 所以, 将非线性光学与低维半导体材料相结合是未来发展的重要趋势, 量子点、量子线激光器和放大器的涌现也印证了这一点. 本文通过对准零维量子点材料、准一维纳米线材料和二维纳米材料非线性光学前沿工作进行总结, 为今后的研究提供参考. 但是, 低维材料由于稳定性、填充比例较低等问题, 还需要进一步的研究以满足实用需求.
    Since the first ruby laser was invented, researchers have focused their attention on how to achieve a strong laser light source, which cannot be produced by the ordinary light sources. Since then, the rich and colorful characteristics of nonlinear optical materials have been discovered, such as the saturation absorption, reverse saturation absorption and nonlinear refraction. They are applied to optoelectronic devices, optical switching devices and optical communication. At the same time, with the increase of the requirements for device integration performance in industrial production, ordinary three-dimensional devices are difficult to meet the production requirements, and the advent of low-dimensional semiconductor devices effectively solves this problem. Therefore, the combination of nonlinear optics and low-dimensional semiconductor materials is a general trend. The emergence of quantum dots, quantum wire lasers, and amplifiers confirms this. In this paper, we summarize the frontier work on nonlinear optics by selecting several special low-dimensional structures and several materials, providing some references for future research. However, due to the fact that the instability and low filling ratio of low-dimensional materials remain to be improved, further relevant research is still required.
      通信作者: 魏钟鸣, zmwei@semi.ac.cn
    • 基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(批准号: 61622406)资助的课题
      Corresponding author: Wei Zhong-Ming, zmwei@semi.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61622406)
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  • 图 1  (a)双层石墨烯调制器结构示意图[44]; (b)单分子光开关示意图[45]; (c)双层石墨烯双光子吸收和双层石墨烯4个可能的过渡[46]; (d)用于石墨烯包裹的光纤(GCM)透射率测量的实验装置[47]

    Fig. 1.  (a) Schematic of the structure for the double layer graphene modulator (reproduced with permission[44], Copyright 2012 American Chemical Society); (b) single-molecule optical switch (reproduced with permission[45], Copyright 2005 American Physical Society); (c) two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene and four possible transitions in bilayer graphene (reproduced with permission[46], Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society); (d) experimental setup for transmittance measurements of GCMs (reproduced with permission[47], Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society).

    图 2  (a)相干非线性光学响应测量装置图[53]; (b)可饱和的透射SWCNT的透射光谱[55]; (c) 基于单壁碳纳米管饱和吸收体的超快激光器装置图[56]; (d) Z扫描系统装置图[54]

    Fig. 2.  (a) Schematic of coherent nonlinear optical response measurement setup (reproduced with permission[53], Copyright 2010 The American Physical Society); (b) transmission spectra of transmissive SWCNT saturable absorbers (reproduced with permission[55], Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim; (c) experimental setup of the ultrafast-laser based on SWNT SAs (reproduced with permission[56], Copyright 2016 Springer Nature); (d) schematic diagram of the Z-scan setup (reproduced with permission[54], Copyright 2019, Springer Nature).

    图 3  基于石墨烯-Bi2Te3异质结的饱和吸收体[103] (a)光纤连接器端面上的石墨烯-Bi2Te3异质结构示意图; (b)双探测器测量实验装置的示意图; (c)石墨烯-Bi2Te3异质结构中光学跃迁的示意图; (d)石墨烯-Bi2Te3异质结构的拉曼光谱

    Fig. 3.  Saturable absorber based on graphene-Bi2Te3 heterojunction (reproduced with permission[103], Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society): (a) Schematic of graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure on the end-facet of fiber connector; (b) schematic diagram of the twin-detector measurement experimental setup; (c) schematic diagram showing the optical transitions in graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure; (d) Raman spectrum of the graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure.

    图 4  (a) MoS2中的THG[113]; (b) 2D (TMD)光发射器[114]; (c)少层MoS2不同的非线性光学现象[35]; (d) SHG和THG的极 坐标图[115]

    Fig. 4.  (a) Third harmonic generation in MoS2 (reproduced with permission[113], Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society); (b) 2D (TMD) optical emitter (reproduced with permission[114], Copyright 2018 American Physical Society); (c) different nonlinear optical phenomenon of few-layer MoS2 (reproduced with permission[35], Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society); (d) polar plots of normalized SHG and THG (reproduced with permission[115], Copyright 2018 American Physical Society).

    图 5  (a)铋的线性色散价和导带中载流子的开关和信号[124]; (b)开关和信号的叠加原理[124]; (c) BP调Q光纤激光器输出偏振特性[127]; (d) 磷烯的透射率与飞秒激光强度之间的关系[104]

    Fig. 5.  (a) Switch and signal of carriers in the linearly dispersive valence and conduction bands of bismuthine (reproduced with permission[124], Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society); (b) superposition principle of switch and signal light (reproduced with permission[124], Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society); (c) output polarization characteristics of BP Q-switched fiber laser (reproduced with permission[127], Copyright 2015, Springer Nature); (d) relationship between transmittance of the phosphorene dispersions and intensity of the femtosecond laser (reproduced with permission[104], Copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

    图 6  (a)沉积有黑磷量子点的微纤维照片[138]; (b)黑磷量子点饱和吸收体SA特征[138]; (c)线性、非线性和总折射率变化随光子能量的变化(对于0s—1p跃迁)[139]; (d)微腔中的非对称量子点作为非线性光学元件[140]

    Fig. 6.  (a) Photograph of the microfiber deposited with PQDs, (b) saturable absorption property of the PQD-SA device (reproduced with permission[138], Copyright 2017 Springer Nature); (c) the linear, nonlinear and total refractive index changes with photon energy for 0s–1p transitions (reproduced with permission[139], Copyright 2011 American Institute of Physics); (d) asymmetric quantum dot in a microcavity as a nonlinear optical element (reproduced with permission[140], ©2012 American Physical Society).

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  • 收稿日期:  2020-02-11
  • 修回日期:  2020-03-10
  • 上网日期:  2020-05-12
  • 刊出日期:  2020-09-20

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