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Design and numerical simulation demonstration of multi-functional holographic phase plate for large depth of field single molecular localization microscopy

Li Si-Wei Wu Jing-Jing Zhang Sai-Wen Li Heng Chen Dan-Ni Yu Bin Qu Jun-Le

Design and numerical simulation demonstration of multi-functional holographic phase plate for large depth of field single molecular localization microscopy

Li Si-Wei, Wu Jing-Jing, Zhang Sai-Wen, Li Heng, Chen Dan-Ni, Yu Bin, Qu Jun-Le
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  • Received Date:  30 March 2018
  • Accepted Date:  16 May 2018
  • Published Online:  05 September 2018

Design and numerical simulation demonstration of multi-functional holographic phase plate for large depth of field single molecular localization microscopy

    Corresponding author: Yu Bin, yubin@szu.edu.cn
  • 1. Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015CB352005, 2017YFA0700500), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61775144, 61525503, 61620106016, 81727804, 61605127), the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant Nos. 2014A030312008, 2017A030310132), the Shenzhen Basic Research Project, China (Grant Nos. JCYJ20170818141701667, JCYJ20170818144012025, JCYJ20170412105003520, JCYJ20160308104404452, JCYJ20170818142804605), and the China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201708440486).

Abstract: The development of nanoscale single-molecule localization and tracking technology for multiple bio-molecules in intact cells has important significance for studying the dynamic process in life process. Since most of cells are several microns in depth, but the focal depth of traditional optical microscopes are less than one micron, the limited depth of field is the main drawback of conventional single molecular localization microscopy that prevents observation and tracking of multiple molecules in intact cells. In this paper, based on the wavefront coding technique, a new type of holographic phase plate with high efficiency is proposed and designed to extend the depth of field of single molecular localization microscopy, which combines the distorted multi-value pure-phase grating (DMVPPG) with the double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF). The DMVPPG can be used to realize multiplane imaging of several tens of layers of a sample in a single detection plane. And the DH-PSF is an engineered point spread function which encodes the lateral and axial position with high precision of a molecule in the center of its two lobes and the angle between them respectively. Using the combined holographic phase plate, the molecules in dozens layers of a whole cell can be simultaneously imaged on the same detection plane with DH-PSF. Not only can the axial resolving power be improved, but the imaging depth can also be extended without scanning. Adding such a holographic phase plate to the imaging path, the limited imaging depth problem in single-molecule-localization microscopy can be solved without sacrificing the localization accuracy. The proposed new type of holographic phase plate can also be implemented with a spatial light modulator. In the following numerical simulation experiments, the designed holographic phase plate is composed of 600×600 pixels with a pixel size of 10 μm. The distance between two adjacent focal planes is designed to be 0.5 μm. Such a holographic phase plate is placed on the Fourier transform plane of the detection light path. When an emitter is located on the focal plane, it can be imaged as two lobes without rotation in a center area of the field of view. If an emitter is -6 μm away from the focal plane, the DH-PSF appears in the upper-left area of the field of view. Simulation results demonstrate that a total of 25 sample layers can be simultaneously imaged on the single detection plane and the 12 μm detection range can be achieved, thus proving the feasibility of this method.

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