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Surface and electronic structure of antiferromagnetic axion insulator candidate EuIn2As2
Li Yuan, Deng Han-Bin, Wang Cui-Xiang, Li Shuai-Shuai, Liu Li-Min, Zhu Chang-Jiang, Jia Ke, Sun Ying-Kai, Du Xin, Yu Xin, Guan Tong, Wu Rui, Zhang Shu-Yuan, Shi You-Guo, Mao Han-Qing
2021, 70 (18): 186801. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20210783
Abstract +
$ 1\times 2 $ surface reconstruction with 50% coverage. Hence an In-terminated surface which will be 100% coverage is ruled out. The spatial evolution of STS near vacancies on the striped pattern shows a hole-doping feature. All of these results reveal that the striped pattern is the $ 1\times 2 $ surface reconstruction of the Eu terminated surface with 50% coverage. Using the STS, we measure the local densities of states on the striped surface at various temperatures. We find that there is an asymmetric valley-peak feature in the density of states near the Fermi energy at 4 K, which is gradually weakened with increasing temperature, and disappears above the antiferromagnetic Néel temperature, indicating that the asymmetric valley-peak feature is closely related to the antiferromagnetic order. Besides, a maze-like pattern is observed occasionally near some step edges. The STM topographies show atoms both on bright and dark stripes of the maze-like pattern, which form a whole hexagonal lattice. And the NC-AFM images show that the maze-like pattern is about 1 Å higher than the Eu terminated striped pattern. Based on these results, the maze-like pattern can be explained as the buckled Eu surface with 100% coverage. These results provide important information for understanding the surface electronic band structure and topological nature of EuIn2As2.">The interplay between non-trivial band topology and magnetic order can induce exotic quantum phenomena, such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect and axion insulator state. A prevalent approach to realizing such topological states is either by magnetic doping or through heterostructure engineering, while the former will bring in inhomogeneity and the latter requires complex procedures. Intrinsic magnetic topological insulators are expected to avoid the aforementioned disadvantages, which is of great significance in both studying and practically using these exotic quantum phenomena. Recently, a Zintl compound EuIn2As2 is predicted to be an intrinsic antiferromagnetic axion insulator. The bulk magnetic order of EuIn2As2 has been reported in a lot of experiments, while the topological nature has not yet been confirmed. The surface properties of intrinsic magnetic topological insulators play an important role in the interplay between magnetic order and non-trivial surface state. Here in this work, we study the surface structure and electronic property of EuIn2As2 single crystal by using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) and non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM). Considering the strength of bonds, the easy cleavage plane of the crystals possibly lies between In-In layers or between Eu-As layers. The STM topographies show that the cleaved surface is dominated by a striped pattern. And the dominated step height is an integer multiple of c/2, which implies that only one kind of cleavage plane is preferred. Atomic-resolved surface topographies show that the striped pattern is the $ 1\times 2 $ surface reconstruction with 50% coverage. Hence an In-terminated surface which will be 100% coverage is ruled out. The spatial evolution of STS near vacancies on the striped pattern shows a hole-doping feature. All of these results reveal that the striped pattern is the $ 1\times 2 $ surface reconstruction of the Eu terminated surface with 50% coverage. Using the STS, we measure the local densities of states on the striped surface at various temperatures. We find that there is an asymmetric valley-peak feature in the density of states near the Fermi energy at 4 K, which is gradually weakened with increasing temperature, and disappears above the antiferromagnetic Néel temperature, indicating that the asymmetric valley-peak feature is closely related to the antiferromagnetic order. Besides, a maze-like pattern is observed occasionally near some step edges. The STM topographies show atoms both on bright and dark stripes of the maze-like pattern, which form a whole hexagonal lattice. And the NC-AFM images show that the maze-like pattern is about 1 Å higher than the Eu terminated striped pattern. Based on these results, the maze-like pattern can be explained as the buckled Eu surface with 100% coverage. These results provide important information for understanding the surface electronic band structure and topological nature of EuIn2As2.

EDITOR'S SUGGESTION

Multi-beam multi-mode vortex beams generation based on metasurface in terahertz band
Li Guo-Qiang, Shi Hong-Yu, Liu Kang, Li Bo-Lin, Yi Jian-Jia, Zhang An-Xue, Xu Zhuo
2021, 70 (18): 188701. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20210897
Abstract +
The generating of vortex beams in the terahertz (THz) band attracts significant attention due to their applications in high-speed communication and high-resolution imaging. In this article, a novel reflective metasurface working in the THz band is designed to generate four vortex beams with different topological charges in different directions. The unit cell is designed based on the geometric phase, and it consists of two metallic (gold) layers and one dielectric layer in between. The top layer of the unit cell includes an elliptic patch and a circular ring, and the bottom layer of the unit cell is a metallic ground. The reflection efficiency of the unit cell is very high due to the presence of metallic ground. To break through the limitations of traditional methods, the metasurface is a good choice to generate beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Using the concept of geometric phase, the reflection phase of reflective circular polarization (CP) electromagnetic waves can be controlled in an ingenious way. Owing to the property of the geometric phase, inverse phase shift can be achieved for left-handed circular polarization and right-handed circular polarization waves. By utilizing this trait of geometric phase, one can decompose a linear polarization wave into two orthogonal circular polarization waves and control their properties respectively. By rotating the top layer of the unit cell, 360-degree phase shift and the phase distribution satisfying the requirement for generating the multi-beam multi-mode vortex beam can be achieved. In order to control the direction and the topological charge of each beam, based on the geometric phase, the theory of reflectarray and the phase composition principle, the phase distribution of the reflective metasurface is calculated to provide the phase compensation to make the vortex beams point to certain directions. It is worthwhile to point out that the method presented in this paper provides a way to generate complex multi-mode vortex beams in the THz band. The simulations and measurements show that the metasurface can generate four vortex beams with topological charges l = ± 1 and ± 2 in different directions in the THz band. These results also indicate that our design has great potential applications in wireless communication and high-resolution imaging.

YOUNG SCIENTISTS’ FORUM

  

EDITOR'S SUGGESTION

Development of basic theory and application of cryogenic X-ray spectrometer in light sources and X-ray satellite
Zhang Shuo, Cui Wei, Jin Hai, Chen Liu-Biao, Wang Jun-Jie, Wu Wen-Tao, Wu Bing-Jun, Xia Jing-Kai, Song Yan-Ru, Yang Jin-Ping, Weng Tsu-Chien, Liu Zhi
2021, 70 (18): 180702. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20210350
Abstract +
Cryogenic X-ray spectrometers are advantageous in the spectrum research for weak and diffusive X-ray source due to their high energy resolution, high detection efficiency, low noise level and non-dead-layer properties. Their energy resolution independent of the incident X-ray direction also makes them competitive in diffusion source detection. The requirements for X-ray spectrometers have heightened in recent years with the rapid development of large scientific facilities where X-ray detection is demanded, including beamline endstations in synchrotron and X-ray free electron laser facilities, accelerators, highly charged ion traps, X-ray space satellites, etc. Because of their excellent performances, cryogenic X-ray detectors are introduced into these facilities, typical examples of which are APS, NSLS, LCLS-II, Spring-8, SSNL, ATHENA, HUBS. In this paper, we review the cryogenic X-ray spectrometers, from the working principle and classification, system structure, major performance characteristics to the research status and trend in large scientific facilities in the world.

EDITOR'S SUGGESTION

Type-II Dirac points and edge transports in phononic crystal plates
Luo Quan-Bin, Huang Xue-Qin, Deng Wei-Yin, Wu Ying, Lu Jiu-Yang, Liu Zheng-You
2021, 70 (18): 184302. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20210712
Abstract +
The accidentally degenerate type-II Dirac points in sonic crystal has been realized recently. However, elastic phononic crystals with type-II Dirac points have not yet been explored. In this work, we design a two-dimensional phononic crystal plate in square lattice with type-II Dirac points for elastic waves. The type-II Dirac points, different from the type-I counterparts, have the tiled dispersions and thus the iso-frequency contours become crossed lines. By tuning structures to break the mirror symmetry, the degeneracies of the type-II Dirac points are lifted, leading to a band inversion. In order to have a further explanation, we also calculate the Berry curvatures of phononic crystals with opposite structure parameters, and it turns out that these two crystals hold opposite signs around the valley. The phononic crystal plates before and after the band inversion belong to different topological valley phases, whose direct consequence is that the topologically protected gapless interface states exist between two distinct topological phases. Topologically protected interface states are found by calculating the projected band structures of a supercell that contains two kinds of interfaces between two topological phases. Robustness of the interface transport is verified by comparing the transmission rate for perfect interface with that for defective interface. Moreover, owing to the special stress field distributions of the elastic plate waves, the boundaries of a single phononic crystal phase can similarly host the gapless boundary states, which is found by calculating the projected band structures of a supercell with a single phase, thus having two free boundaries on the edges. This paper extends the two-dimensional Dirac points and valley states in graphene-like systems to the type-II cases, and obtains in the same structure the gapless interface and boundary propagations. Owing to the simple design scheme of the structure, the phononic crystal plates can be fabricated and scaled to a small size. Our system provides a feasible way of constructing high-frequency elastic wave devices.

EDITOR'S SUGGESTION

Optical conductivity of twisted bilayer graphene under heterostrain
Cai Xiao-Xiao, Luo Guo-Yu, Li Zhi-Qiang, He Yan
2021, 70 (18): 187301. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20210110
Abstract +
Twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) is a two-dimensional material composed of two layers stacked at a certain angle. When the twisted angle decreases, the lattice mismatch between two layers produces moiré pattern at a long wavelength which significantly modifies the low-energy band structure. In particular, when the twisted angle is close to the so-called “magic angle”, two moiré flat bands are formed near a charge neutral point due to the strong interlayer coupling. These flat bands with high density of states are essential in realizing superconductivity and correlated insulating states. More recently, the magic angle TBG combining an hBN system has exhibited spin-valley polarization when 3/4 of flat bands are filled, thereby providing an ideal platform to achieve quantum anomalous Hall states. Whether it is TBG system or TBG-hBN system, the flat band becomes a crucial condition for discovering so rich physical connotations. Besides the twisted angle, the strain gives an alternative way to modulate flat bands. It has been reported that applying heterostrain in magic angle TBG can makes flat moiré band tunable; strain can also generate flat bands in non-magic angle TBG. Moreover, the reconstruction of TBG due to the strain gives rise to a serial of novel physical phenomena such as topological protected soliton and photonic crystal. Another reason for studying strain effect is that the strain is ubiquitous in the fabrication progress. The strain can also be controlled via piezoelectric substrate which makes possible the in situ modulation of correlated states, topology and quantum effect. Our work is to study the heterostrain effect in TBG band structure and optical conductivity by using a continuum model. Although the resulting conduction band and valence bands keep connected through Dirac points protected by the C2 symmetry, their separation increases significantly when heterostrain is applied while the Dirac point is also shifted. The optical conductivity is characterized by a series of peaks associated with van Hove singularities, and the peak energies are systematically shifted with the strain amplitude. These changes show that the heterostrain exerts a great influence on electron property of TBG.

EDITOR'S SUGGESTION

Enhanced nonlinear optical effects based on strong coupling between epsilon-near-zero mode and gap surface plasmons
Guo Qi-Qi, Chen Yi-Hang
2021, 70 (18): 187303. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20210290
Abstract +
${\omega _{\rm p}}$, and by taking it into the Drude-Lorentz model, we can obtain a new permittivity of ITO compared with the initial one. Finally, we can calculate the variation of the refractive index $ \Delta n $, and the nonlinear refractive index $ {n_2} = \Delta n/{I_0} $. In this paper, our coupled structure exhibits a broadband (~1000 nm bandwidth) enhancement of the nonlinear optical effect in the near-infrared spectrum, a maximum nonlinear refractive index n2 as large as 3.02 cm2·GW–1, which is nearly 3 orders larger than the previously reported nonlinear refractive index of bare ITO film. As a result, it is possible to realize a dramatically large variation of nonlinear refractive index under a low-power optical field. It is expected to be used in the nano photonic devices such as optical storage, all-optical switches, etc.">Optical nonlinear effect plays an important role in optical communication, optical detection, quantum information and other areas. However, it is constrained by the weakness of the nonlinear optical response of the common materials. The enhancement of the optical nonlinear response on a nanoscale becomes a critical challenge. Over the years, several ways to enhance the optical nonlinear effects have been suggested. In fact, these technologies can slightly enhance the optical nonlinear response. Recently, some research groups focused on the materials with vanished permittivity, which is called epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material, showing that it can exhibit large optical nonlinearity due to the field enhancement in the material of this type. However, the ENZ material only holds a large optical nonlinear response in a limited spectral range. In order to overcome this limitation, here in this paper we report the ENZ mode which is excited by the ITO film and strongly coupled to the gap surface plasmons excited by the metal-dielectric-metal structure. To acquire the nonlinear refractive index n2, we first calculate the ITO permittivity through the Drude-Lorentz model and find the wavelength of the ENZ material. Then we calculate the time-dependent electron temperature and lattice temperature of ITO by the two-temperature model. According to the elevated electron temperature, we can calculate the plasma frequency ${\omega _{\rm p}}$, and by taking it into the Drude-Lorentz model, we can obtain a new permittivity of ITO compared with the initial one. Finally, we can calculate the variation of the refractive index $ \Delta n $, and the nonlinear refractive index $ {n_2} = \Delta n/{I_0} $. In this paper, our coupled structure exhibits a broadband (~1000 nm bandwidth) enhancement of the nonlinear optical effect in the near-infrared spectrum, a maximum nonlinear refractive index n2 as large as 3.02 cm2·GW–1, which is nearly 3 orders larger than the previously reported nonlinear refractive index of bare ITO film. As a result, it is possible to realize a dramatically large variation of nonlinear refractive index under a low-power optical field. It is expected to be used in the nano photonic devices such as optical storage, all-optical switches, etc.

EDITOR'S SUGGESTION

Collision clock shift of two Fermi atoms in harmonic potentials
Chen Ze-Rui, Liu Guang-Cun, Yu Zhen-Hua
2021, 70 (18): 180602. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20210243
Abstract +
Atomic clocks provide the most accurate definition for time. The precision of atomic clock has been improved by many orders of magnitude since the first atomic clock was built. However, the interatomic interaction usually suppress the precision of atomic clock. As a result, it is especially meaningful to study the interaction effect in atomic clock, which is considered to be helpful in improving the precision and accuracy of atomic clock. In order to characterize the collision effect induced clock shift, we theoretically study the collision clock shift in the Rabi spectrum, caused by the short-range interaction between two Fermi atoms in harmonic potential. Given that the short-range interatomic interaction is generally weak, and that the parameters of external lattice laser field are in the Lamb-Dicke regime, we make an approximation that the spatial wave-function of the Fermi atoms does not change, and then derive the motion equation for the internal wave-function under the external Rabi driving field. We solve the equation of motion by the perturbative method, and obtain the solution to first order, and thus derive the expression of the collision clock shift of the Rabi spectrum in terms of the interatomic interaction and the external Rabi driving laser field parameters for specific spatial wave-functions of atoms. Finally, we use the exact expression of the Green’s function in harmonic potential to obtain the averaged clock shift of collision at finite temperatures. Our results relate the atomic interaction with atomic clock shift, and provide a unified description of all partial waves of atomic interaction induced clock shift. Therefore, it becomes much more convenient to study the contributions of different partial waves to atomic clock shift. On the other hand, our results indicate that through precisely measuring the clock shift, the information about the interatomic interactions can also be obtained. In addition, our results for two interacting atoms can inspire the future study of real many-body interacting system which will be the next research topic.

EDITOR'S SUGGESTION

Fabrication and thermoelectric properties of Si micro/nanobelts
Wei Jiang-Tao, Yang Liang-Liang, Wei Lei, Qin Yuan-Hao, Song Pei-Shuai, Zhang Ming-Liang, Yang Fu-Hua, Wang Xiao-Dong
2021, 70 (18): 187304. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20210801
Abstract +
Currently, low-dimensional materials are a hot spot in the field of thermoelectric research, because the thermoelectric properties will be significantly improved after the low-dimensionalization of bulk materials. In a bulk material, its thermoelectric figure of merit ZT value cannot be increased by changing a single parameter, because the parameters of the material are interrelated to each other, which is not conducive to the research of internal factors and thus limiting the efficiency of thermoelectric material, but thermoelectric material on a micro-nano scale is more flexible to adjust its thermoelectric figure of merit ZT value. There are many different kinds of methods of implementing the low-dimensionalization of bulk materials. In this paper, size-controllable Si micro/nanobelts are prepared based on semiconductor micromachining and focused ion beam (FIB) technology, and the thermoelectric properties of Si micro/nanobelts of different sizes are comprehensively studied by the micro-suspension structure method.In this experiment, we find that the conductivity of doped Si micro/nanobelt is significantly better than that of bulk Si material, that as the width of the Si micro/nanobelt decreases, the thermal conductivity of the material decreases significantly, from 148 W/(m·K) of bulk silicon to 17.75 W/(m·K) of 800 nm wide Si micro-nanobelt, that the Seebeck coefficient of the material is lower than that of the corresponding bulkmaterials. The decrease of thermal conductivity is mainly due to the boundary effect caused by the size reduction, which leads the phonon boundary scattering to increase, and thus significantly inhibiting the behavior of phonon transmission in the Si material, thereby further affecting the transmission and conversion of thermal energy in the material. At 373 K, the maximum ZT value of the 800 nm wide Si micro/nanobelt reaches ~0.056, which is about 6 times larger than that of bulk silicon. And as the width of the Si micronanobelt is further reduced, the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT value will be further improved, making Si material an effective thermoelectric material. The FIB processing technology provides a new preparation scheme for improving the thermoelectric performances of Si materials in the future, and this manufacturing technology can also be applied to the low-dimensional preparation of other materials.

COVER ARTICLE

Hyperfine structure of ro-vibrational transition of HD in magnetic field
Tang Jia-Dong, Liu Qian-Hao, Cheng Cun-Feng, Hu Shui-Ming
2021, 70 (17): 170301. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20210512
Abstract +
2018 Phys. Rev. Lett. 120 153001], and also by the noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) method in Amsterdam [Cozijn F M J, et al. 2018 Phys. Rev. Lett. 120 153002 ]. However, there is a significant difference between the line center positions obtained in these two studies. Later the discrepancy was found to be due to unexpected asymmetry in the line shape of the saturated absorption spectrum of the HD molecule. A possible reason is the superposition of multiple hyperfine splitting peaks in the saturated spectrum. However, this model strongly depends on the population transfer caused by intermolecular collisions, which is a lack of experimental and theoretical support. In this paper, the hyperfine structures of the ro-vibrational transition of HD are calculated in the coupled and uncoupled representations. The hyperfine structures of the R(0), P(1) and R(1) lines in the (2–0) band of HD molecule under different external magnetic fields are calculated. The corresponding spectral structures at a temperature of 10 K are simulated. The results show that the transition structure of HD molecule changes significantly with the externally applied magnetic field. The frequency shift of each hyperfine transition line also increases with the intensity of external magnetic field increasing. When the intensity of the external magnetic field is sufficiently high, the hyperfine lines are clearly divided into two branches, and they can be completely separated from each other. Because the dynamic effect of intermolecular collision and the energy level population transfer are very sensitive to the energy level structure, the comparison between experiment and theory will help us to analyze the mechanism of the observed special profiles. It will allow us to obtain accurate frequencies of these transitions, which can be used for testing the fundamental physics.">The precise measurement of the infrared transition of hydrogen-deuterium (HD) molecule is used to test quantum electrodynamics and determine the proton-to-electron mass ratio. The saturated absorption spectrum of the R(1) line in the first overtone (2–0) band of HD molecule has been measured by the comb locked cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) method in Hefei [Tao L G, et al. 2018 Phys. Rev. Lett. 120 153001], and also by the noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) method in Amsterdam [Cozijn F M J, et al. 2018 Phys. Rev. Lett. 120 153002 ]. However, there is a significant difference between the line center positions obtained in these two studies. Later the discrepancy was found to be due to unexpected asymmetry in the line shape of the saturated absorption spectrum of the HD molecule. A possible reason is the superposition of multiple hyperfine splitting peaks in the saturated spectrum. However, this model strongly depends on the population transfer caused by intermolecular collisions, which is a lack of experimental and theoretical support. In this paper, the hyperfine structures of the ro-vibrational transition of HD are calculated in the coupled and uncoupled representations. The hyperfine structures of the R(0), P(1) and R(1) lines in the (2–0) band of HD molecule under different external magnetic fields are calculated. The corresponding spectral structures at a temperature of 10 K are simulated. The results show that the transition structure of HD molecule changes significantly with the externally applied magnetic field. The frequency shift of each hyperfine transition line also increases with the intensity of external magnetic field increasing. When the intensity of the external magnetic field is sufficiently high, the hyperfine lines are clearly divided into two branches, and they can be completely separated from each other. Because the dynamic effect of intermolecular collision and the energy level population transfer are very sensitive to the energy level structure, the comparison between experiment and theory will help us to analyze the mechanism of the observed special profiles. It will allow us to obtain accurate frequencies of these transitions, which can be used for testing the fundamental physics.

INVITED REVIEW

  

INVITED REVIEW

Investigation of ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics of excited carriers in condensed matter systems
Zheng Zhen-Fa, Jiang Xiang, Chu Wei-Bin, Zhang Li-Li, Guo Hong-Li, Zhao Chuan-Yu, Wang Ya-Nan, Wang Ao-Lei, Zheng Qi-Jing, Zhao Jin
2021, 70 (17): 177101. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20210626
Abstract +
The excited state dynamics is always an important and challenging problem in condensed matter physics. The dynamics of excited carriers can have different relaxation channels, in which the complicated interactions between different quasi-particles come into play collectively. To understand such ultrafast processes, the ab initio investigations are essential. Combining the real-time time-dependent density functional theory with fewest switches surface hopping scheme, we develop time-dependent ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) code Hefei-NAMD to simulate the excited carrier dynamics in condensed matter systems. Using this method, we investigate the interfacial charge transfer dynamics, the electron–hole recombination dynamics, and the excited spin-polarized hole dynamics in different condensed matter systems. Moreover, we combine ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics with GW plus real-time Bethe-Salpeter equation for the spin-resolved exciton dynamics. We use it to study the spin-valley exciton dynamics in MoS2. It provides a powerful tool for exciton dynamics in solid systems. The state-of-the-art NAMD studies provide a unique insight into a understanding of the ultrafast dynamics of the excited carriers in different condensed matter systems on an atomic scale.
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