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Time of flight technology based on multi-gap resistive plate chamber

## Time of flight technology based on multi-gap resistive plate chamber

Wang Yi, Zhang Qiu-Nan, Han Dong, Li Yuan-Jing
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• #### Abstract

Particle identification is very important in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Time of flight system (TOF) plays an important role in particle identification such as the separation of pion, kaon and proton. Multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) is a new kind of avalanche gas detector and it has excellent time resolution power. The intrinsic time resolution of narrow gap MRPC is less than 10 ps. So the MRPC technology TOF system is widely used in modern physics experiments for particle identification. With the increase of accelerator energy and luminosity, the TOF system is required to indentify definite particles precisely under high rate environment. The MRPC technology TOF system can be defined as three generations according to the timing and rate requirement. The first-generation TOF is based on the float glass MRPC and its time resolution is around 80 ps, but the rate is relatively low (typically lower than 100 Hz/cm2). The typical systems are TOF of RHIC-STAR, LHC-ALICE and BES III endcap. For the second-generation TOF, its time resolution has the same order as that for the first generation, but the rate capability is much higher. Its rate capability can reach 30 kHz/cm2. The typical experiment with this high rate TOF is FAIR-CBM. The biggest challenge is in the third-generation TOF. For example, the momentum upper limit of ${\rm{K}}/{\text{π}}$ separation is around 7 GeV/c for JLab-SoLID TOF system under high particle rate as high as 20 kHz/cm2, and the time requirement is around 20 ps. The readout electronics of first two generations is based on time over threshold method, and pulse shape sampling technology will be used in the third-generation TOF. In the same time, the machine learning technology LSTM network is also used to analyze the time performance. As a very successful sample, MRPC barrel TOF has been used in RHIC-STAR for more than ten years and many important physics results have been obtained. A prominent result is the observation of antimatter helium-4 nucleus. This discovery proves the existence of antimatter in the early universe. In this paper, we will describe the evolution of MRPC TOF technology and key technology of each generation of TOFs including MRPC detector and related electronics. The industrial and medical usage of MRPC are also introduced in the work finally.

#### References

 [1] Acosta D, Ahn M, Anikeev K, et al. 2004 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 492 605 [2] 王景波 2013 博士学位论文 (北京: 清华大学) Wang J B 2013 Ph. D. Dissertation (Beijing: Tsinghua University) (in Chinese) [3] Wang Y, Wang J B, Cheng J P, et al. 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 613 200 [4] Wu J, Bonner B, Chen H F, et al. 2005 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 538 243 [5] Akindinov A, Anselmo F, Basile M, et al. 2000 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 456 16 [6] Williams M C S 1998 Nucl. Phys. B 61B 250 [7] Shao M, Ruan L J, Chen H F, et al. 2002 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 492 344 [8] Anghinolfi F, Jarron P, Krummenacher F, Usenko E, Williams M C S 2004 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 5 1974 [9] [10] Agakishiev H, Aggarwal M M, Ahammed Z, et al. 2011 Nature 473 353 [11] Boine-Frankenheim O 2010 Proceedings of IPAC’10 Kyoto, Japan, May 23-28, 2010 p2430 [12] Höhne C 2016 PoS 272 [13] Abbrescia M, Peskov V, Fonte P 2018 Resistive Gaseous Detectors: Designs, Performance, and Perspectives (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) pp234-235 [14] Wang J B, Wang Y, Zhu X L, et al. 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 621 151 [15] Wang J B, Wang Y, Gonzalez-Diaz D, et al. 2013 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 713 40 [16] Deppner I, Herrmann N, Akindinov A, et al. 2014 JINST 9 C10014 [17] Wang Y, Lyu P F, Huang X, et al. 2016 JINST 11 C08007 [18] Ciobanu M, Herrmann N, Hildenbrand K D, et al. 2008 IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Rec. Dresden, Germany, October 19—25, 2008 p2018 [19] The GSI Event Driven TDC ASIC GET4 V1.23, Flemming H, Deppe H http://dx.doi.org/10.15120/GR-2014-1-FG-CS-11/ [2018-12-13] [20] Cebra D, Geurts F, Depper I, et al. 2016 arXiv: 1609.05102 [nucl-ex] [21] Gao H, Gamberg L, Chen J P, et al. 2011 Eur. Phys. J. Plus 126 2 [22] Wang F Y, Han D, Wang Y, et al. 2018 arXiv: 1812.02912v2 [physics.ins-det] [23] Wang F Y, Han D, Wang Y, et al. 2018 arXiv: 1805.02833 [physics.ins-det] [24] Ritt S, 2008 IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Rec Dresden, Germany, October 19-25 2008, p1512 [25] Guida R, Mandelli B, Rigoletti G 2019 The 15th Vienna Conference on Instrumentation Vienna, 21 February. [26] Couceiroa M, Blancoa A, Ferreira Nuno C, et al. 2007 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 580 915 [27] Wang J, Wang Y, Wang X, et al. 2016 JINST 11 C11008 [28] Eric O, Jean F G, Herv G, et al. 2013 arXiv: 1309.4397v1 [physics.ins-det] [29] Wang J H, Liu S B, Zhao L, et al. 2011 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58 2011

#### Cited By

• 图 1  几种不同时间分辨飞行时间谱仪系统的${\text{π}}/{\rm{K}}$鉴别能力, 飞行距离L = 8 m

Figure 1.  ${\text{π}}/{\rm{K}}$ separation power of TOF system with different time resolution, flight distance L = 8 m.

图 2  MRPC探测器结构示意图

Figure 2.  The structure diagram of MRPC.

图 3  STAR-TOF MRPC结构及照片

Figure 3.  Structure and picture of STAR-TOF MRPC.

图 4  STAR-TOF tray集成照片

Figure 4.  Picture of STAR-TOF tray.

图 5  时间游走原理图

Figure 5.  Schematic of time slewing.

图 6  对MRPC的时间幅度信号进行校正, 以修正定时误差

Figure 6.  Slewing correction of MRPC to improve time precision.

图 7  STAR-TOF的粒子鉴别图

Figure 7.  The PID of STAR-TOF.

图 8  上图和中图是通过STAR-TOF测得的带电粒子质量和能量损失的二维图; 下图是带电粒子质量的一维图, 反氦4核的质量等于3.73 GeV/c2. 利用飞行时间谱仪, 在10亿次碰撞产生的5000亿条径迹中清晰地分辨出18个反氦4物质

Figure 8.  The top two panels show the dE/dx of charged particles as a function of mass measured by the TOF system; The bottom panel shows the mass distribution of charge particles. The mass of antimatter helium-4 nucleus is 3.73 GeV/c2. 18 antimatter helium-4 nucleus are discriminated from around 500 billion tracks generated by one billion collisions.

图 9  测试得到的MRPC探测效率和时间分别随粒子计数率的变化[15]

Figure 9.  Measured efficiency and time resolution of MRPC change with particle rate.

图 10  CBM-TOF结构

Figure 10.  The structure of CBM-TOF.

图 11  MRPC3a探测器照片

Figure 11.  Picture of MRPC3a.

图 12  由5个MRPC和相应电子学组成的飞行时间探测器模块

Figure 12.  CBM-TOF module is consisted of 5 MRPC counters and related electronics.

Figure 13.  Time resolution, efficiency and cluster size of MRPC3a at different threshold of PADI.

图 14  同方威视公司密云生产车间正在进行高计数率MRPC的批量生产

Figure 14.  High rate MRPC were produced at Miyun manufacture base of NUCTECH Ltd.

图 15  STAR-eTOF的粒子鉴别

Figure 15.  The PID of STAR-eTOF.

图 16  高时间分辨MRPC及读出电子学

Figure 16.  High resolution MRPC and read out electronics.

图 17  粒子到达MRPC的时间点${t_a}$可以由信号波形前沿得到

Figure 17.  The time point ${t_a}$ of particle arriving at MRPC can be obtained from pulse shape.

图 18  用于MRPC时间重建的LSTM网络架构

Figure 18.  The structure diagram of LSTM network used for time reconstruction of MRPC.

图 19  模拟得到MRPC探测效率和时间分辨随气隙场强的变化, 可以看出, 采用LSTM网络法重建出的时间分辨比时幅校正得到结果要好

Figure 19.  Simulated efficiency and time resolution of MRPC change with electric field in the gas gap. It can be seen the time resolution reconstructed with LSTM network is better than with slewing correction.

图 20  采用LSTM网络方法分析得到MRPC的测试时间谱

Figure 20.  Time spectrum of MRPC in cosmic test analyzed with LSTM network.

•  [1] Acosta D, Ahn M, Anikeev K, et al. 2004 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 492 605 [2] 王景波 2013 博士学位论文 (北京: 清华大学) Wang J B 2013 Ph. D. Dissertation (Beijing: Tsinghua University) (in Chinese) [3] Wang Y, Wang J B, Cheng J P, et al. 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 613 200 [4] Wu J, Bonner B, Chen H F, et al. 2005 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 538 243 [5] Akindinov A, Anselmo F, Basile M, et al. 2000 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 456 16 [6] Williams M C S 1998 Nucl. Phys. B 61B 250 [7] Shao M, Ruan L J, Chen H F, et al. 2002 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 492 344 [8] Anghinolfi F, Jarron P, Krummenacher F, Usenko E, Williams M C S 2004 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 5 1974 [9] [10] Agakishiev H, Aggarwal M M, Ahammed Z, et al. 2011 Nature 473 353 [11] Boine-Frankenheim O 2010 Proceedings of IPAC’10 Kyoto, Japan, May 23-28, 2010 p2430 [12] Höhne C 2016 PoS 272 [13] Abbrescia M, Peskov V, Fonte P 2018 Resistive Gaseous Detectors: Designs, Performance, and Perspectives (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) pp234-235 [14] Wang J B, Wang Y, Zhu X L, et al. 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 621 151 [15] Wang J B, Wang Y, Gonzalez-Diaz D, et al. 2013 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 713 40 [16] Deppner I, Herrmann N, Akindinov A, et al. 2014 JINST 9 C10014 [17] Wang Y, Lyu P F, Huang X, et al. 2016 JINST 11 C08007 [18] Ciobanu M, Herrmann N, Hildenbrand K D, et al. 2008 IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Rec. Dresden, Germany, October 19—25, 2008 p2018 [19] The GSI Event Driven TDC ASIC GET4 V1.23, Flemming H, Deppe H http://dx.doi.org/10.15120/GR-2014-1-FG-CS-11/ [2018-12-13] [20] Cebra D, Geurts F, Depper I, et al. 2016 arXiv: 1609.05102 [nucl-ex] [21] Gao H, Gamberg L, Chen J P, et al. 2011 Eur. Phys. J. Plus 126 2 [22] Wang F Y, Han D, Wang Y, et al. 2018 arXiv: 1812.02912v2 [physics.ins-det] [23] Wang F Y, Han D, Wang Y, et al. 2018 arXiv: 1805.02833 [physics.ins-det] [24] Ritt S, 2008 IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Rec Dresden, Germany, October 19-25 2008, p1512 [25] Guida R, Mandelli B, Rigoletti G 2019 The 15th Vienna Conference on Instrumentation Vienna, 21 February. [26] Couceiroa M, Blancoa A, Ferreira Nuno C, et al. 2007 Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 580 915 [27] Wang J, Wang Y, Wang X, et al. 2016 JINST 11 C11008 [28] Eric O, Jean F G, Herv G, et al. 2013 arXiv: 1309.4397v1 [physics.ins-det] [29] Wang J H, Liu S B, Zhao L, et al. 2011 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58 2011
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•  Citation:
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##### Publishing process
• Received Date:  13 December 2018
• Accepted Date:  25 March 2019
• Available Online:  01 May 2019
• Published Online:  20 May 2019

## Time of flight technology based on multi-gap resistive plate chamber

###### Corresponding author: Wang Yi, yiwang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn;
• Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Abstract: Particle identification is very important in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Time of flight system (TOF) plays an important role in particle identification such as the separation of pion, kaon and proton. Multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) is a new kind of avalanche gas detector and it has excellent time resolution power. The intrinsic time resolution of narrow gap MRPC is less than 10 ps. So the MRPC technology TOF system is widely used in modern physics experiments for particle identification. With the increase of accelerator energy and luminosity, the TOF system is required to indentify definite particles precisely under high rate environment. The MRPC technology TOF system can be defined as three generations according to the timing and rate requirement. The first-generation TOF is based on the float glass MRPC and its time resolution is around 80 ps, but the rate is relatively low (typically lower than 100 Hz/cm2). The typical systems are TOF of RHIC-STAR, LHC-ALICE and BES III endcap. For the second-generation TOF, its time resolution has the same order as that for the first generation, but the rate capability is much higher. Its rate capability can reach 30 kHz/cm2. The typical experiment with this high rate TOF is FAIR-CBM. The biggest challenge is in the third-generation TOF. For example, the momentum upper limit of ${\rm{K}}/{\text{π}}$ separation is around 7 GeV/c for JLab-SoLID TOF system under high particle rate as high as 20 kHz/cm2, and the time requirement is around 20 ps. The readout electronics of first two generations is based on time over threshold method, and pulse shape sampling technology will be used in the third-generation TOF. In the same time, the machine learning technology LSTM network is also used to analyze the time performance. As a very successful sample, MRPC barrel TOF has been used in RHIC-STAR for more than ten years and many important physics results have been obtained. A prominent result is the observation of antimatter helium-4 nucleus. This discovery proves the existence of antimatter in the early universe. In this paper, we will describe the evolution of MRPC TOF technology and key technology of each generation of TOFs including MRPC detector and related electronics. The industrial and medical usage of MRPC are also introduced in the work finally.

Reference (29)

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