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Propagating properties of a upward positive leader in a negative triggered lightning

Wang Cai-Xia Qie Xiu-Shu Jiang Ru-Bin Yang Jing

Propagating properties of a upward positive leader in a negative triggered lightning

Wang Cai-Xia, Qie Xiu-Shu, Jiang Ru-Bin, Yang Jing
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  • Propagating properties of a upward positive leader are analyzed by using the data from the artificially triggered lightning experiment in Shandong 2009, including the high-speed camera records and simultaneous surface electric field fast change measurements at 30 m, 60 m and 480 m from the channel. The tip of the leader is brighter, and the leader's 2-D partial propagating speed along its channel irregularly changes in a wide range. This indicates that the upward positive leader exhibits obviously stepped characteristics. The average speed is 9.8×104 m/s from 340 m to 705 m at the beginning stage of the leader propagating. The upward positive leader is initiated at a speed of 3.8×104 m/s. The partial speed shows an increasing tendency with height increasing. The electric field change waveform of upward positive leaders has a regularly stepped shape. The step interval of 28 steps recorded ranges from 14 μs to 39 μs with a geometrical mean value of 25.1 μs. The induced step length varies from 0.9 m to 3.7 m with a geometrical mean value of 1.7m. The electric field change of upward positive leaders includes the slowly stepped change and pulsed change. The high-speed camera records and electric field measurements show that the channel of the leader tip bending can eliminate or weaken the stepped property of the electric field change. The positive step leader has a similar propagating mechanism to that the negative leader has, that is a step of leader originates from a bi-directional streamer front end of the leader tip.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41175002, 40930949) the“Hundred Talent Project” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, and the Funding Program for Academic Human Resources Development in Institutions of Higher Learning Under the Jurisdiction of Beijing Municipality of China (Grant No. PHR201008435).
    [1]

    Rakov V A, UmanMA 2003 Lightning: Physics and Effects (NewYork: Cambridge Univ. Press)

    [2]

    Zhao Y, Qie X S, Kong X Z, Zhang G S, Zhang T, Yang J, Feng G L, Zhang Q L, Wang D F 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 6616 (inChinese) [赵阳,郄秀书,孔祥贞,张广庶,张彤,杨静,冯桂力,张其林,王东方 2009 物理学报 58 6616 ]

    [3]

    Yang J, Qie X S, Wang J G, Zhao Y, Zhang Q L, Yuan T, Zhou Y J, Feng G L 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 1968 (in Chinese) [杨静,郄秀书,王建国,赵阳,张其林,袁铁,周筠珺,冯桂力 2008 物理学报 57 1968]

    [4]

    Jiang R B, Qie X S, Wang C X, Yang J, Zhang Q L, Wang J F, LiuD X 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 079201 (in Chinese) [蒋如斌,郄秀书,王彩霞,杨静,张其林,王俊芳,刘冬霞 2011 物理学报 60 079201]

    [5]

    Biagi C J, Jordan D M, Uman M A, Hill J D, BeasleyW H, Howard J 2009 Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 L15801 doi:10.1029/2009GL038525

    [6]

    Qie X S, Kong X Z 2007 Geophys. Res. Lett. 34 L06809 doi:10.1029/2006GL028771

    [7]

    Yang J, Qie X S, Zhang Q L, Zhao Y, Feng G L, Zhang T L, ZhangG S 2009 Atmos. Res. 91 393

    [8]

    Saba M M F, Cummins K L, Warner T A, Krider E P, Campos LZ S, Ballarotti M G, Pinto Jr O , Fleenor S A 2008 Geophys. Res.Lett. 35 L07802 doi:10.1029/2007GL033000

    [9]

    Kong X Z, Qie X S, Zhao Y 2008 Geophys. Res. Lett. 35 L05816doi:10.1029/ 2007GL032764

    [10]

    Kito Y, Horii K, Higashiyama Y, Nakamura K 1985 J. Geophys.Res. 90 6147

    [11]

    Idone V P 1992 Res. Lett. Atmos. Electr. 12 23

    [12]

    Yang J, Qie X S, Zhang Q L, Zhou Y J, Feng G L, Kong X Z,Zhang T L, Xiao Q F, Zhang G S,Wang H B 2007 Plateau Meteorology26 556 (in Chinese) [杨静,郄秀书,张其林,周筠珺,冯桂力,孔祥贞,张廷龙,肖庆复,张广庶,王怀斌 2007 高原气象 26 556 ]

    [13]

    McEachron K B 1939 Franklin Inst. 227 149

    [14]

    Berger K, Vogelsanger E 1966 Bull. Schweiz. Elektrotech. 57 599

    [15]

    Berge K, Vogelsanger E 1969 New Results of Lightning Observations.In Planetary Electrodynamics ( New York: Gordon andBreach)

    [16]

    Les Renardieres Group 1977 Electra 53 31

    [17]

    Schonland B F J 1956 The Lightning Discharge. In Handbuch ofPhysics 22 576

    [18]

    Berger K 1977 The Earth Flash. In Lightning. Vol.1. Physics of Lightning (New York: Academic Press)

    [19]

    Orville R E 1968 J. Geophys. Res. 73 6999

    [20]

    Qie X S, Zhang Q L, Zhou Y J, Feng G L, Zhang T L, Yang J,Kong X Z, Xiao Q F, Wu S J 2007 Science in China D 50 1241 (inChinese) [郄秀书,张其林,周筠珺,冯桂力,张廷龙,杨静,孔祥贞,肖庆复,吴书君 2007 中国科学D 50 1241 ]

    [21]

    Qie X S, Zhao Y, Zhang Q L, Yang J, Feng G L, Kong X Z, ZhouY J, Zhang T L, Zhang G S, Zhang T L,Wang D F, Cui H H, ZhaoZ K, Wu S J 2009 Atmos. Res. 91 310

    [22]

    Qie X S, Yang J, Jiang R B, Wang J F, Liu D X, Wang C X, XuanY J 2010 Chinese J. Atmos. Sin. 34 937 (in Chinese) [郄秀书,杨静,蒋如斌,王俊芳,刘冬霞,王彩霞,宣越健 2010 大气科学 34 937 ]

    [23]

    Schonland B F J 1950 The Flight of Thunderbolts (Oxford:Clarendon Press)

    [24]

    Williams E R 2006 Sci. Technol. 15 S91 doi:10.1088/0963-0252/15/2/S12

    [25]

    Stolzenburg M, Marshall T C, Rust W D, Bartels D L 2002 J.Geophys. Res. 107 D18 4352 doi:10.1029/2001JD000904

    [26]

    Ralph K, Tidman D A 1974 J. Geophys. Res. 79 865

    [27]

    Wang D H, Qie X S, Guo C M 1999 Lightning and ArtificiallyTriggered Lightning (Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaoda Press) (in Chinese) [王道洪,郄秀书,郭昌明 1999 雷电与人工引雷(上海:上海交大出版社)]

    [28]

    Chen S D, Zhang Y J, Yang S J, Dong W S, Huang Z H, Lü W T,Zheng D 2007 Proceedings of the CSEE 29 113 (in Chinese) [陈绍东,张义军,杨少杰,董万胜,黄智慧,吕伟涛,郑栋 2009 中国电机工程学报 29 113 ]

    [29]

    Biagi C J, Uman A, Hill D, Jordan M, Rakov A, Dwyer J 2010 J.Geophys. Res. 115 D23215 doi:10.1029/2010JD014616

  • [1]

    Rakov V A, UmanMA 2003 Lightning: Physics and Effects (NewYork: Cambridge Univ. Press)

    [2]

    Zhao Y, Qie X S, Kong X Z, Zhang G S, Zhang T, Yang J, Feng G L, Zhang Q L, Wang D F 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 6616 (inChinese) [赵阳,郄秀书,孔祥贞,张广庶,张彤,杨静,冯桂力,张其林,王东方 2009 物理学报 58 6616 ]

    [3]

    Yang J, Qie X S, Wang J G, Zhao Y, Zhang Q L, Yuan T, Zhou Y J, Feng G L 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 1968 (in Chinese) [杨静,郄秀书,王建国,赵阳,张其林,袁铁,周筠珺,冯桂力 2008 物理学报 57 1968]

    [4]

    Jiang R B, Qie X S, Wang C X, Yang J, Zhang Q L, Wang J F, LiuD X 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 079201 (in Chinese) [蒋如斌,郄秀书,王彩霞,杨静,张其林,王俊芳,刘冬霞 2011 物理学报 60 079201]

    [5]

    Biagi C J, Jordan D M, Uman M A, Hill J D, BeasleyW H, Howard J 2009 Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 L15801 doi:10.1029/2009GL038525

    [6]

    Qie X S, Kong X Z 2007 Geophys. Res. Lett. 34 L06809 doi:10.1029/2006GL028771

    [7]

    Yang J, Qie X S, Zhang Q L, Zhao Y, Feng G L, Zhang T L, ZhangG S 2009 Atmos. Res. 91 393

    [8]

    Saba M M F, Cummins K L, Warner T A, Krider E P, Campos LZ S, Ballarotti M G, Pinto Jr O , Fleenor S A 2008 Geophys. Res.Lett. 35 L07802 doi:10.1029/2007GL033000

    [9]

    Kong X Z, Qie X S, Zhao Y 2008 Geophys. Res. Lett. 35 L05816doi:10.1029/ 2007GL032764

    [10]

    Kito Y, Horii K, Higashiyama Y, Nakamura K 1985 J. Geophys.Res. 90 6147

    [11]

    Idone V P 1992 Res. Lett. Atmos. Electr. 12 23

    [12]

    Yang J, Qie X S, Zhang Q L, Zhou Y J, Feng G L, Kong X Z,Zhang T L, Xiao Q F, Zhang G S,Wang H B 2007 Plateau Meteorology26 556 (in Chinese) [杨静,郄秀书,张其林,周筠珺,冯桂力,孔祥贞,张廷龙,肖庆复,张广庶,王怀斌 2007 高原气象 26 556 ]

    [13]

    McEachron K B 1939 Franklin Inst. 227 149

    [14]

    Berger K, Vogelsanger E 1966 Bull. Schweiz. Elektrotech. 57 599

    [15]

    Berge K, Vogelsanger E 1969 New Results of Lightning Observations.In Planetary Electrodynamics ( New York: Gordon andBreach)

    [16]

    Les Renardieres Group 1977 Electra 53 31

    [17]

    Schonland B F J 1956 The Lightning Discharge. In Handbuch ofPhysics 22 576

    [18]

    Berger K 1977 The Earth Flash. In Lightning. Vol.1. Physics of Lightning (New York: Academic Press)

    [19]

    Orville R E 1968 J. Geophys. Res. 73 6999

    [20]

    Qie X S, Zhang Q L, Zhou Y J, Feng G L, Zhang T L, Yang J,Kong X Z, Xiao Q F, Wu S J 2007 Science in China D 50 1241 (inChinese) [郄秀书,张其林,周筠珺,冯桂力,张廷龙,杨静,孔祥贞,肖庆复,吴书君 2007 中国科学D 50 1241 ]

    [21]

    Qie X S, Zhao Y, Zhang Q L, Yang J, Feng G L, Kong X Z, ZhouY J, Zhang T L, Zhang G S, Zhang T L,Wang D F, Cui H H, ZhaoZ K, Wu S J 2009 Atmos. Res. 91 310

    [22]

    Qie X S, Yang J, Jiang R B, Wang J F, Liu D X, Wang C X, XuanY J 2010 Chinese J. Atmos. Sin. 34 937 (in Chinese) [郄秀书,杨静,蒋如斌,王俊芳,刘冬霞,王彩霞,宣越健 2010 大气科学 34 937 ]

    [23]

    Schonland B F J 1950 The Flight of Thunderbolts (Oxford:Clarendon Press)

    [24]

    Williams E R 2006 Sci. Technol. 15 S91 doi:10.1088/0963-0252/15/2/S12

    [25]

    Stolzenburg M, Marshall T C, Rust W D, Bartels D L 2002 J.Geophys. Res. 107 D18 4352 doi:10.1029/2001JD000904

    [26]

    Ralph K, Tidman D A 1974 J. Geophys. Res. 79 865

    [27]

    Wang D H, Qie X S, Guo C M 1999 Lightning and ArtificiallyTriggered Lightning (Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaoda Press) (in Chinese) [王道洪,郄秀书,郭昌明 1999 雷电与人工引雷(上海:上海交大出版社)]

    [28]

    Chen S D, Zhang Y J, Yang S J, Dong W S, Huang Z H, Lü W T,Zheng D 2007 Proceedings of the CSEE 29 113 (in Chinese) [陈绍东,张义军,杨少杰,董万胜,黄智慧,吕伟涛,郑栋 2009 中国电机工程学报 29 113 ]

    [29]

    Biagi C J, Uman A, Hill D, Jordan M, Rakov A, Dwyer J 2010 J.Geophys. Res. 115 D23215 doi:10.1029/2010JD014616

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  • Received Date:  07 April 2011
  • Accepted Date:  16 May 2011
  • Published Online:  15 March 2012

Propagating properties of a upward positive leader in a negative triggered lightning

  • 1. Key Laboratory of Middle Atmosphere and Global Environment Observation, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100029, China;
  • 2. Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Beijing 100192, China;
  • 3. Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41175002, 40930949) the“Hundred Talent Project” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, and the Funding Program for Academic Human Resources Development in Institutions of Higher Learning Under the Jurisdiction of Beijing Municipality of China (Grant No. PHR201008435).

Abstract: Propagating properties of a upward positive leader are analyzed by using the data from the artificially triggered lightning experiment in Shandong 2009, including the high-speed camera records and simultaneous surface electric field fast change measurements at 30 m, 60 m and 480 m from the channel. The tip of the leader is brighter, and the leader's 2-D partial propagating speed along its channel irregularly changes in a wide range. This indicates that the upward positive leader exhibits obviously stepped characteristics. The average speed is 9.8×104 m/s from 340 m to 705 m at the beginning stage of the leader propagating. The upward positive leader is initiated at a speed of 3.8×104 m/s. The partial speed shows an increasing tendency with height increasing. The electric field change waveform of upward positive leaders has a regularly stepped shape. The step interval of 28 steps recorded ranges from 14 μs to 39 μs with a geometrical mean value of 25.1 μs. The induced step length varies from 0.9 m to 3.7 m with a geometrical mean value of 1.7m. The electric field change of upward positive leaders includes the slowly stepped change and pulsed change. The high-speed camera records and electric field measurements show that the channel of the leader tip bending can eliminate or weaken the stepped property of the electric field change. The positive step leader has a similar propagating mechanism to that the negative leader has, that is a step of leader originates from a bi-directional streamer front end of the leader tip.

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