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Influence of sea spray droplets on drag coefficient in high wind speed

Shi Jian Zhou Lin Yang Long-Ying

Influence of sea spray droplets on drag coefficient in high wind speed

Shi Jian, Zhou Lin, Yang Long-Ying
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  • Sea spray droplets change the distribution of air-sea momentum fluxes in the sea surface, and then influence sea surface drag coefficient considerably. In order to estimate the influence of sea spray droplets on drag coefficient exactly, a new sea spray generation function (SSGF) which depends on wind and wave, is deduced. Then the SSGF is integrated into the spray momentum flux formula to calculate the spray momentum flux. The result shows that revised spray momentum flux formula are sensitive to the wave state remarkably. It indicates that the new sea spray flux formulae can be used in any wave state. The total momentum flux of sea surface contains sea spray momentum flux and air-sea interface momentum flux. Based on this theory, the formula of drag coefficient which is influenced by sea spray droplets at high wind speed is acquired. The theoretical result of the drag coefficient formula shows that the drag coefficient reduces at the high wind speed, which indicates that the sea spray droplets can restrict the increase of drag coefficient at high wind speed. Comparison between theoretical value and measured value of sea surface drag coefficient in field and laboratory shows that the theoretical value of drag coefficient cover the measured value almost. Meanwhile, with the new sea surface drag coefficient, ocean wave model can model the significant wave height very well in typhoon condition. All the results show that the new drag coefficient can be used properly at high wind speed.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41106014).
    [1]

    Zhang S W 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 3287 (in Chinese) [张书文 2008 物理学报 57 3287]

    [2]

    Zhang S W, Chao R X, Zhu F Q 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 119201 (in Chinese) [张书文, 曹瑞雪, 朱凤芹 2011 物理学报 60 119201]

    [3]

    Liu L, Fei J F, Huang X G, Cheng X P 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 149201 (in Chinese) [刘磊, 费建芳, 黄小刚, 程小平 2012 物理学报 61 149201]

    [4]

    Andreas E L 2004 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34 1429

    [5]

    Makin V K 2005 Bound. Layer Meteorol. 115 169

    [6]

    Munk W H 1955 Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 81 320

    [7]

    Cavaleri L, Alves J H G M, Ardhuin F, Babanin A 2007 Progress in Oceanography 75 603

    [8]

    Powell M D, Vickery P J, Reinhold T A 2003 Nature 422 279

    [9]

    Andreas E L, DeCosmo J 2002 Bound. Layer Meteorol. 103 303

    [10]

    Pomeroy J W, Male D H 1987 Seasonal Snowcovers: Physics, Chemistry, Hydrology (Dordrecht: D. Reidel) p119

    [11]

    Raupach M R 1991 Acta Mech. 1 83

    [12]

    Shi J, Zhong Z, Li R J, Li Y, Sha W Y 2011 Acta Oceanologica Sinica 30 9

    [13]

    Liu L, Fei J F, Zhang L B, Huang X G, Cheng X P 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 059201 (in Chinese) [刘磊, 费建芳, 章立标, 黄小刚, 程小平 2012 物理学报 61 059201]

    [14]

    Zhao D L, Toba Y, Suzuki Y, Komori S 2003 Tellus B 55 478

    [15]

    Andreas E L 1992 J. Geophys. Res. 97 11429

    [16]

    Iida N, Toba Y, Chaen M 1992 J. Oceanogr. 48 439

    [17]

    Wu J 1973 J. Geophys. Res. 78 511

    [18]

    Wu J 1993 J. Geophys. Res. 98 18221

    [19]

    Lai R J, Shemdin O H 1974 J. Geophys. Res. 79 3055

    [20]

    Zhao D, Toba Y, Sugioka K, Komori S 2006 J. Geophys. Res. 111 02007

    [21]

    Woolf D K, Monahan E C, Spiel D E 1988 Seventh Conference on Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction, Anaheim, Calif., February 1-5, 1988 p182

    [22]

    Monahan E C 1986 The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling (Dordrecht: D. Reidel) p129

    [23]

    Lafon C, Piazzola J, Forget P, Calve O L, Despiau S 2004 Bound. Layer Meteorol. 111 339

    [24]

    Guan C L, Xie L 2004 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34 2847

    [25]

    Guan C L, Hu W, Sun J, Li R L 2008 J. Geophys. Res. 112 C05031

    [26]

    Zhao D, Toba Y 2001 J. Oceanogr. 57 603

    [27]

    Fitzgerald J W 1975 J. Appl. Meteor. 14 1044

    [28]

    Wu J 1980 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 13 1441

    [29]

    Donelan M A, Haus B K, Reul N, Plant W J, Stiassnie M, Graber H C, Brown O B, Saltzman E S 2004 Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 L18306

    [30]

    Moon I J, Ginis I, Hara T, Thomas B 2007 Mon. Wea. Rev. 135 2869

    [31]

    Fan Y, Ginis I, Hara T, Wright C W, Walsh E J 2009 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 39 2097

    [32]

    Tolman H L, Chalikov D 1996 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26 2497

    [33]

    Huang S X, Cai Q F, Xiang J, Zhang M 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 3202 (in Chinese) [黄思训, 蔡其发, 项杰, 张铭 2007 物理学报 56 3202]

    [34]

    Zhou Y S, Cao J, Gao S T 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 6654 (in Chinese) [周玉淑, 曹洁, 高守亭 2008 物理学报 57 6654]

  • [1]

    Zhang S W 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 3287 (in Chinese) [张书文 2008 物理学报 57 3287]

    [2]

    Zhang S W, Chao R X, Zhu F Q 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 119201 (in Chinese) [张书文, 曹瑞雪, 朱凤芹 2011 物理学报 60 119201]

    [3]

    Liu L, Fei J F, Huang X G, Cheng X P 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 149201 (in Chinese) [刘磊, 费建芳, 黄小刚, 程小平 2012 物理学报 61 149201]

    [4]

    Andreas E L 2004 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34 1429

    [5]

    Makin V K 2005 Bound. Layer Meteorol. 115 169

    [6]

    Munk W H 1955 Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 81 320

    [7]

    Cavaleri L, Alves J H G M, Ardhuin F, Babanin A 2007 Progress in Oceanography 75 603

    [8]

    Powell M D, Vickery P J, Reinhold T A 2003 Nature 422 279

    [9]

    Andreas E L, DeCosmo J 2002 Bound. Layer Meteorol. 103 303

    [10]

    Pomeroy J W, Male D H 1987 Seasonal Snowcovers: Physics, Chemistry, Hydrology (Dordrecht: D. Reidel) p119

    [11]

    Raupach M R 1991 Acta Mech. 1 83

    [12]

    Shi J, Zhong Z, Li R J, Li Y, Sha W Y 2011 Acta Oceanologica Sinica 30 9

    [13]

    Liu L, Fei J F, Zhang L B, Huang X G, Cheng X P 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 059201 (in Chinese) [刘磊, 费建芳, 章立标, 黄小刚, 程小平 2012 物理学报 61 059201]

    [14]

    Zhao D L, Toba Y, Suzuki Y, Komori S 2003 Tellus B 55 478

    [15]

    Andreas E L 1992 J. Geophys. Res. 97 11429

    [16]

    Iida N, Toba Y, Chaen M 1992 J. Oceanogr. 48 439

    [17]

    Wu J 1973 J. Geophys. Res. 78 511

    [18]

    Wu J 1993 J. Geophys. Res. 98 18221

    [19]

    Lai R J, Shemdin O H 1974 J. Geophys. Res. 79 3055

    [20]

    Zhao D, Toba Y, Sugioka K, Komori S 2006 J. Geophys. Res. 111 02007

    [21]

    Woolf D K, Monahan E C, Spiel D E 1988 Seventh Conference on Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction, Anaheim, Calif., February 1-5, 1988 p182

    [22]

    Monahan E C 1986 The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling (Dordrecht: D. Reidel) p129

    [23]

    Lafon C, Piazzola J, Forget P, Calve O L, Despiau S 2004 Bound. Layer Meteorol. 111 339

    [24]

    Guan C L, Xie L 2004 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34 2847

    [25]

    Guan C L, Hu W, Sun J, Li R L 2008 J. Geophys. Res. 112 C05031

    [26]

    Zhao D, Toba Y 2001 J. Oceanogr. 57 603

    [27]

    Fitzgerald J W 1975 J. Appl. Meteor. 14 1044

    [28]

    Wu J 1980 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 13 1441

    [29]

    Donelan M A, Haus B K, Reul N, Plant W J, Stiassnie M, Graber H C, Brown O B, Saltzman E S 2004 Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 L18306

    [30]

    Moon I J, Ginis I, Hara T, Thomas B 2007 Mon. Wea. Rev. 135 2869

    [31]

    Fan Y, Ginis I, Hara T, Wright C W, Walsh E J 2009 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 39 2097

    [32]

    Tolman H L, Chalikov D 1996 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26 2497

    [33]

    Huang S X, Cai Q F, Xiang J, Zhang M 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 3202 (in Chinese) [黄思训, 蔡其发, 项杰, 张铭 2007 物理学报 56 3202]

    [34]

    Zhou Y S, Cao J, Gao S T 2008 Acta Phys. Sin. 57 6654 (in Chinese) [周玉淑, 曹洁, 高守亭 2008 物理学报 57 6654]

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  • Received Date:  17 July 2012
  • Accepted Date:  05 September 2012
  • Published Online:  05 February 2013

Influence of sea spray droplets on drag coefficient in high wind speed

  • 1. Institute of Meteorology, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 211101, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41106014).

Abstract: Sea spray droplets change the distribution of air-sea momentum fluxes in the sea surface, and then influence sea surface drag coefficient considerably. In order to estimate the influence of sea spray droplets on drag coefficient exactly, a new sea spray generation function (SSGF) which depends on wind and wave, is deduced. Then the SSGF is integrated into the spray momentum flux formula to calculate the spray momentum flux. The result shows that revised spray momentum flux formula are sensitive to the wave state remarkably. It indicates that the new sea spray flux formulae can be used in any wave state. The total momentum flux of sea surface contains sea spray momentum flux and air-sea interface momentum flux. Based on this theory, the formula of drag coefficient which is influenced by sea spray droplets at high wind speed is acquired. The theoretical result of the drag coefficient formula shows that the drag coefficient reduces at the high wind speed, which indicates that the sea spray droplets can restrict the increase of drag coefficient at high wind speed. Comparison between theoretical value and measured value of sea surface drag coefficient in field and laboratory shows that the theoretical value of drag coefficient cover the measured value almost. Meanwhile, with the new sea surface drag coefficient, ocean wave model can model the significant wave height very well in typhoon condition. All the results show that the new drag coefficient can be used properly at high wind speed.

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