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Design and performance of spectroscopic filter of rotational Raman temperature lidar for absolute measurement

Li Qi-Meng Li Shi-Chun Qin Yu-Li Hu Xiang-Long Zhao Jing Song Yue-Hui Hua Deng-Xin

Design and performance of spectroscopic filter of rotational Raman temperature lidar for absolute measurement

Li Qi-Meng, Li Shi-Chun, Qin Yu-Li, Hu Xiang-Long, Zhao Jing, Song Yue-Hui, Hua Deng-Xin
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  • Rotational Raman temperature lidar for absolute measurement is an important method to directly detect the atmospheric temperature profile by using active remote sensing technology. Compared with the rotational Raman temperature relative measurement, the absolute measurement can avoid the systematic error caused by the calibration process, but its high-precision requirements of rotational Raman spectroscopic filter restrict the development of absolute measurement technique for atmosphere temperature. In order to achieve the absolute measurement technique of rotational Raman temperature lidar, the fine resolution of single rotational Raman line and the effective suppression 60-70 dB for the elastic scattering signal are the key factors for directly retrieving the atmospheric temperature by using the relationship between the single rotational Raman line and temperature. Based on the operational principle of grating, a two-stage parallel multi-channel Raman spectroscopic filter with one-order blazed grating and fiber Bragg grating is designed, and the parameters and optical path structure of the core cascade device (micron-level fiber array) are optimized. The optical path of the primary spectroscope is simulated, the wavelength difference between the rotational Raman lines of adjacent even rotational quantum numbers of nitrogen molecule (N2) gradually decreases from 0.4506 nm to 0.4475 nm. Compared with the average of approximately 0.4494 nm, its floating interval is -0.0012-+0.0019 nm, and the maximum centrifugal distortion of the rotational Raman spectra is approximately 0.0031 nm, which means that the centrifugal distortion ratio is 0.69%. Under the different values of incident angle , the diffraction position difference between adjacent rotational Raman lines varies from 124.43 m to 125.51 m, with a variation interval of -0.57-+0.51 m compared with a fixed value of 125 m. In order to test the matching consistency between rotational Raman spectra and the multi-channel fiber array, and to obtain the out-of-band suppression and channel coefficient of each fiber channel, an experimental system which consists of a first-order blazed grating, a convex lens and a fiber array is set up, and the atmospheric echo signal is simulated by using a broadband light-source and a semiconductor laser (LD). The experimental results show that the channel coefficient of the rotational Raman channels of the primary spectroscope is above 0.75, and the maximum deviation between the measured wavelength of extracted spectrum and the theoretical value is approximately 0.0398 nm, which means the the deviation degree is 8.86%. Each channel can provide more than 27 dB effective suppression to elastic scattering signal, and then by combining with the second spectroscope of fiber Bragg grating, the suppression at least is up to 62 dB. Therefore we can fine extract single rotational Raman line of even rotational quantum number.
      Corresponding author: Li Shi-Chun, lsczqz@xaut.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61308106, 41627807).
    [1]

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    [2]

    Yang J, Liu Q Q, Dai W, Mao X L, Zhang J H, Li M 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 094209(in Chinese) [杨杰, 刘清惓, 戴伟, 冒晓莉, 张加宏, 李敏 2016 物理学报 65 094209]

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    Cooney J 1972 J. Apll. Meteorol. 11 108

    [4]

    Hua D X, Uchida M, Kobayashi T 2005 Appl. Opt. 44 1305

    [5]

    Shi J L, Guo P F, Huang Y, Qian J C, Wang H P, Liu J, He X D 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 024215(in Chinese) [史久林, 郭鹏峰, 黄育, 钱佳成, 王泓鹏, 刘娟, 何兴道 2015 物理学报 64 024215]

    [6]

    Hua D X, Song X Q 2008 Infrar. Laser Eng. 38 21(in Chinese) [华灯鑫, 宋小全 2008 红外与激光工程 38 21]

    [7]

    Li S C, Hua D X, Hu L L, Yan Q, Tian X Y 2014 Spectrosc. Lett. 47 244

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    Arshinov Y, Bobrovnikov S, Serikov I, Ansmann A, Wandinger U, Althausen D, Mattis I, Mller D 2005 Appl. Opt. 44 3593

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    Balin I, Serikov I, Bobrovnikov S, Simeonov V, Calpini B, Arshinov Y, van den Bergh H 2004 Appl. Phys.. 9 775

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    Chen S, Qiu Z, Zhang Y, Chen H, Wang Y 2011 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. 112 304

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    Su J, Zhang Y C, Zhao Y F, Liu Y L, Hong G L, Zhao P T, Qu K F, Xie J 2007 Chin. J. Lasers 34 94(in Chinese) [苏嘉, 张寅超, 赵曰峰, 刘玉丽, 洪光烈, 赵培涛, 屈凯峰, 谢军 2007 红外与激光工程 34 94]

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    Behrendt A, Nakamura T, Tsuda T 2004 Appl. Opt. 43 2930

    [13]

    Zeyn J, Lahmann W, Weitkamp C 1996 Opt. Lett. 21 1301

    [14]

    Li S C, Hua D X, Wang Y F, Gao F, Yan Q, Shi X J 2015 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.. 153 113

    [15]

    Mao J D, Hua D X, Huo L L, Wang Y F, Wang L 2010 Acta Optic. Sin. 30 8(in Chinese) [毛建东, 华灯鑫, 胡辽林, 王玉峰, 汪丽 2010 光学学报 30 8]

    [16]

    Radlach M, Behrendt A, Wulfmeyer V 2008 Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8 159

    [17]

    Li S C, Wang D L, Li Q M, Song Y H, Liu L J, Hua D X 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 143301(in Chinese) [李仕春, 王大龙, 李启蒙, 宋跃辉, 刘丽娟, 华灯鑫 2016 物理学报 65 143301]

    [18]

    Norton E G, Povey I M, South A M, Jones R L 2001 Proc. SPIE 4153 657

    [19]

    Li S C, Hua D X, Wang L L, Song Y H 2013 Optik 124 1450

    [20]

    Li S C, Hua D X, Song Y H, Tian X Y 2012 Acta Photon. Sin. 41 1053(in Chinese) [李仕春, 华灯鑫, 宋跃辉, 田小雨 2012 光子学报 41 1053]

    [21]

    Hoskins L C 1975 J. Chem. Educ. 52 568

  • [1]

    Li Y J, Song S L, Li F Q, Cheng X W, Chen Z W, Liu L M, Yang Y, Gong S S 2015 Chin. J. Geophys. 58 313(in Chinese) [李亚娟, 宋沙磊, 李发泉, 程学武, 陈振威, 刘林美, 杨勇, 龚顺生 2015 地球物理学报 58 313]

    [2]

    Yang J, Liu Q Q, Dai W, Mao X L, Zhang J H, Li M 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 094209(in Chinese) [杨杰, 刘清惓, 戴伟, 冒晓莉, 张加宏, 李敏 2016 物理学报 65 094209]

    [3]

    Cooney J 1972 J. Apll. Meteorol. 11 108

    [4]

    Hua D X, Uchida M, Kobayashi T 2005 Appl. Opt. 44 1305

    [5]

    Shi J L, Guo P F, Huang Y, Qian J C, Wang H P, Liu J, He X D 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 024215(in Chinese) [史久林, 郭鹏峰, 黄育, 钱佳成, 王泓鹏, 刘娟, 何兴道 2015 物理学报 64 024215]

    [6]

    Hua D X, Song X Q 2008 Infrar. Laser Eng. 38 21(in Chinese) [华灯鑫, 宋小全 2008 红外与激光工程 38 21]

    [7]

    Li S C, Hua D X, Hu L L, Yan Q, Tian X Y 2014 Spectrosc. Lett. 47 244

    [8]

    Arshinov Y, Bobrovnikov S, Serikov I, Ansmann A, Wandinger U, Althausen D, Mattis I, Mller D 2005 Appl. Opt. 44 3593

    [9]

    Balin I, Serikov I, Bobrovnikov S, Simeonov V, Calpini B, Arshinov Y, van den Bergh H 2004 Appl. Phys.. 9 775

    [10]

    Chen S, Qiu Z, Zhang Y, Chen H, Wang Y 2011 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. 112 304

    [11]

    Su J, Zhang Y C, Zhao Y F, Liu Y L, Hong G L, Zhao P T, Qu K F, Xie J 2007 Chin. J. Lasers 34 94(in Chinese) [苏嘉, 张寅超, 赵曰峰, 刘玉丽, 洪光烈, 赵培涛, 屈凯峰, 谢军 2007 红外与激光工程 34 94]

    [12]

    Behrendt A, Nakamura T, Tsuda T 2004 Appl. Opt. 43 2930

    [13]

    Zeyn J, Lahmann W, Weitkamp C 1996 Opt. Lett. 21 1301

    [14]

    Li S C, Hua D X, Wang Y F, Gao F, Yan Q, Shi X J 2015 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat.. 153 113

    [15]

    Mao J D, Hua D X, Huo L L, Wang Y F, Wang L 2010 Acta Optic. Sin. 30 8(in Chinese) [毛建东, 华灯鑫, 胡辽林, 王玉峰, 汪丽 2010 光学学报 30 8]

    [16]

    Radlach M, Behrendt A, Wulfmeyer V 2008 Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8 159

    [17]

    Li S C, Wang D L, Li Q M, Song Y H, Liu L J, Hua D X 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 143301(in Chinese) [李仕春, 王大龙, 李启蒙, 宋跃辉, 刘丽娟, 华灯鑫 2016 物理学报 65 143301]

    [18]

    Norton E G, Povey I M, South A M, Jones R L 2001 Proc. SPIE 4153 657

    [19]

    Li S C, Hua D X, Wang L L, Song Y H 2013 Optik 124 1450

    [20]

    Li S C, Hua D X, Song Y H, Tian X Y 2012 Acta Photon. Sin. 41 1053(in Chinese) [李仕春, 华灯鑫, 宋跃辉, 田小雨 2012 光子学报 41 1053]

    [21]

    Hoskins L C 1975 J. Chem. Educ. 52 568

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  • Received Date:  14 August 2017
  • Accepted Date:  07 October 2017
  • Published Online:  05 January 2018

Design and performance of spectroscopic filter of rotational Raman temperature lidar for absolute measurement

    Corresponding author: Li Shi-Chun, lsczqz@xaut.edu.cn
  • 1. School of Mechanical and Precision Instrument Engineering, Xi'an 710048, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61308106, 41627807).

Abstract: Rotational Raman temperature lidar for absolute measurement is an important method to directly detect the atmospheric temperature profile by using active remote sensing technology. Compared with the rotational Raman temperature relative measurement, the absolute measurement can avoid the systematic error caused by the calibration process, but its high-precision requirements of rotational Raman spectroscopic filter restrict the development of absolute measurement technique for atmosphere temperature. In order to achieve the absolute measurement technique of rotational Raman temperature lidar, the fine resolution of single rotational Raman line and the effective suppression 60-70 dB for the elastic scattering signal are the key factors for directly retrieving the atmospheric temperature by using the relationship between the single rotational Raman line and temperature. Based on the operational principle of grating, a two-stage parallel multi-channel Raman spectroscopic filter with one-order blazed grating and fiber Bragg grating is designed, and the parameters and optical path structure of the core cascade device (micron-level fiber array) are optimized. The optical path of the primary spectroscope is simulated, the wavelength difference between the rotational Raman lines of adjacent even rotational quantum numbers of nitrogen molecule (N2) gradually decreases from 0.4506 nm to 0.4475 nm. Compared with the average of approximately 0.4494 nm, its floating interval is -0.0012-+0.0019 nm, and the maximum centrifugal distortion of the rotational Raman spectra is approximately 0.0031 nm, which means that the centrifugal distortion ratio is 0.69%. Under the different values of incident angle , the diffraction position difference between adjacent rotational Raman lines varies from 124.43 m to 125.51 m, with a variation interval of -0.57-+0.51 m compared with a fixed value of 125 m. In order to test the matching consistency between rotational Raman spectra and the multi-channel fiber array, and to obtain the out-of-band suppression and channel coefficient of each fiber channel, an experimental system which consists of a first-order blazed grating, a convex lens and a fiber array is set up, and the atmospheric echo signal is simulated by using a broadband light-source and a semiconductor laser (LD). The experimental results show that the channel coefficient of the rotational Raman channels of the primary spectroscope is above 0.75, and the maximum deviation between the measured wavelength of extracted spectrum and the theoretical value is approximately 0.0398 nm, which means the the deviation degree is 8.86%. Each channel can provide more than 27 dB effective suppression to elastic scattering signal, and then by combining with the second spectroscope of fiber Bragg grating, the suppression at least is up to 62 dB. Therefore we can fine extract single rotational Raman line of even rotational quantum number.

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