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GENERAL

Water distribution in confined space of single-wall carbon nanotube
Sun Zhi-Wei, He Yan, Tang Yuan-Zheng
2021, 70 (6): 060201. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20201523
Abstract +
Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), they have attracted extensive attention from scholars in various fields because of their excellent properties. The hollow-structured CNTs are often regarded as conduits and containers, which can act as nano-channels for various molecular substances in the membrane structure. As a source of life, water is indispensable to any living organism. In the application of carbon nanotubes as nanochannels, the most important is the ability of carbon nanotubes to store and transport liquids, especially nanoscaled aqueous solutions. Water molecular clusters in confined spaces exhibit unusual structures and properties. The study of special water structures in carbon nanotubes is of great theoretical importance in chemistry, biology and materials science. There are great difficulties in making the experiment on a nanoscale, but molecular dynamic simulation enables us to better study and analyze the structure and properties of water in confined space of CNT on a nanoscale. One has also studied the influence of temperature on the structure of water, but there are few studies focusing on the effect of temperature on the structure of water in confined space. Therefore, molecular dynamics simulation is used to investigate the effects of CNT diameter, CNT chirality and temperature on the water structure and distribution in a confined space. The simulation calculation is completed by GROMACS, the SPE/C water model is used for water molecules, and GROMOS96 54a7 force field is used. Because of the presence of carbon nanotubes, water molecules tend to line up against the walls of the tubes, both inside and outside. In addition, water molecules tend to form highly ordered multi-ring structures in the carbon nanotubes with a size of 1.018–1.253 nm at a certain temperature. It is difficult to form the ordered structure of water in the outer carbon nanotubes. In the above range, with the increase of pipe diameter, the structure of multi-element ring water changes from three-element ring to six-element ring. On the one hand, the ordered structure depends on the diameter of the carbon nanotube, but the chirality of the carbon nanotube does not have a great influence on it. On the other hand, the stability of the ordered structure is temperature-dependent, and the ordered structure of multiple ring water in the carbon nanotube with a larger diameter is more likely to disappear with the increase of temperature. The van der Waals potential distribution is calculated by Multiwfn, and it is concluded that the van der Waals potential inside the tube is extremely low, resulting in a very large dispersion effect, and molecules can spontaneously move from the outer area to the tube. The van der Waals potential can also be negative outside the tube. This explains why water molecules tend to line up against the wall of the tube.

REVIEW

State-of-the-art passive protection technologies of lunar dust
Mu Meng, Zhang Hai-Yan, Wang Xiao, Li Cun-Hui, Zhang Xiao-Ping, Wang Ming-Zhi, Zhu Ying-Min, Gao Li-Bo, Zhao Cheng-Xuan, Lu Yang, Wang Wei-Dong
2021, 70 (6): 060501. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20201517
Abstract +
In lunar circumstances, lunar dust has special properties such as conductivity, which can cause lunar dust to easily adhere to the surface of detection equipment. And this behavior will cause the equipment to fail to function properly and thus affecting the lunar exploration missions. According to the researches of lunar dust protection, in this article the passive protection technology of lunar dust is mainly analyzed. Firstly, the lunar-dust caused adverse factors and effects on detection equipment are analyzed. Then the mechanism of lunar dust adhesion is studied, and the theoretical basis of the two main forces that cause adhesion is discussed. Secondly, the main methods of reducing the adhesion of lunar dust particles are systematically explained according to different adhesion mechanisms, and the latest progress of the passive protection technology of the lunar dust is introduced in detail. Combined with the different protection methods, the method of testing the adhesion of the lunar dust is summarized. These studies lay the foundation for effectively protecting the surface of detection equipment from being affected by the lunar dust.

GENERAL

High-order nonlinear response correction method for infrared radiation detector
Sun Yong-Feng, Xu Liang, Shen Xian-Chun, Jin Ling, Xu Han-Yang, Cheng Xiao-Xiao, Wang Yu-Hao, Liu Wen-Qing, Liu Jian-Guo
2021, 70 (6): 060701. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20201530
Abstract +
The infrared detector can generate nonlinear response error when the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is used for implementing the radiometric calibration or observing the high temperature targets. Based on the relationship between the incident radiation intensity and the electron concentration in the optical conduction band, the mechanism of the nonlinear response error caused by the high incident photon flow is analyzed. According to Planck radiation law and interference principle, the effect of nonlinear error on spectrum is studied by simulating blackbody radiation data with nonlinear error. It is found that the nonlinear response with a different order has a different influence region, and the higher-order nonlinear response has a wider influence range and generates a larger nonlinear response error. By the general nonlinear response correction method the nonlinear response coefficient is obtained through constructing the nonlinear response model of the interference data and then the spectral distortion produced by the detector is corrected. According to the convolution iteration method, the polar orbit meteorological satellite CrIS constructs the convolution equation to correct the second-order nonlinear response by taking the low-wave number band of 50-500 cm–1 as the characteristic region. The European Meteorological Agency’s Airborne Infrared Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES) selected two feature areas, 50-500 cm–1 and 2000-2500 cm–1, and iteratively corrected the second-order and third-order nonlinear response. The gradient descent method is often used to solve the optimization problems of unconstrained multivariate functions. Based on the gradient descent algorithm, an iterative method suitable for correcting the high-order nonlinear response errors is proposed in this paper. In this method, the information about the iteration point is obtained by constructing the nonlinear response function of the high-order detector and setting the appropriate iteration initialization. According to the initial value of the iteration and the information about the known iteration point, the gradient of the iteration variable is calculated to determine the iteration value of the next unknown variable, thus quickly searching for the global minimum point and determining the nonlinear response coefficient. We use Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to carry out radiometric calibration experiment and compare the effects of three correction methods: convolution, cross iteration and gradient descent method. The results show that the three correction methods can effectively reduce the nonlinear error, and improve the fitting extent by 0.15%, 0.29% and 0.39% respectively. The spectral data corrected by gradient descent method are more accurate.

SPECIAL TOPIC—Toward making functional devices at an atomic scale: Fundamentals and frontiers

Terahertz measurement based on Rydberg atomic antenna
Chen Zhi-Wen, She Zhen-Yue, Liao Kai-Yu, Huang Wei, Yan Hui, Zhu Shi-Liang
2021, 70 (6): 060702. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20201870
Abstract +
Rydberg atoms have large electric dipole moments in the microwave and terahertz frequency band. The detection of electromagnetic field intensity in this frequency band can be achieved by using quantum interference effects. Theoretically, this detection method can have a sensitivity much higher than the traditional detection methods. Therefore, electromagnetic field detection and precision measurement technology based on Rydberg atomic quantum effects has great application prospects in terahertz field strength and power measurement, terahertz communication and imaging. In this paper, we review the basic theory and experimental methods to realize the self-calibration and traceability measurement of electromagnetic field based on Rydberg atomic quantum effects. The principle and technical scheme of high-sensitivity terahertz field strength measurement, terahertz near-field high-speed imaging and terahertz digital communication based on Rydberg atom are introduced in detail. Finally, the processing terahertz detection work based on Rydberg atom by our research team is also mentioned briefly.

SPECIAL TOPIC—Toward making functional devices at an atomic scale: Fundamentals and frontiers

Analysis of optical measurement precision limit for close-to-atomic scale manufacturing
Zhan Hai-Yang, Xing Fei, Zhang Li
2021, 70 (6): 060703. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20201924
Abstract +
Measurement technology with nanometer scale or higher level precision is the basis and guarantee for developing atomic and close-to-atomic scale manufacturing. Optical measurement has the advantages of high precision, wide range and real-time measurement. The precision of localizing a single imaging spot’s center is not limited by the diffraction limit and could reach nanometer scale. However, the shot noise of light and the dark current noise of the detector bring about a precision limit for optical measurement. Based on the Cramer-Rao lower bound theory, a precision limit estimation method for general imaging profiles is developed in this paper. Taking the typical Airy spot for example, the influences of the parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio, energy concentration and processing method on the positioning precision limit are analyzed, and suggestions and conclusions for improving the measurement precision are given. The precision limit of a laboratory imaging spot is calculated, which verifies that the conclusions are also suitable for the imaging profiles similar to the Airy spot. The research provides the analytical method and theoretical guidance for the application and optimization of optical measurement in atomic and close-to-atomic scale manufacturing.

THE PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Tag Z boson jets via convolutional neural networks
Li Jing, Sun Hao
2021, 70 (6): 061301. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20201557
Abstract +
The jet tagging task in high-energy physics is to distinguish signals of interest from the background, which is of great importance for the discovery of new particles, or new processes, at the large hadron collider. The energy deposition generated in the calorimeter can be seen as a kind of picture. Based on this notion, tagging jets initiated by different processes becomes a classic image classification task in the computer vision field. We use jet images as the input built on high dimensional low-level information, energy-momentum four-vectors, to explore the potential of convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Four models of different depths are designed to make the best underlying useful features of jet images. Traditional multivariable method, boosted decision tree (BDT), is used as a baseline to determine the performance of networks. We introduce four observable quantities into BDTs: the mass, transverse momenta of fat jets, the distance between the leading and subleading jets, and N-subjettiness. Different tree numbers are adopted to build three kinds of BDTs, which is intended to have variable classifying abilities. After training and testing, the results show that the CNN 3 is the neatest and most efficient network under the design of stacking convolutional layers. Deepening the model could improve the performance to a certain extent but it is unable to work all the time. The performances of all BDTs are almost the same, which is possibly due to a small number of input observable types. The performance metrics show that the CNNs outperform the BDTs: the background rejection efficiency increases up to 150% at 50% signal efficiency. Besides, after inspecting the best and the worst samples, we conclude the characteristics of jets initiated by different processes: jets obtained by Z boson decays tend to concentrate in the center of jet images or have a clear differentiable substructure; the substructures of jets from general quantum chromodynamics processes have more random forms and not only just have two subjets. As the final step, the confusion matrix of the CNN 3 indicate that it comes to be kind of conservative. Exploring the way of keeping the balance between conservative and radical is our goal in the future work.

ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS

Effects of organic molecule adsorption and substrate on electronic structure of germanene
Xiao Mei-Xia, Leng Hao, Song Hai-Yang, Wang Lei, Yao Ting-Zhen, He Cheng
2021, 70 (6): 063101. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20201657
Abstract +
The development potential of germanene-based integrated electronics originates from its high carrier mobility and compatibility with the existing silicon-based and germanium-based semiconductor industry. However, the small band gap energy band (Dirac point) of germanene greatly impedes its application. Thus, it is necessary to open a sizeable band gap without reducing the carrier mobility for the application in logic circuits. In this study, the effects of organic molecule (benzene or hexafluorobenzene) adsorption and substrate on the atomic structures and electronic properties of germanene under an external electric field are investigated by using density functional theory calculations with van der Waals correction. For benzene/germanene and hexafluorobenzene/germanene systems, four different adsorption sites are considered, with the center of the organic molecules lying directly atop the upper or lower Ge atoms of germanene, in the Ge-Ge bridge center, and on the central hollow ring. Meanwhile, different molecular orientations at each adsorption site are also considered. Thus, there are eight high-symmetry adsorption configurations of the systems, respectively. According to the adsorption energy, we can determine the most stable atomic structures of the above systems. The results show that the organic molecule adsorption can induce the larger buckling height in germanene. Both the adsorption energy and interlayer distance indicate that there is no chemical bond between the organic molecules and germanene. Mulliken population analysis shows that a charge redistribution in the two sublattices in germanene exists since benzene is an electron donor molecule and hexafluorobenzene is an electron acceptor molecule. As a result, the benzene/germanene system exhibits a relatively large band gap (0.036 eV), while hexafluorobenzene/germanene system displays a small band gap (0.005 eV). Under external electric field, germanene with organic molecule adsorption can exhibit a wide range of linear tunable band gaps, which is merely determined by the strength of electric field regardless of its direction. The charge transfer among organic molecules and two sublattices in germanene gradually rises with the increasing the strength of electric field, resulting in the electron density around the sublattices in germanene unequally distributed. Thus, according to the tight-binding model, a larger band gap at the K-point is opened. When germanane (fully hydrogenated germanene HGeH) substrate is applied, the band gaps further widen, where the band gap of benzene/ germanene/germanane system can increase to 0.152 eV, and that of hexafluorobenzene/germanene/germanane system can reach 0.105 eV. The sizable band gap in germanene is created due to the symmetry of two sublattices in germanene destroyed by the dual effects of organic molecule adsorption and substrate. Note that both of organic molecules and substrate are found to non-covalently functionalize the germanene. As the strength of the negative electric field increases, the band gaps can be further modulated effectively. Surprisingly, the band gaps of the above systems can be closed, and reopened under a critical electric field. These features are attributed to the build-in electric field due to the interlayer charge transfer of the systems, which breaks the equivalence between the two sublattices of germanene. More importantly, the high carrier mobility in germanene is still retained to a large extent. These results provide effective and reversible routes to engineering the band gap of germanene for the applications of germanene to field-effect transistor and other nanoelectronic devices.

SPECIAL TOPIC—Toward making functional devices at an atomic scale: Fundamentals and frontiers

High-sensitive microwave sensor and communication based on Rydberg atoms
Fan Jia-Bei, Hao Li-Ping, Bai Jing-Xu, Jiao Yue-Chun, Zhao Jian-Ming, Jia Suo-Tang
2021, 70 (6): 063201. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20201401
Abstract +
$6{\rm{S}}_{1/2}$, an excited state $6{\rm{P}}_{3/2}$, and a Rydberg state $n{\rm{D}}_{5/2}$ in a room-temperature cesium cell. A two-photon resonant Rydberg electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) is used to optically detect the Rydberg level, in which a weak probe laser is locked at the resonant transition of $|6{\rm{S}}_{1/2}\rangle \rightarrow |6{\rm{P}}_{3/2}\rangle$, and a strong coupling laser drives the transition of $|6{\rm{P}}_{3/2}\rangle \rightarrow |n{\rm{D}}_{5/2}\rangle$. Both lasers are locked with a high-precision Fabry-Perot cavity. Two E-fields are incident into the vapor cell to interact with Rydberg atoms via a microwave horn, one is a strong microwave field with frequency 2.19 GHz, acting as a local field ($E_{{\rm{L}}}$) and resonantly coupling with two Rydberg energy levels, $|68{\rm{D}}_{5/2}\rangle$ and $|69{\rm{P}}_{3/2}\rangle$, and the other is a weak signal field ($E_{{\rm{S}}}$) with frequency difference ${\text{δ}} f$, interacting with the same Rydberg levels. The wave-absorbing material is placed around the vapor cell to reduce the reflection of microwave field. In the presence of the local field, the Rydberg atoms are employed as a microwave mixer for reading out the difference frequency ${\text{δ}}f$ oscillation signal, which is proportional to the amplitude of weak signal field. The minimum detectable field of $E_{0} = 1.7$ μV/cm is obtained when the lock-in output reaches the base noise. We also measure the frequency resolution of the Rydberg mixer by changing the ${\text{δ}} f$ with fixed $ f_{\rm ref} $, thus achieving a frequency resolution better than 1 Hz. For neighboring fields with 1 Hz away from the signal field, an isolation of 60 dB is achieved. Furthermore, we use the Rydberg atom as an antenna to receive the baseband signals encoded into the weak microwave field, demonstrating that the receiver has a transmission bandwidth of about 200 MHz. The demonstration of sensitivity of Rydberg atoms to microwave field is particularly useful in many areas, such as quantum precise measurement and quantum communications. In general, this technique can be extended to the detection of electromagnetic radiation from the radio-frequency regime to the tera-hertz range and is feasible for fabricating a miniaturized devices, thereby providing us with a way to receive the information encoded in tera-hertz carriers in future work.">We present a high-sensitivity weak microwave measurement and communication technology by employing the Rydberg beat technique. The Rydberg cascade three-level system is composed of a cesium ground state $6{\rm{S}}_{1/2}$, an excited state $6{\rm{P}}_{3/2}$, and a Rydberg state $n{\rm{D}}_{5/2}$ in a room-temperature cesium cell. A two-photon resonant Rydberg electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) is used to optically detect the Rydberg level, in which a weak probe laser is locked at the resonant transition of $|6{\rm{S}}_{1/2}\rangle \rightarrow |6{\rm{P}}_{3/2}\rangle$, and a strong coupling laser drives the transition of $|6{\rm{P}}_{3/2}\rangle \rightarrow |n{\rm{D}}_{5/2}\rangle$. Both lasers are locked with a high-precision Fabry-Perot cavity. Two E-fields are incident into the vapor cell to interact with Rydberg atoms via a microwave horn, one is a strong microwave field with frequency 2.19 GHz, acting as a local field ($E_{{\rm{L}}}$) and resonantly coupling with two Rydberg energy levels, $|68{\rm{D}}_{5/2}\rangle$ and $|69{\rm{P}}_{3/2}\rangle$, and the other is a weak signal field ($E_{{\rm{S}}}$) with frequency difference ${\text{δ}} f$, interacting with the same Rydberg levels. The wave-absorbing material is placed around the vapor cell to reduce the reflection of microwave field. In the presence of the local field, the Rydberg atoms are employed as a microwave mixer for reading out the difference frequency ${\text{δ}}f$ oscillation signal, which is proportional to the amplitude of weak signal field. The minimum detectable field of $E_{0} = 1.7$ μV/cm is obtained when the lock-in output reaches the base noise. We also measure the frequency resolution of the Rydberg mixer by changing the ${\text{δ}} f$ with fixed $ f_{\rm ref} $, thus achieving a frequency resolution better than 1 Hz. For neighboring fields with 1 Hz away from the signal field, an isolation of 60 dB is achieved. Furthermore, we use the Rydberg atom as an antenna to receive the baseband signals encoded into the weak microwave field, demonstrating that the receiver has a transmission bandwidth of about 200 MHz. The demonstration of sensitivity of Rydberg atoms to microwave field is particularly useful in many areas, such as quantum precise measurement and quantum communications. In general, this technique can be extended to the detection of electromagnetic radiation from the radio-frequency regime to the tera-hertz range and is feasible for fabricating a miniaturized devices, thereby providing us with a way to receive the information encoded in tera-hertz carriers in future work.

ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS

A modeling and inversion method of spin echoes to measure magnetic resonance sounding transverse relaxation time in surface applications
Yang Yu-Jing, Ye Rui, Zhao Han-Qing, Wan Ling, Lin Ting-Ting
2021, 70 (6): 063301. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20201427
Abstract +
$ T_2^*$ which characterizes the decay rate of MRS free-decay-induction (FID) signal and is used to measure pore-scale properties, is particularly limited for several special cases (e.g. areas with magnetic rock subsurfaces). Recent years, the transverse relaxation time $ T_2$ obtained from spin-echo signal was adopted to implement the surface MRS, and showed great potentials for estimating the porosity and permeability. However, owning to the short period of development, the related modeling and inversion strategies are rarely introduced and summarized. Actually, the general practice for surface MRS $ T_2$ measurement fits the spin-echo by the exponential function and the fitting line was directly used as the FID signal for inversion. This scheme not only limits the precision of interpretation, but also loses part of valid information about original field data. Aiming at these problems, in this paper, we introduce the calculation of forward model and thus a two-stage framework with singular value decomposition (SVD) linear inversion involved is derived to quantify the $ T_2$ distributed with depth. Considering the fact that the inversion result of SVD is always strongly affected by the noise level, an improved method which combines the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technology (SIRT) with SVD is proposed. To be specific, we compare the measurement schemes with kernel functions between $ T_2$ and the original theory in MRS, and then provide the forward and inversion formulations. In order to substantiate the effectiveness of this method, we conduct the synthetic experiments for Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence and explain the dataset with the mentioned strategies. As expected, the combined approach possesses a better performance in shallow layer with an error of 1.5% and 0.02 s for water content and $ T_2$ for the contaminated data, respectively. With these advantages, it is expected to realize the adoption of the SVD with SIRT in field applications and further investigate the aquifer characterizations in the future.">Surface magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) has generally been considered to be an efficient tool for hydrological investigations. As is well known, the effective relaxation time $ T_2^*$ which characterizes the decay rate of MRS free-decay-induction (FID) signal and is used to measure pore-scale properties, is particularly limited for several special cases (e.g. areas with magnetic rock subsurfaces). Recent years, the transverse relaxation time $ T_2$ obtained from spin-echo signal was adopted to implement the surface MRS, and showed great potentials for estimating the porosity and permeability. However, owning to the short period of development, the related modeling and inversion strategies are rarely introduced and summarized. Actually, the general practice for surface MRS $ T_2$ measurement fits the spin-echo by the exponential function and the fitting line was directly used as the FID signal for inversion. This scheme not only limits the precision of interpretation, but also loses part of valid information about original field data. Aiming at these problems, in this paper, we introduce the calculation of forward model and thus a two-stage framework with singular value decomposition (SVD) linear inversion involved is derived to quantify the $ T_2$ distributed with depth. Considering the fact that the inversion result of SVD is always strongly affected by the noise level, an improved method which combines the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technology (SIRT) with SVD is proposed. To be specific, we compare the measurement schemes with kernel functions between $ T_2$ and the original theory in MRS, and then provide the forward and inversion formulations. In order to substantiate the effectiveness of this method, we conduct the synthetic experiments for Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence and explain the dataset with the mentioned strategies. As expected, the combined approach possesses a better performance in shallow layer with an error of 1.5% and 0.02 s for water content and $ T_2$ for the contaminated data, respectively. With these advantages, it is expected to realize the adoption of the SVD with SIRT in field applications and further investigate the aquifer characterizations in the future.

ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS

Analysis of terahertz wave attenuated by sand and dust storms with different modes
Wang Hong-Xia, Zhang Qing-Hua, Hou Wei-Jun, Wei Yi-Wei
2021, 70 (6): 064101. doi: 10.7498/aps.70.20201393
Abstract +
The research on space transmission characteristics of terahertz wave is of great significance for the application of terahertz wave in space. In order to study the transmission characteristics of terahertz wave in sand and dust storm weather, according to the lognormal distribution of dust particle sizes, Mie scattering theory and Monte Carlo method are used to analyze the attenuation characteristics of six dry sand modes of sand and dust storm in different regions of China in a frequency band of 1–10 THz, and the relationship of the extinction parameters and attenuation rate to the frequency is given. The results show that with the increase of frequency, the attenuation rate of 1–10 THz terahertz wave first increases and then decreases. Different mode of sand and dust storm leads to different frequency range of strong attenuation of terahertz wave. In order to analyze the influence of sand dust particle moisture content on terahertz wave propagation attenuation, the relationship of three efficiency factors to water content of sand dust particles with different sizes is calculated. The results show that the influence of water content on extinction is different from that of the particle size. Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the attenuation of terahertz wave by sand and dust storm in two kinds of wet sand modes, and the relationship of the attenuation rate and water content to the frequency is given, the results are compared with those from the dry sand mode, showing that the albedo of wet sand mode is obviously lower than that of dry sand mode with the same size distribution. The absorption of wet sand particles increases with water content increasing. The extinction of wet sand and dust storm results from scattering and absorption. With the increase of water content in sand particles, the frequency band with strong attenuation of terahertz wave by wet sand and dust storm moves toward low frequency. When the water content is less than 5%, the attenuation rate of terahertz wave increases significantly with the increase of water content. Sand and dust storms with higher humidity have a greater influence on the transmission attenuation of terahertz wave.
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