Accepted Papers
Recent catalogue

Vol.69 No.2
20200120

Vol.69 No.1
20200105

Vol.68 No.24
20191220

Vol.68 No.23
20191205
 Archive
GENERAL
2020, 69 (2): 020201.
doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20190964
Abstract +
With the development of laser technology in the field of optics, ultrafast optics has become an important research field. Compared with the traditional technology, ultrafast optics can be realized not only under shorter pulse function, but also on a smaller scale, which can more quickly reflect the dynamic process. We present an analytical calculation of the full threedimensional (3D) coherent spectrum with a finite duration twodimensional (2D) Gaussian pulse envelope. Our starting point is the solution of the optical Bloch equations for threelevel potassium atomic gas in the 3D time domain by using the projectionslice theorem, error function and Fouriershift theorem of 3D Fourier transform. These principles are used to calculate and simplify the thirdorder polarization equation generated by the device, and the analytical calculation of threedimensional Fourier transform frequency spectrum at T = 0 is obtained. We simulate the analytic solution by using mathematics software. By comparing the simulations with the experimental results, with the homogeneous linewidth fixed, we can obtain the relationship among the inhomogeneous broadening, the correlation diagonal coefficients and the threedimensional spectrum characteristics, which can be identified quantitatively by fitting the slices of threedimensional Fourier transform spectrum peaks in an appropriate direction. The results show that the threedimensional Fourier transform spectrum will extend along the diagonal direction with the increasing of the inhomogeneous broadening, and the spectrogram progressively becomes a circle with the increasing of the diagonal correlation coefficient, and the amplitude also gradually turns smaller. According to the analytical solution, we give a complete twodimensional spectrum of the T = 0 interface. The results can be fit to the experimental 3D coherent spectrum for arbitrary inhomogeneity.
GENERAL
2020, 69 (2): 020202.
doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20190613
Abstract +
The wave propagation is often carried out in complex geological structures. Solving the wave propagation problem effectively in inhomogeneous medium is of great interest and has many applications in physics and engineering. In this paper, the local discontinuous Galekin (LDG) method is applied to the numerical solution of the secondorder wave equation. Firstly, the auxiliary variables are introduced, and the secondorder wave equations are written as a system of firstorder partial differential equations. Then the discontinuous Galerkin format is applied to the corresponding linearized wave equations and adjoint equations. We consider the triangulation in this paper. In order to ensure that the discrete format satisfies the energy conservation, the generalized alternating flux is chosen on the element boundary. We proves that the LDG method satisfies the energy conservation. The exponential integral factor method is used in time discretization. In order to improve the computational efficiency, the Krylov subspace method is used to approximate the product of the exponential matrix and the vector. Numerical examples with exact solutions are given in numerical experiments. The numerical results verify the numerical precision and energy conservation of the LDG method. In addition, the calculation of inhomogeneous medium and complex computational regions are considered. The results show that the LDG method is suitable for simulation of complex structures and propagation in multiscale structured medium.
INVITED REVIEW
2020, 69 (2): 020301.
doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20191627
Abstract +
In recent years, by introducing topological invariants into condensed matter systems, new phases of mater are revealed. Of these new phases, the topological insulator, topological semimetal and topological superconductor are the most important. They are called topological materials due to nontrivial topological parameters. Topological superconductors hold Majorana zero modes at the edges, satisfying nonabelian statistics, which makes them major candidate for realizing topological quantum computation. Besides exploring intrinsic topological superconductor, a promising way to realize topological superconductor is to induce superconductivity into other kinds of topological materials. Up to now, experimentalists have developed some techniques, such as gating, doping, high pressure, interface effect and hard point contact to introduce superconductivity into various topological materials, and also they have studied the topological properties of the induced superconductivity. In this review, we summarize the representative researches on intrinsic topological superconductor candidates and induced superconductivities in topological insulators and semimetals. The advantages and disadvantages of different techniques are discussed. Besides, the potential evidences of topological superconductors are analyzed. In the end, the outlook of this actively pursued research field is given.
GENERAL
2020, 69 (2): 020501.
doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20191503
Abstract +
In this paper, we establish a susceptibleinfectedremoved (SIR) rumor spreading model based on the influence of rumorrefuting mechanism and time delay on internet rumor spreading. The threshold R_{0} of rumor spreading is obtained by using the spectral radius method of regenerative matrix; the conditions for the existence of rumor prevailing equilibrium point are given according to the quadratic function characteristics; the local stability of rumorfree equilibrium point and rumor prevailing equilibrium point are established by using eigenvalue theory and RouthHurwitz criterion; and the criterion for the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation is also established. The numerical simulation results show that the information about refuting rumors, released by the government and the media, can accelerate the convergence rate of rumors and reduce the maximum density of rumorspreaders.
GENERAL
2020, 69 (2): 020502.
doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20191303
Abstract +
ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
2020, 69 (2): 023101.
doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20191453
Abstract +
Meridional tris(8hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (III) (merAlq_{3}) is an organometallic semiconductor material with phenomenal photoelectric properties. In order to understand the molecular luminescence properties of merAlq_{3}, the density functional theoretical (B3LYP) method with 631G^{*} basis set is employed to calculate its structure, infrared spectrum and Raman spectrum and the frontier molecular orbital of its ground state. The UVvis absorption and the excited state characteristics are investigated by the timedependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method. The results show that the calculated spectral characteristics are in good agreement with the experimental data. The electron cloud of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) is located mostly on the phenoxide ring, whereas that of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) sits on the pyridine ring. The absorption peaks of the UVvisible absorption spectrum are located in the visible and ultraviolet region. S0→S2 is attributed to the superposition of the ππ^{*} local excitation in the direction from benzene ring to pyridine ring and the nπ^{*} local excitation in the direction from oxygen atom to pyridine ring. The ππ^{*} local excitation from benzene ring to pyridine ring is S0→S4. The superposition of πn local excitation from benzene to carbon and nn local excitation from oxygen to carbon are excited by S0→S11. S0→S14 is chargetransfer excitation and contributed by the superposition of ππ^{*} in the direction from benzene ring to pyridine ring and nπ^{*} in the direction from oxygen atom to pyridine ring. This work is significant for understanding the basic properties of merAlq_{3} and the mechanisms of electron excitations. It provides a deeper insight into the luminescence mechanism of merAlq_{3}, thus playing a guidance role in further improving the luminescence efficiency and regulating the spectral range of the lightemitting merAlq_{3}.
ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS
2020, 69 (2): 024201.
doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20191587
Abstract +
Dispersion control is one of many key techniques in ultrashort laser pulse generation and its applications. By controlling the optical path of wavelength in the laser pulse to generate relative time delay, the pulse width of laser can be changed. The stretcher is the optical scheme to broaden the pulse width in chirp pulse amplification. By using ray trace, the pulse stretch time can be evaluated. However, due to the complicated formula of optical path in stretcher, it is difficult to obtain an analytical expression of highorder dispersion by using direct derivative. In this case, the present numerical methods are commonly used and error would be introduced into the optical system design and optimization inevitably. In this paper we introduce an analytical algorithm of stretcher dispersion. By summarizing the characteristic of stretcher formula, four fundamental functions are introduced to help to calculate the analytical derivative. By substituting the separate terms of the expressions step by step, analytical calculation of stretcher dispersion can be realized. In this paper, the ray trace of Martinez stretcher is first introduced to achieve similar phase expressions to them of existing Offner stretcher, then accurate high order dispersion results are attained by using analytical method, finally the calculation results by using the analytical method and numerical method are compared with each other. The algorithm introduced into this paper for calculating the dispersion is practical and hopeful in designing the chirp pulse amplification laser systems.
ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS
2020, 69 (2): 024202.
doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20191351
Abstract +
The nonHermitian description is of great significance for open systems, and the Hamiltonian which satisfies paritytime symmetry can make the energy have real eigenvalue within a certain range. The properties of paritytime symmetry have bright application prospects in optical systems. For semiconductor lasers, the paritytime symmetry can be constructed by adjusting the level of electrical injection to help achieve better mode control. Electric injection is easier to realize than optical pump when the device size is small and the structure is complex. Therefore, we hope to analyze the characteristics of the laser that satisfies the paritytime symmetry condition under the condition of electric injection. In this paper, we simulate the effects of different set loss values on paritytime symmetry. It is found that with the increase of set loss value, the imaginary part of the refractive index of the gain cavity corresponding to the paritytime symmetry breaking point socalled exceptional point will decrease, and the imaginary part of the characteristic frequency corresponding to the exceptional point will also decrease. We also simulate the effect of structural size ratio of gain region and loss region on paritytime symmetry. On condition that the total cavity length and the imaginary part of the refractive index of the loss region remain unchanged, as the gain cavity becomes longer and the loss cavity becomes shorter, the imaginary part of the refractive index of the gain cavity corresponding to the exceptional point will increase, and the imaginary part of the characteristic frequency corresponding to the exceptional point will also increase. And we qualitatively explain the above phenomenon through the coupled mode equations. Through experiments, metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and standard lithography techniques are used to fabricate asymmetric ridge lasers. Under thermoelectric cooler (TEC) refrigeration and by controlling the injection level of the gain area, the doubled mode spacing and halved mode number of ridge waveguide are found for the first time due to the paritytime symmetry breaking under the condition of electric injection. We believe that the study of paritytime symmetry in ridge laser under the condition of electric injection will be of great help in implementing the mode control.
ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS
2020, 69 (2): 024203.
doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20191294
Abstract +
With the consideration of the second and the third order nonlinear effect, the LugiatoLefeve equation which describes the field evolution of the fundamental frequency wave and the second harmonic wave is introduced. Based on the LugiatoLefeve equation, the generation of the second harmonic wave in the SiN microresonator is analyzed, and the effect of the each parameter on the dual field is studied. Simulation results indicate that the stable field of the fundamental frequency wave is of flat top pulse, and the field of the second harmonic wave is of sinusoidal distribution. When the detuning parameter increases, the power of the dual wave inside the microresonator oscillates, and the stable power weakens, the stable light field is periodically varied. Moreover, the chaos emerges as detuning parameter becomes large. The stable field can be generated in the microresonator with the weak pump power. However, because of the high pump power, the dispersion and nonlinear effect are enhanced, resulting in the periodic light field. Furthermore, the oscillation of the dual power curve is aggravated, as the pump power increases. In addition, the turning patterns can be observed by choosing the special dimension of microresonator. Theoretical analysis results are significant for studying the generation of the second harmonic wave in the microresonator.
ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS
2020, 69 (2): 024204.
doi: 10.7498/aps.69.20191272
Abstract +
Based on the (3+1)dimensional freespace Schrödinger equation, the analytical solutions to the equation for the propagating properties of two threedimensional collinear selfdecelerating AiryelegantLaguerreGaussian(AELG) light beams in free space are investigated. The different mode numbers, the mode index for each of the collinear beams, weight factor of combined beam, and initial phase difference will affect the profiles of the wave packets, and thus giving the method to control the spatiotemporal profiles during propagation. The spatiotemporal profiles will rotate if none of the mode parameters are equal to zero, and there are vortices in the center of the phase distribution curve. If the mode parameters are positive numbers, the profiles of the beams will rotate in a helical clockwise direction. Otherwise, if the mode parameters are negative numbers,they will rotate in a helical anticlockwise direction during propagation. The wave packets will also rotate when the relative phase is varied. However, the rotation principles of these two rotation characteristics are completely different. The spatiotemporal hollow selfdecelerating AELG wave packets can be attained if the mode numbers of the collinear AiELG wave packets are the same. Multiring structure evolves into singlering structure along radial direction with their propagation distance increasing during propagation, which makes the hollow part expand continuously.
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