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Modeling and simulation of the background light in underwater imaging under different illumination conditions

Zhao Xin-Wei Jin Tao Chi Hao Qu Song

Modeling and simulation of the background light in underwater imaging under different illumination conditions

Zhao Xin-Wei, Jin Tao, Chi Hao, Qu Song
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  • The underwater visibility is very important in underwater vision research and target detection. However, most underwater vision systems cannot guarantee to possess the performance under complex water conditions. This is because underwater images are usually degraded by light-water interactions of absorption and scattering. The ambient light is scattered into the cameras line of sight by water molecules and suspended particles in the water medium, which adds a layer of haze to the image and reduces the contrast of the image. This part of scattered light is usually called background light, which is the main reason for underwater image degradation. In this paper, the formations of background light in underwater imaging under two different lighting conditions: natural illumination and artificial lighting, are analyzed by setting up physical models. The models developed include the parameters such as camera parameters, light source parameters, inherent optical properties, and camera-source-object geometry. Based on the models, the relationship between the background light and the above parameters is studied. Computer analysis shows that the global background light under two illumination conditions has a close relationship between the inherent optical properties of water medium and camera parameters. The global background light under natural illumination is proportional to the scattering coefficient and inversely proportional to the attenuation coefficient. The background light under the two illumination conditions both can be described in simple exponential falloff expressions of the global background light. The simple expression greatly reduces the computational complexity of simulations. The intensity of background light mainly depends on the inherent optical properties, camera-scene distance, camera-source distance and cameras imaging angle. The relationship between the global background light and the inherent optical properties can be used to estimate the attenuation coefficient, scattering coefficient and scene depth information. The result of this paper can be very useful for designing and improving the underwater imaging systems.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB315703) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61275027, 61177003).
    [1]

    Schettini R, Corchs S 2009 IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. 31 385

    [2]

    Treibitz T, Schechner Y Y 2009 IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. 31 385

    [3]

    Cao N W, Liu W Q, Zhang Y J 2000 Acta Phys. Sin. 49 61 (in Chinese) [曹念文, 刘文清, 张玉钧2000 物理学报49 61]

    [4]

    Chiang J Y, Chen Y C 2012 IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21 1756

    [5]

    Yu Y, Liu F 2007 Opt. Eng. 46 116002

    [6]

    Sun Z G, Han C Z 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 998 (in Chinese) [孙增国, 韩崇昭2010 物理学报59 998]

    [7]

    Chen S J, Hu Y H, Sun D J, Xu S L 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 204201 (in Chinese) [陈善静, 胡以华, 孙杜娟, 徐世龙2013 物理学报62 204201]

    [8]

    Oakley J P, Satherley B L 1998 IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7 167

    [9]

    Narasimhan S G, Nayar S K 2002 Int. J. Comput. Vision 48 233

    [10]

    Sun B, Hong J, Sun X B 2014 Chin. Phys. B 23 094201

    [11]

    McGlamery B L 1980 Proceedings of Ocean Optics VI. International Society for Optics and Photonics Monterey, USA, October 23, 1979 p221

    [12]

    Jules S J 1990 IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 15 101

    [13]

    Palowitch A W, Jules S J 1991 Int. Soc. Opt. Photon. 128

    [14]

    Gordon H R 1989 Limnol. Oceanogr. 34 1389

    [15]

    Spinrad R W, Carder K L, Perry M J 1994 Ocean Optics(Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp 5658

    [16]

    Morel A 1974 in Jerlov N G, Steeman Nielsen ed. Optical Aspects of Oceanography (New York: Academic) pp124

    [17]

    Gould Jr R W, Arnone R A, Martinolich P M 1999 Appl. Opt. 38 2377

    [18]

    Mobley C D 1994 Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (San-Diego: Academic Press) pp 212213

    [19]

    Lewis M R, Wei J, Dommelen R V, Voss K J 2011 J. Geophys. Res. : Oceans 116 C7

    [20]

    Narasimhan S G, Nayar S K 2002 Int. J. Comput. Vision 48 233

    [21]

    Schechner Y Y, Karpel N 2004 Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Washington, DC, USA June 27July 2, 2004 p I-536

    [22]

    Henyey L G, Greenstein J L 1941 Astrophys. J. 93 70

    [23]

    Kattawar G W 1975 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 15 839

    [24]

    Haltrin V I 2002 Appl. Opt. 41 1022

    [25]

    Fournier G R, Forand J L 1994 Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII. International Society for Optics and Photonics Bergen, Norway, June 13, 1994 p194

    [26]

    Fournier G R, Jonasz M 1999 Proceedings of SPIEs International Symposium on Optical Science, Engineering, and Instrumentation Denver, CO, USA, July 18,1999 p62

    [27]

    Jerlov N G 1968 Optical Oceanography (Amsterdam: Elsevier) pp153155

    [28]

    Tan K K, Oakley J P 2001 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18 2460

    [29]

    Susstrunk S E, Holm J M, Finlayson G D 2001 Proceedings of SPIE 4300, Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hardcopy, and Graphic Arts VI San Jose, CA, USA, December 21, 2000 p172

  • [1]

    Schettini R, Corchs S 2009 IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. 31 385

    [2]

    Treibitz T, Schechner Y Y 2009 IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. 31 385

    [3]

    Cao N W, Liu W Q, Zhang Y J 2000 Acta Phys. Sin. 49 61 (in Chinese) [曹念文, 刘文清, 张玉钧2000 物理学报49 61]

    [4]

    Chiang J Y, Chen Y C 2012 IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21 1756

    [5]

    Yu Y, Liu F 2007 Opt. Eng. 46 116002

    [6]

    Sun Z G, Han C Z 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 998 (in Chinese) [孙增国, 韩崇昭2010 物理学报59 998]

    [7]

    Chen S J, Hu Y H, Sun D J, Xu S L 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 204201 (in Chinese) [陈善静, 胡以华, 孙杜娟, 徐世龙2013 物理学报62 204201]

    [8]

    Oakley J P, Satherley B L 1998 IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7 167

    [9]

    Narasimhan S G, Nayar S K 2002 Int. J. Comput. Vision 48 233

    [10]

    Sun B, Hong J, Sun X B 2014 Chin. Phys. B 23 094201

    [11]

    McGlamery B L 1980 Proceedings of Ocean Optics VI. International Society for Optics and Photonics Monterey, USA, October 23, 1979 p221

    [12]

    Jules S J 1990 IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 15 101

    [13]

    Palowitch A W, Jules S J 1991 Int. Soc. Opt. Photon. 128

    [14]

    Gordon H R 1989 Limnol. Oceanogr. 34 1389

    [15]

    Spinrad R W, Carder K L, Perry M J 1994 Ocean Optics(Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp 5658

    [16]

    Morel A 1974 in Jerlov N G, Steeman Nielsen ed. Optical Aspects of Oceanography (New York: Academic) pp124

    [17]

    Gould Jr R W, Arnone R A, Martinolich P M 1999 Appl. Opt. 38 2377

    [18]

    Mobley C D 1994 Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (San-Diego: Academic Press) pp 212213

    [19]

    Lewis M R, Wei J, Dommelen R V, Voss K J 2011 J. Geophys. Res. : Oceans 116 C7

    [20]

    Narasimhan S G, Nayar S K 2002 Int. J. Comput. Vision 48 233

    [21]

    Schechner Y Y, Karpel N 2004 Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Washington, DC, USA June 27July 2, 2004 p I-536

    [22]

    Henyey L G, Greenstein J L 1941 Astrophys. J. 93 70

    [23]

    Kattawar G W 1975 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 15 839

    [24]

    Haltrin V I 2002 Appl. Opt. 41 1022

    [25]

    Fournier G R, Forand J L 1994 Proceedings of Ocean Optics XII. International Society for Optics and Photonics Bergen, Norway, June 13, 1994 p194

    [26]

    Fournier G R, Jonasz M 1999 Proceedings of SPIEs International Symposium on Optical Science, Engineering, and Instrumentation Denver, CO, USA, July 18,1999 p62

    [27]

    Jerlov N G 1968 Optical Oceanography (Amsterdam: Elsevier) pp153155

    [28]

    Tan K K, Oakley J P 2001 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18 2460

    [29]

    Susstrunk S E, Holm J M, Finlayson G D 2001 Proceedings of SPIE 4300, Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hardcopy, and Graphic Arts VI San Jose, CA, USA, December 21, 2000 p172

  • [1] Zang Hong-Yan, Chai Hong-Yu. null. Acta Physica Sinica, 2016, 65(3): 030504. doi: 10.7498/aps.65.030504
    [2] Ling Hong-Sheng, Tian Jia-Xin, Zhou Shu-Na, Wei Da-Xiu. Time-optimized quantum QFT gate in an Ising coupling system. Acta Physica Sinica, 2015, 64(17): 170301. doi: 10.7498/aps.64.170301
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Publishing process
  • Received Date:  04 October 2014
  • Accepted Date:  26 December 2014
  • Published Online:  20 May 2015

Modeling and simulation of the background light in underwater imaging under different illumination conditions

  • 1. Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB315703) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61275027, 61177003).

Abstract: The underwater visibility is very important in underwater vision research and target detection. However, most underwater vision systems cannot guarantee to possess the performance under complex water conditions. This is because underwater images are usually degraded by light-water interactions of absorption and scattering. The ambient light is scattered into the cameras line of sight by water molecules and suspended particles in the water medium, which adds a layer of haze to the image and reduces the contrast of the image. This part of scattered light is usually called background light, which is the main reason for underwater image degradation. In this paper, the formations of background light in underwater imaging under two different lighting conditions: natural illumination and artificial lighting, are analyzed by setting up physical models. The models developed include the parameters such as camera parameters, light source parameters, inherent optical properties, and camera-source-object geometry. Based on the models, the relationship between the background light and the above parameters is studied. Computer analysis shows that the global background light under two illumination conditions has a close relationship between the inherent optical properties of water medium and camera parameters. The global background light under natural illumination is proportional to the scattering coefficient and inversely proportional to the attenuation coefficient. The background light under the two illumination conditions both can be described in simple exponential falloff expressions of the global background light. The simple expression greatly reduces the computational complexity of simulations. The intensity of background light mainly depends on the inherent optical properties, camera-scene distance, camera-source distance and cameras imaging angle. The relationship between the global background light and the inherent optical properties can be used to estimate the attenuation coefficient, scattering coefficient and scene depth information. The result of this paper can be very useful for designing and improving the underwater imaging systems.

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