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Analysis and design of a Ka-band sheet beam relativistic extended interaction klystron amplifier

Liu Zhen-Bang Zhao Yu-Cong Huang Hua Jin Xiao Lei Lu-Rong

Analysis and design of a Ka-band sheet beam relativistic extended interaction klystron amplifier

Liu Zhen-Bang, Zhao Yu-Cong, Huang Hua, Jin Xiao, Lei Lu-Rong
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  • The sheet beam klystron is a kind of novel powerful microwave and millimeter-wave vacuum electron device, in which used is a thin rectangular sheet beam with high aspect ratio in order to improve beam-wave interaction efficiency by improving space-charge-limiting current of electron beam and obtaining big electric current, and it has many actual and potential applications. Based on the motion of the single electron under the small signal condition, the transit-time effect of electron beam in 2π-mode standing wave electric field in a multiple-cavity resonator is investigated, the expression of electron load conductance in a multiple-cavity resonator is presented, and the influence of the cavity number N on transit-time effect in a multiple-cavity resonator is discussed. The high frequency characteristics of the three-gap extended cavity are studied. The abilities for the single-gap cavity and three-gap cavity to modulate the sheet beam are compared by 3D PIC simulation. The simulation result shows that the three-gap extended interaction cavity operating at 2πmode is better than the single-gap cavity. The electron load conductance is derived and corrected based on the theory of relativity, by which a more accurate relation of electron load conductance to transmit angle can be obtained. In order to improve the output power and electron efficiency, the three-gap extended output cavity is used in the relativistic klystron to replace the single gap output cavity. By using the electromagnetic simulation software and 3D PIC code, a Ka-band sheet beam relativistic extended interaction klystron amplifie is designed. A sheet electron beam with a width-to-height ratio of 30 is adopted to reduce the space charge effect. In the PIC simulation, when the beam voltage is 500 kV and current is 1 kA, the device can generate a 190 MW output power at 40 GHz with an efficiency of 38% and a gain of 69 dB. The 3 dB bandwidth of the EISBK is about 150 MHz. Meanwhile, the output microwave is without the clutter jamming, which makes the contribution avoid the shrinkage of output microwave impulse. This study is of great importance for the physical design and process in engineering of the Ka-band sheet beam extended interaction relativistic klystron amplifier.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11475158), the Science Foundation of Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, China (Grant No. HAK-2014HPM-05), and the Science Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2014B0402068).
    [1]

    Benford J, Swegle J A 2008 High Power Microwave (2nd Ed.) (translated by Jiang W H, Zhang C) (Beijing: National Defense Industry Press) pp35-92 (in Chinese) [Benford J, Swegle J A 2008 高功率微波(第二版)(中译本) (江伟华, 张弛 译) (北京: 国防工业出版社)第35-92页]

    [2]

    Robert J B, Edl S 2005 High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies (translated by group of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies) (Beijing: Tsinghua University Press) pp57-63 (in Chinese) [Robert J B, Edl S 2005高功率微波源与技术(中译本) (高功率微波源与技术翻译组译) (北京: 清华大学出版社)第57-63页]

    [3]

    Roitman A, Berry D, Steer B 2005 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 52 895

    [4]

    Liu L W, Wei Y Y, Wang S M 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 108401

    [5]

    Luo J R, Cui J, Zhu M, Guo W 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 067803

    [6]

    Ding Y G 2010 Theory and Computer Simulation of High Power Klystron (Beijing: National Defense Industry Press) pp57-60 (in Chinese) [丁耀根 2008 大功率速调管的理论与设计模拟(北京: 国防科技工业出版社) 第57-60页]

    [7]

    Zhang K C, Wu Z H, Liu S G 2008 Chin. Phys. B 17 3402

    [8]

    Shin Y M, Barnett L R, Luhmann N C 2009 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 56 3196

    [9]

    Fan Z K, Liu Q X, Liu X S 1999 High Power Laser Particle Beams 11 482 (in Chinese) [范植开, 刘庆想, 刘锡三 1999 强激光与粒子束 11 482]

    [10]

    Xie J L, Zhao Y X 1996 Bunching Theory of Klystron (Beijing: Science Press) pp63-70, 73-75, 206-208 (in Chinese) [谢家麟, 赵永翔1996 速调管群聚理论(北京: 科学出版社) 第63-70, 73-75, 206-208页]

    [11]

    Polevin S D, Korovin S D, Kovalchuk B M, Karlik K V 2004 Proceedings of 13th International Symposium on High Current Electronics 13 246

  • [1]

    Benford J, Swegle J A 2008 High Power Microwave (2nd Ed.) (translated by Jiang W H, Zhang C) (Beijing: National Defense Industry Press) pp35-92 (in Chinese) [Benford J, Swegle J A 2008 高功率微波(第二版)(中译本) (江伟华, 张弛 译) (北京: 国防工业出版社)第35-92页]

    [2]

    Robert J B, Edl S 2005 High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies (translated by group of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies) (Beijing: Tsinghua University Press) pp57-63 (in Chinese) [Robert J B, Edl S 2005高功率微波源与技术(中译本) (高功率微波源与技术翻译组译) (北京: 清华大学出版社)第57-63页]

    [3]

    Roitman A, Berry D, Steer B 2005 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 52 895

    [4]

    Liu L W, Wei Y Y, Wang S M 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 108401

    [5]

    Luo J R, Cui J, Zhu M, Guo W 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 067803

    [6]

    Ding Y G 2010 Theory and Computer Simulation of High Power Klystron (Beijing: National Defense Industry Press) pp57-60 (in Chinese) [丁耀根 2008 大功率速调管的理论与设计模拟(北京: 国防科技工业出版社) 第57-60页]

    [7]

    Zhang K C, Wu Z H, Liu S G 2008 Chin. Phys. B 17 3402

    [8]

    Shin Y M, Barnett L R, Luhmann N C 2009 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 56 3196

    [9]

    Fan Z K, Liu Q X, Liu X S 1999 High Power Laser Particle Beams 11 482 (in Chinese) [范植开, 刘庆想, 刘锡三 1999 强激光与粒子束 11 482]

    [10]

    Xie J L, Zhao Y X 1996 Bunching Theory of Klystron (Beijing: Science Press) pp63-70, 73-75, 206-208 (in Chinese) [谢家麟, 赵永翔1996 速调管群聚理论(北京: 科学出版社) 第63-70, 73-75, 206-208页]

    [11]

    Polevin S D, Korovin S D, Kovalchuk B M, Karlik K V 2004 Proceedings of 13th International Symposium on High Current Electronics 13 246

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    [7] Chen Shu-Yuan, Ruan Cun-Jun, Wang Yong. Research on equivalent circuit of multi-gap output cavity for sheet beam extended-interaction klystron. Acta Physica Sinica, 2014, 63(2): 028402. doi: 10.7498/aps.63.028402
    [8] Ruan Cun-Jun, Luo Ji-Run, Ruan Wang, Zhao Ding, Zhang Xiao-Feng. Beam-wave interaction and simulation program for sheet beam klystron. Acta Physica Sinica, 2011, 60(6): 068402. doi: 10.7498/aps.60.068402
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  • Received Date:  29 October 2014
  • Accepted Date:  28 November 2014
  • Published Online:  20 May 2015

Analysis and design of a Ka-band sheet beam relativistic extended interaction klystron amplifier

  • 1. Institute of Applied Electronics, Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11475158), the Science Foundation of Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, China (Grant No. HAK-2014HPM-05), and the Science Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2014B0402068).

Abstract: The sheet beam klystron is a kind of novel powerful microwave and millimeter-wave vacuum electron device, in which used is a thin rectangular sheet beam with high aspect ratio in order to improve beam-wave interaction efficiency by improving space-charge-limiting current of electron beam and obtaining big electric current, and it has many actual and potential applications. Based on the motion of the single electron under the small signal condition, the transit-time effect of electron beam in 2π-mode standing wave electric field in a multiple-cavity resonator is investigated, the expression of electron load conductance in a multiple-cavity resonator is presented, and the influence of the cavity number N on transit-time effect in a multiple-cavity resonator is discussed. The high frequency characteristics of the three-gap extended cavity are studied. The abilities for the single-gap cavity and three-gap cavity to modulate the sheet beam are compared by 3D PIC simulation. The simulation result shows that the three-gap extended interaction cavity operating at 2πmode is better than the single-gap cavity. The electron load conductance is derived and corrected based on the theory of relativity, by which a more accurate relation of electron load conductance to transmit angle can be obtained. In order to improve the output power and electron efficiency, the three-gap extended output cavity is used in the relativistic klystron to replace the single gap output cavity. By using the electromagnetic simulation software and 3D PIC code, a Ka-band sheet beam relativistic extended interaction klystron amplifie is designed. A sheet electron beam with a width-to-height ratio of 30 is adopted to reduce the space charge effect. In the PIC simulation, when the beam voltage is 500 kV and current is 1 kA, the device can generate a 190 MW output power at 40 GHz with an efficiency of 38% and a gain of 69 dB. The 3 dB bandwidth of the EISBK is about 150 MHz. Meanwhile, the output microwave is without the clutter jamming, which makes the contribution avoid the shrinkage of output microwave impulse. This study is of great importance for the physical design and process in engineering of the Ka-band sheet beam extended interaction relativistic klystron amplifier.

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