Vol. 19, No. 2 (1963)
1963, 94 (2): 73-82. doi: 10.7498/aps.19.73
The characteristic equation of hot-cathode ionization gauge is derived from the theory of Townsend discharge, with the form i+/ie=1-e(-(k1p-k2p2)) where i+ is the ion current, ie the electron current, p the gauge pressure, and both k1 and k2 are constants. Only at i+?ie, the equation shown above becomes i+/ie=Гp where Г is the sensitivity of gauge and approximately equals k1. The critical pressure, at which linearity between i+ and p breaks down, is Pc=0.22/Г while the permissible error of gauge calibrated is 1%. Plenty of experimental results shown by Nottingham, Schultz, Goto, Hinz-peter etc. can be easily explained. Data taken from a specially designed "drum" gauge give good coincidence with theoretical results. The "drum" gauge itself can be used for a wide range to measure pressures from 10-7 to 0.6 Torr.
1963, 94 (2): 83-89. doi: 10.7498/aps.19.83
The necessary conditions of ultra-high vacuum ionization gauges are briefly reviewed. The design and operation of two types of ionization gauges of pressure range 10-3—10-11 torr made in this laboratory are described. All the electrodes of these gauges can be degassed by resistance heating. They are simple in construction, easy to operate, and of shorter degassing time. No special power supplies are required.
Klumb-Schwarz type radiometer gauge (Knudsen gauge) is an absolute gauge for high vacuum measurements, but since its theoretical sensitivity is so far unknown, in practice it needs calibration against another absolute gauge (e. g. McLeod). In this paper a simple theory to determine the sensitivity of a Klumb-Schwarz gauge is described. The optimum angle of the vane is decided as 24° by theoretical considerations. It is further shown that in this gauge the force due to electromagnetic radiations limits the lower range and is something in analogue with the soft X-ray effect in conventional hot-cathode ionization gauges.
1963, 94 (2): 99-102. doi: 10.7498/aps.19.99
In this paper, we have given a method for calculating non-axial rotational wave functions and energy levels of odd-A nuclei by means of that of even-even nuclei.
1963, 94 (2): 124-133. doi: 10.7498/aps.19.124
The temperature dependence of the tunnel current was studied for the cases of direct and indirect tunneling. The indirect tunneling due to both phonon scattering and the scattering by ionized impurities was considered. A comparison with experimental results from the literatures was given.