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Near-infrared absorption of graphene-metal nanostructure based on magnetic polaritons

Chen Hao Zhang Xiao-Xia Wang Hong Ji Yue-Hua

Near-infrared absorption of graphene-metal nanostructure based on magnetic polaritons

Chen Hao, Zhang Xiao-Xia, Wang Hong, Ji Yue-Hua
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  • As a two-dimensional material with single-layer carbon atoms, the absorptivity of graphene is only about 2.3% in visible and near-infrared region, which restricts its applications in photoelectric detection, modulation and solar cells. A way to enhance the graphene absorption in this wavelength region is to combine graphene with grating nanostructure. The grating nanostructure can generate strong near-field localization by magnetic polaritons (MPs). However, the existing structures based on MPs are facing some problems, such as sensitivity to the polarization direction of the incoming wave and difficulty in processing the deep grating. Moreover, the modulation effect of the hybrid nanostructure based on MPs combining graphene with nano-grating has not been studied. In this work, a hybrid two-dimensional shallow grating nanostructure is proposed to modulate the absorptivity of graphene based on MPs. The finite element simulation is conducted to calculate the absorptive properties. The equivalent circuit model is used to predict the resonance conditions. The current and field distributions further confirm the excitation of magnetic resonance. The influences of structural parameters and the chemical potential on absorption property are studied. The results show that the magnetic polaritons derived from the hybrid two-dimensional shallow grating structure can obviously improve the absorption of graphene in the near-infrared region. Under the specific structure, the overall absorptivity of the structure is 85%, and the absorptivity of graphene in the structure is 55%, which is over 24 times higher than that of free-standing monolayer graphene. The absorption spectra of the hybrid grating nanostructure for different geometric parameters are calculated. The results show that the absorption peak presents an obvious blue-shift as the thickness of the dielectric layer, the grating period or the width of the silver nanoparticles decrease. Numerical simulation results show that by adjusting the chemical potential of graphene, the overall absorptivity of the structure can be tuned dynamically. The reflection modulation depths of hybrid two-dimensional nanostructure under different structural parameters are calculated. By controlling the chemical potential of graphene in a range from 0.1 eV to 1 eV, the reflection modulation depths of 54.8% (1040 nm), 50.3% (890 nm) and 46.8% (750 nm) are obtained, respectively. Compared with the existing structures based on MPs, the present structure is insensitive to the incidence and polarization direction of the incident electromagnetic wave due to the symmetry in two-dimensional directions. Considering the design of shallow silver grating, the structure is easier to implement in the process. The research results provide good theoretical reference for graphene-based photoelectric detection and modulation.
      Corresponding author: Zhang Xiao-Xia, xxzhang@uestc.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61435010) and the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61421002).
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    Bao Q, Loh K P 2012 ACS Nano 6 3677

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    Nair R R, Blake P, Grigorenko A N, Novoselov K S, Booth T J, Stauber T, Peres N M R 2008 Science 320 1308

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    Hong B H 2009 Nature 457 706

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    Liu W Z, Wang W, Xu H Y, Li X H, Yang L, Ma J G, Liu Y C 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 8 095202

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    Zhang H Y, Huang X Y, Chen Q, Ding C F, Li T T, L H H, Xu S L, Zhang X, Zhang Y P, Yao J Q 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 018101(in Chinese) [张会云, 黄晓燕, 陈琦, 丁春峰, 李彤彤, 吕欢欢, 徐世林, 张晓, 张玉萍, 姚建铨 2016 物理学报 65 018101]

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    Thongrattanasiri S, Koppens F H, Garcia de Abajo F J 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 047401

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    Gao W, Shi G, Jin Z, Shu J, Zhang Q 2013 Nano Lett. 13 3698

    [17]

    Marco F, Alexander U, Andreas P, Govinda L, Karl U, Hermann D, Pavel K, Asron M A, Werner S, Gottfried S, Thomas M 2012 Nano Lett. 12 2773

    [18]

    Liang Z J, Liu H X, Niu Y X, Yin Y H 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 138501(in Chinese) [梁振江, 刘海霞, 牛燕雄, 尹贻恒 2016 物理学报 65 138501]

    [19]

    Maillard M, Huang P, Brus L 2003 Nano Lett. 3 1611

    [20]

    Zhao B, Wang L, Shuai Y, Zhang Z M 2013 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 67 637

    [21]

    Zhao J M, Zhang Z M 2015 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 151 49

    [22]

    Fang Z, Wang Y, Liu Z, Schlather A, Ajayan P M, Koppens F H, Nordlander P, Halas N J 2012 ACS Nano 6 10222

    [23]

    Cai Y J, Zhu J F, Liu Q H 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 106 043105

    [24]

    Cai Y J, Zhu J F, Liu Q H, Lin T, Zhou J Y, Ye L F, Cai Z P 2015 Opt. Express 23 32318

    [25]

    Zhao B, Zhao J M, Zhang Z M 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 32 1176

    [26]

    Zhao B, Zhao J M, Zhang Z M 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 105 031905

    [27]

    Zhao B, Zhang Z M 2014 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 135 81

    [28]

    Wunsch B, Stauber T, Sols F, Guinea F 2006 New J. Phys. 8 318

    [29]

    Hwang E H, Sarma S D 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 205418

    [30]

    Falkovsky L A 2008 J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129 012004

    [31]

    Vakil A, Engheta N 2011 Science 332 1291

    [32]

    Landy N I, Bingham C M, Tyler T, Jokerst N, Smith D R, Padilla W J 2009 Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 79 125104

  • [1]

    Geim A K, Novoselov K S 2007 Nat. Mater. 6 183

    [2]

    Neto A H C, Guinea F, Peres N M R 2009 Rev. Mod. Phys. 81 109

    [3]

    Bonaccorso F, Sun Z, Hasan T, Ferrari A C 2010 Nat. Photon. 4 611

    [4]

    Bolotin K I, Sikes K J, Jiang Z, Klima M, Fudenberg G, Hone J 2008 Solid State Commun. 146 351

    [5]

    Xia F N, Mueller T, Lin Y M, Valdes-Garcia A, Avouris P 2009 Nature Nanotech. 4 839

    [6]

    Bao Q, Loh K P 2012 ACS Nano 6 3677

    [7]

    Nair R R, Blake P, Grigorenko A N, Novoselov K S, Booth T J, Stauber T, Peres N M R 2008 Science 320 1308

    [8]

    Hong B H 2009 Nature 457 706

    [9]

    Liu W Z, Wang W, Xu H Y, Li X H, Yang L, Ma J G, Liu Y C 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 8 095202

    [10]

    Horng J, Chen C F, Geng B S, Girit C, et al. 2012 Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 83 165113

    [11]

    Li E P, Chu H S, Wu L, Koh W S 2010 Opt. Express 18 14395

    [12]

    Zhang H Y, Huang X Y, Chen Q, Ding C F, Li T T, L H H, Xu S L, Zhang X, Zhang Y P, Yao J Q 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 018101(in Chinese) [张会云, 黄晓燕, 陈琦, 丁春峰, 李彤彤, 吕欢欢, 徐世林, 张晓, 张玉萍, 姚建铨 2016 物理学报 65 018101]

    [13]

    Alaee R, Farhat M, Rockstuhl C, Lederer F 2012 Opt. Express 20 28017

    [14]

    Ju L, Geng B, Horng J, Girit, Martin M 2011 Nature Nanotech. 6 630

    [15]

    Thongrattanasiri S, Koppens F H, Garcia de Abajo F J 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 047401

    [16]

    Gao W, Shi G, Jin Z, Shu J, Zhang Q 2013 Nano Lett. 13 3698

    [17]

    Marco F, Alexander U, Andreas P, Govinda L, Karl U, Hermann D, Pavel K, Asron M A, Werner S, Gottfried S, Thomas M 2012 Nano Lett. 12 2773

    [18]

    Liang Z J, Liu H X, Niu Y X, Yin Y H 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 138501(in Chinese) [梁振江, 刘海霞, 牛燕雄, 尹贻恒 2016 物理学报 65 138501]

    [19]

    Maillard M, Huang P, Brus L 2003 Nano Lett. 3 1611

    [20]

    Zhao B, Wang L, Shuai Y, Zhang Z M 2013 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 67 637

    [21]

    Zhao J M, Zhang Z M 2015 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 151 49

    [22]

    Fang Z, Wang Y, Liu Z, Schlather A, Ajayan P M, Koppens F H, Nordlander P, Halas N J 2012 ACS Nano 6 10222

    [23]

    Cai Y J, Zhu J F, Liu Q H 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 106 043105

    [24]

    Cai Y J, Zhu J F, Liu Q H, Lin T, Zhou J Y, Ye L F, Cai Z P 2015 Opt. Express 23 32318

    [25]

    Zhao B, Zhao J M, Zhang Z M 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 32 1176

    [26]

    Zhao B, Zhao J M, Zhang Z M 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 105 031905

    [27]

    Zhao B, Zhang Z M 2014 J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 135 81

    [28]

    Wunsch B, Stauber T, Sols F, Guinea F 2006 New J. Phys. 8 318

    [29]

    Hwang E H, Sarma S D 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 205418

    [30]

    Falkovsky L A 2008 J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 129 012004

    [31]

    Vakil A, Engheta N 2011 Science 332 1291

    [32]

    Landy N I, Bingham C M, Tyler T, Jokerst N, Smith D R, Padilla W J 2009 Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 79 125104

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  • Received Date:  26 January 2018
  • Accepted Date:  09 March 2018
  • Published Online:  05 June 2018

Near-infrared absorption of graphene-metal nanostructure based on magnetic polaritons

    Corresponding author: Zhang Xiao-Xia, xxzhang@uestc.edu.cn
  • 1. State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61435010) and the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61421002).

Abstract: As a two-dimensional material with single-layer carbon atoms, the absorptivity of graphene is only about 2.3% in visible and near-infrared region, which restricts its applications in photoelectric detection, modulation and solar cells. A way to enhance the graphene absorption in this wavelength region is to combine graphene with grating nanostructure. The grating nanostructure can generate strong near-field localization by magnetic polaritons (MPs). However, the existing structures based on MPs are facing some problems, such as sensitivity to the polarization direction of the incoming wave and difficulty in processing the deep grating. Moreover, the modulation effect of the hybrid nanostructure based on MPs combining graphene with nano-grating has not been studied. In this work, a hybrid two-dimensional shallow grating nanostructure is proposed to modulate the absorptivity of graphene based on MPs. The finite element simulation is conducted to calculate the absorptive properties. The equivalent circuit model is used to predict the resonance conditions. The current and field distributions further confirm the excitation of magnetic resonance. The influences of structural parameters and the chemical potential on absorption property are studied. The results show that the magnetic polaritons derived from the hybrid two-dimensional shallow grating structure can obviously improve the absorption of graphene in the near-infrared region. Under the specific structure, the overall absorptivity of the structure is 85%, and the absorptivity of graphene in the structure is 55%, which is over 24 times higher than that of free-standing monolayer graphene. The absorption spectra of the hybrid grating nanostructure for different geometric parameters are calculated. The results show that the absorption peak presents an obvious blue-shift as the thickness of the dielectric layer, the grating period or the width of the silver nanoparticles decrease. Numerical simulation results show that by adjusting the chemical potential of graphene, the overall absorptivity of the structure can be tuned dynamically. The reflection modulation depths of hybrid two-dimensional nanostructure under different structural parameters are calculated. By controlling the chemical potential of graphene in a range from 0.1 eV to 1 eV, the reflection modulation depths of 54.8% (1040 nm), 50.3% (890 nm) and 46.8% (750 nm) are obtained, respectively. Compared with the existing structures based on MPs, the present structure is insensitive to the incidence and polarization direction of the incident electromagnetic wave due to the symmetry in two-dimensional directions. Considering the design of shallow silver grating, the structure is easier to implement in the process. The research results provide good theoretical reference for graphene-based photoelectric detection and modulation.

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