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Resistive switching characteristics and resistive switching mechanism of Au/TiO2/FTO memristor

Yu Zhi-Qiang Liu Min-Li Lang Jian-Xun Qian Kai Zhang Chang-Hua

Resistive switching characteristics and resistive switching mechanism of Au/TiO2/FTO memristor

Yu Zhi-Qiang, Liu Min-Li, Lang Jian-Xun, Qian Kai, Zhang Chang-Hua
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  • Resistance random access memory is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the future nonvolatile memory applications due to its good endurance, high storage density, fast erase speed and low power consumption. As one of the most important transition-metal oxides, the anatase TiO2 has received intense attention due to its inexpensive cost, strong optical absorption, favorable band edge positions and superior chemical stability. In the last decade, the nanometer-sized TiO2 has been shown to exhibit a wide range of electrical and optical properties, such as nanoscale electronics and optoelectronics, which rely mainly on the unique size and shape. Recently, various anatase TiO2 based devices such as the anatase TiO2 nanotube based memristor and the anatase TiO2 nano-film based memristor have been intensively studied due to their nonvolatile resistive switching performances. Furthermore, many conduction mechanisms have been used to elucidate the resistive switching behaviors of the anatase TiO2 based devices. However, the direct growth of anatase TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) on the FTO substrate is still a challenge since there exists a large lattice mismatch of about 19% between the anatase TiO2 NWAs and the FTO substrate. Moreover, the Au/TiO2/FTO based device has not been reported and the resistive switching mechanism of the anatase TiO2 NWAs based memristor is still unclear. In this work, the anatase TiO2 NWAs with (101) preferred orientation are successfully grown on the FTO substrate by a facile one-step hydrothermal process. The resistive switching characteristics and resistive switching mechanism of the as-fabricated Au/TiO2/FTO memristor are investigated systemically. The result indicates that the Au/TiO2/FTO memristor exhibits nonvolatile bipolar resistive switching behavior. Meanwhile, the resistance ratio between high resistance state and low resistance state exceeds 20 at 0.1 V, which can be maintained over 103 s without significant degradation. In addition, the conduction mechanism of the low resistance state is governed by the ohmic conduction mechanism, while the trap-controlled space charge limited current conduction mechanism dominates the high resistance state. The resistive switching model of the Au/TiO2/FTO memristor is developed, and the resistive switching mechanism could be attributed to the formation and rupture of the conductive filaments relating to the localized oxygen vacancies. It demonstrates that the Au/TiO2/FTO memristor may be a potential candidate for the future nonvolatile memory applications.
      Corresponding author: Zhang Chang-Hua, zch-tan@tom.com
    • Funds: Projected supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61463014), the Scientific Research Project of Education Department of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. B2018087), and the Doctoral Fund of Hubei University for Nationalities, China (Grant No. MY2018B016).
    [1]

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    [3]

    Chang W Y, Lin C A, He J H, Wu T B 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 96 242109

    [4]

    Nagashima K, Yanagida T, Oka K, Taniguchi M, Kawai T, Kim J S, Park B H 2010 Nano Lett. 10 1359

    [5]

    Huang Y C, Chen P Y, Huang K F, Chuang T Z, Lin H H, Chin T S, Liu R S, Lan Y W, Chen C D, Lai C H 2014 NPG Asia Mater. 6 e85

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    Hsu C W, Chou L J 2012 Nano Lett. 12 4247

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    Shirolkar M M, Hao C, Dong X, Guo T, Zhang L, Li M, Wang H 2014 Nanoscale 6 4735

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    Younis A, Chu D, Li S 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 253504

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    Younis A, Chu D, Li S 2013 RSC Adv. 3 13422

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    Sun B, Li C M 2015 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17 6718

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    Wu W Q, Lei B X, Rao H S, Xu Y F, Wang Y F, Su C Y, Kuang D B 2013 Sci. Rep. 3 1352

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    Liu Z Y, Zhang X T, Nishimoto S, Jin M, Tryk D A, Murakami T, Fujishima A 2008 J. Phys. Chem. C 112 253

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    Yoriya S, Prakasam H E, Varghese O K, Shankar K, Paulose M, Mor G K, Latempa T J, Grimes C A 2006 Sens. Lett. 4 334

    [14]

    Yoo H K, Lee S B, Lee J S, Chang S H 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 183507

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    Yu Z Q, Qu X P, Yang W P, Peng J, Xu Z M 2016 J. Alloys Compd. 688 37

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    Ortiz G F, Hanzu I, Djenizian T, Lavela P, Tirado J L, Knauth P 2009 Chem. Mater. 21 63

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    Yoo J E, Lee K Y, Tighineanu A, Schmuki P 2013 Electrochem. Commun. 34 177

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    Dongale T D, Shinde S S, Kamat R K, Rajpure K Y 2014 J. Alloys Compd. 593 267

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    Conti D, Lamberti A, Porro S, Rivolo P, Chiolerio A, Pirri C F, Ricciardi C 2016 Nanotechnology 27 485208

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    Lei Y, Zhang L D, Meng G W, Li G H, Zhang X Y, Liang C H, Chen W, Wang S X 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 1125

    [22]

    Wu J J, Yu C C 2004 J. Phys. Chem. B 108 3377

    [23]

    Wu Y H, Long M C, Cai W M, Dai S D, Chen C, Wu D Y, Bai J 2009 Nanotechnology 20 185703

    [24]

    Wu W Q, Rao H S, Xu Y F, Wang Y F, Su C Y, Kuang D B 2013 Sci. Rep. 3 1892

    [25]

    Wu W Q, Feng H L, Rao H S, Xu Y F, Kuang D B, Su C Y 2014 Nat. Commun. 5 3968

    [26]

    Nguyen C K, Cha H G, Kang Y S 2011 Cryst. Growth Des. 11 3947

    [27]

    Santara B, Giri P K, Imakita K, Fyjii M 2013 Nanoscale 5 5476

    [28]

    Gopel W, Anderson J, Frankel D, Jaehnig M, Phillips K, Schafer J A, Rocker G 1984 Surf. Sci. 139 333

    [29]

    Bogle K A, Bachhav M N, Deo M S, Valanoor N, Ogale S B 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 203502

    [30]

    Zhen C, Wang L Z, Liu L, Liu G, Lu G Q, Cheng H M 2013 Chem. Commun. 49 6191

    [31]

    Wong H S P, Lee H Y, Yu S M, Chen Y S, Wu Y, Chen P S, Lee B, Chen F T, Tsai M J 2012 Proc. IEEE 100 1951

    [32]

    Chang Y F, Fowler B, Chen Y C, Lee J C 2014 J. Appl. Phys. 116 043709

    [33]

    Waser R, Dittmann R, Staikov G, Szot K 2009 Adv. Mater. 21 2632

    [34]

    Wu Y L, Lin S T 2006 IEEE Trans. Devi. Mater. Reliab. 6 75

    [35]

    Lin C Y, Wang S Y, Lee D Y, Tseng T Y 2008 J. Electrochem. Soc. 155 H615

    [36]

    Kim Y M, Lee J S 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 104 114115

    [37]

    Liu Q, Guan W H, Long S B, Chen J N 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 012117

    [38]

    Kim K M, Choi B J, Shin Y C, Choi S, Hwang C S 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 012907

  • [1]

    Strukov D B, Snider G S, Stewart D R, Williams R S 2008 Nature 453 80

    [2]

    Yang J J, Pickett M D, Li X, Ohlberg D A, Stewart D R, Williams R S 2008 Nat. Nanotechnol. 3 429

    [3]

    Chang W Y, Lin C A, He J H, Wu T B 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 96 242109

    [4]

    Nagashima K, Yanagida T, Oka K, Taniguchi M, Kawai T, Kim J S, Park B H 2010 Nano Lett. 10 1359

    [5]

    Huang Y C, Chen P Y, Huang K F, Chuang T Z, Lin H H, Chin T S, Liu R S, Lan Y W, Chen C D, Lai C H 2014 NPG Asia Mater. 6 e85

    [6]

    Hsu C W, Chou L J 2012 Nano Lett. 12 4247

    [7]

    Shirolkar M M, Hao C, Dong X, Guo T, Zhang L, Li M, Wang H 2014 Nanoscale 6 4735

    [8]

    Younis A, Chu D, Li S 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 253504

    [9]

    Younis A, Chu D, Li S 2013 RSC Adv. 3 13422

    [10]

    Sun B, Li C M 2015 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17 6718

    [11]

    Wu W Q, Lei B X, Rao H S, Xu Y F, Wang Y F, Su C Y, Kuang D B 2013 Sci. Rep. 3 1352

    [12]

    Liu Z Y, Zhang X T, Nishimoto S, Jin M, Tryk D A, Murakami T, Fujishima A 2008 J. Phys. Chem. C 112 253

    [13]

    Yoriya S, Prakasam H E, Varghese O K, Shankar K, Paulose M, Mor G K, Latempa T J, Grimes C A 2006 Sens. Lett. 4 334

    [14]

    Yoo H K, Lee S B, Lee J S, Chang S H 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 183507

    [15]

    Yu Z Q, Qu X P, Yang W P, Peng J, Xu Z M 2016 J. Alloys Compd. 688 37

    [16]

    Ortiz G F, Hanzu I, Djenizian T, Lavela P, Tirado J L, Knauth P 2009 Chem. Mater. 21 63

    [17]

    Yoo J E, Lee K Y, Tighineanu A, Schmuki P 2013 Electrochem. Commun. 34 177

    [18]

    Dongale T D, Shinde S S, Kamat R K, Rajpure K Y 2014 J. Alloys Compd. 593 267

    [19]

    Conti D, Lamberti A, Porro S, Rivolo P, Chiolerio A, Pirri C F, Ricciardi C 2016 Nanotechnology 27 485208

    [20]

    In S I I, Almtoft K P, Lee H, Andersen I H, Qin D D, Bao N Z, Grimes C A 2012 Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 33 1989

    [21]

    Lei Y, Zhang L D, Meng G W, Li G H, Zhang X Y, Liang C H, Chen W, Wang S X 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 1125

    [22]

    Wu J J, Yu C C 2004 J. Phys. Chem. B 108 3377

    [23]

    Wu Y H, Long M C, Cai W M, Dai S D, Chen C, Wu D Y, Bai J 2009 Nanotechnology 20 185703

    [24]

    Wu W Q, Rao H S, Xu Y F, Wang Y F, Su C Y, Kuang D B 2013 Sci. Rep. 3 1892

    [25]

    Wu W Q, Feng H L, Rao H S, Xu Y F, Kuang D B, Su C Y 2014 Nat. Commun. 5 3968

    [26]

    Nguyen C K, Cha H G, Kang Y S 2011 Cryst. Growth Des. 11 3947

    [27]

    Santara B, Giri P K, Imakita K, Fyjii M 2013 Nanoscale 5 5476

    [28]

    Gopel W, Anderson J, Frankel D, Jaehnig M, Phillips K, Schafer J A, Rocker G 1984 Surf. Sci. 139 333

    [29]

    Bogle K A, Bachhav M N, Deo M S, Valanoor N, Ogale S B 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 203502

    [30]

    Zhen C, Wang L Z, Liu L, Liu G, Lu G Q, Cheng H M 2013 Chem. Commun. 49 6191

    [31]

    Wong H S P, Lee H Y, Yu S M, Chen Y S, Wu Y, Chen P S, Lee B, Chen F T, Tsai M J 2012 Proc. IEEE 100 1951

    [32]

    Chang Y F, Fowler B, Chen Y C, Lee J C 2014 J. Appl. Phys. 116 043709

    [33]

    Waser R, Dittmann R, Staikov G, Szot K 2009 Adv. Mater. 21 2632

    [34]

    Wu Y L, Lin S T 2006 IEEE Trans. Devi. Mater. Reliab. 6 75

    [35]

    Lin C Y, Wang S Y, Lee D Y, Tseng T Y 2008 J. Electrochem. Soc. 155 H615

    [36]

    Kim Y M, Lee J S 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 104 114115

    [37]

    Liu Q, Guan W H, Long S B, Chen J N 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 012117

    [38]

    Kim K M, Choi B J, Shin Y C, Choi S, Hwang C S 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 012907

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  • Received Date:  12 March 2018
  • Accepted Date:  02 May 2018
  • Published Online:  05 August 2018

Resistive switching characteristics and resistive switching mechanism of Au/TiO2/FTO memristor

    Corresponding author: Zhang Chang-Hua, zch-tan@tom.com
  • 1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi 445000, China;
  • 2. School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
Fund Project:  Projected supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61463014), the Scientific Research Project of Education Department of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. B2018087), and the Doctoral Fund of Hubei University for Nationalities, China (Grant No. MY2018B016).

Abstract: Resistance random access memory is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the future nonvolatile memory applications due to its good endurance, high storage density, fast erase speed and low power consumption. As one of the most important transition-metal oxides, the anatase TiO2 has received intense attention due to its inexpensive cost, strong optical absorption, favorable band edge positions and superior chemical stability. In the last decade, the nanometer-sized TiO2 has been shown to exhibit a wide range of electrical and optical properties, such as nanoscale electronics and optoelectronics, which rely mainly on the unique size and shape. Recently, various anatase TiO2 based devices such as the anatase TiO2 nanotube based memristor and the anatase TiO2 nano-film based memristor have been intensively studied due to their nonvolatile resistive switching performances. Furthermore, many conduction mechanisms have been used to elucidate the resistive switching behaviors of the anatase TiO2 based devices. However, the direct growth of anatase TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) on the FTO substrate is still a challenge since there exists a large lattice mismatch of about 19% between the anatase TiO2 NWAs and the FTO substrate. Moreover, the Au/TiO2/FTO based device has not been reported and the resistive switching mechanism of the anatase TiO2 NWAs based memristor is still unclear. In this work, the anatase TiO2 NWAs with (101) preferred orientation are successfully grown on the FTO substrate by a facile one-step hydrothermal process. The resistive switching characteristics and resistive switching mechanism of the as-fabricated Au/TiO2/FTO memristor are investigated systemically. The result indicates that the Au/TiO2/FTO memristor exhibits nonvolatile bipolar resistive switching behavior. Meanwhile, the resistance ratio between high resistance state and low resistance state exceeds 20 at 0.1 V, which can be maintained over 103 s without significant degradation. In addition, the conduction mechanism of the low resistance state is governed by the ohmic conduction mechanism, while the trap-controlled space charge limited current conduction mechanism dominates the high resistance state. The resistive switching model of the Au/TiO2/FTO memristor is developed, and the resistive switching mechanism could be attributed to the formation and rupture of the conductive filaments relating to the localized oxygen vacancies. It demonstrates that the Au/TiO2/FTO memristor may be a potential candidate for the future nonvolatile memory applications.

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