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Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines

Yang Yang Chen Shu-Fen Xie Jun Chen Chun-Yan Shao Ming Guo Xu Huang Wei

Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines

Yang Yang, Chen Shu-Fen, Xie Jun, Chen Chun-Yan, Shao Ming, Guo Xu, Huang Wei
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  • Organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology shows tremendous commercial applications in communication, information, display, and lighting. It has been one of the most attractive projects in optoelectronic information field over the last decade. However, the internal efficiency is quite different from the external efficiency, and to some extent, a low external efficiency restrictes the development and application of OLEDs. The light out-coupling has been improved by a number of different techniques through the modification of device architecture. In this paper we present various light out-coupling techniques that have been implemented to enhance the external efficiency of OLEDs. Various OLED device modification techniques, e.g., micro-lens array, photonic crystal structure, nano-patterned and nanoporous films, and microcavity technique, have been reviewed and discussed. Finally, some perspectives on light out-coupling techniques are proposed.
    • Funds:
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  • [1]

    Tang C W, Van Slyke S A 1987 Appl. Phys. Lett. 51 913

    [2]

    Gu G, Forrest S R 1998 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 4 83

    [3]

    Cao G H, Qin D S, Guan M, Cao J S, Zeng Y P, Li J M 2008 Chin. Phys. B 17 1911

    [4]

    Tian R Y, Yang R Q, Peng J B, Cao Y 2005 Chin. Phys. 14 1032

    [5]

    Nalwa H S, Rohwer L S 2003 ASP Press 1 213

    [6]

    Nie H, Zhang B, Tang X Z 2007 Chin. Phys. 16 730

    [7]

    Wei F X, Cao J, Zhang X B, Liu X, Jiang X Y, Zhang Z L, Zhu W Q, Xu S H 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 2008 (in Chinese) [委福祥、曹 进、张晓波、刘 向、蒋雪茵、张志林、许少鸿 2006 物理学报 55 2008]

    [8]

    Chen F P, Xu B, Zhao Z J, Tian W J, Lu P, Im Chan 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 037801

    [9]

    Cao J S, Guan M, Cao G H, Zeng Y P, Li J M, Qin D S 2008 Chin. Phys. B 17 2725

    [10]

    Wei B, Liao Y J, Liu J Z, Lu L, Cao J, Wang J, Zhang J H 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 037105

    [11]

    Kiran T K, Andrew P M, Martin R B 2010 Adv. Mater. 22 572

    [12]

    Chang C H, Chen C C, Wua C C, Chang S Y, Hung J Y, Chi Y 2010 Org. Electron. 11 266

    [13]

    Zhang L J, Hua Y L, Wu X M, Wang Y, Yin S G 2008 Chin. Phys. B 17 3097

    [14]

    Lu M H, Sturn J C 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 1927

    [15]

    Peng Y Q, Zhang F J, Tai X S, He X Y, Zhang X 2002 Chin. Phys. 11 1076

    [16]

    Madigan C F, Lu M H, Sturm J C 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 1650

    [17]

    Patel N K, Cinà S, Burroughes J H 2002 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8 346

    [18]

    Kim J S, Ho P K H, Greenham N C, Friend R H 2000 J. Appl. Phys. 88 1073

    [19]

    Yang C J, Liu S H, Hsieh H H, Cho T Y, Wu C C 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 253508

    [20]

    Peng H J, Ho Y L, Qiu C F, Wong M, Kwok H S 2004 SID 04 Digest Seattle America May 23—28 2004 p158

    [21]

    Meller S, Forrest S R 2002 J.Appl. Phys. 91 3324

    [22]

    Sun Y, Forrest S R 2008 Nature 2 483

    [23]

    Wei M K, Su I L 2004 Opt. Exp. 12 5777

    [24]

    Wei M K, Lee J H, Lin H Y, Ho Y H, Chen K Y, Lin C C, Wu C F, Lin H Y, Tsai J H, Wu T C 2008 J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10 055302

    [25]

    Peng H, Ho Y L, Yu X J, Wong M, Kwok H S 2005 J. Disp. Tech. 1 278

    [26]

    Chen K Y, Chang Y T, Ho Y H, Lin H Y, Lee J H, Wei M K 2010 Opt. Exp. 18 3238

    [27]

    We M K, Su I L, Chen Y J, Chang M, Lin H Y, Wu T C 2006 J. Micromech. Microeng. 16 368

    [28]

    Lee J H, Ho Y H, Chen K Y, Lin H Y, Fang J H, Hsu S H, Lin J R, Wei M K 2008Opt. Exp. 16 21184

    [29]

    Lin H Y, Ho Y H, Lee J H, Chen K Y, Fang H J, Hsu S C, Wei M K, Lin H Y, Tsai J H, Wu T C 2008 Opt. Exp. 16 11044

    [30]

    Shiang J J, Duggal A R 2004 J. Appl. Phys. 95 2880

    [31]

    Shiang J J, Faircloth T J, Duggal A R 2004 J. Appl. Phys. 95 2889

    [32]

    Riedel B, Hauss J L, Aichholz M, Gall A, Gerken M 2010 Org. Electron. 11 1172

    [33]

    Bathelt R, Buchhauser D, Garditz C, Paetzold R, Wellmann P 2007 Org. Electron. 8 293

    [34]

    Yamasaki T, Sumioka T, Tsutsui T 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 1243

    [35]

    Wang Z Y, Chen Z J, Xiao L X, Gong Q H 2009 Org. Electron. 10 341

    [36]

    Lu M H, Sturn J C 2002 J. Appl. Phys. 91 595

    [37]

    Krams, Holcomb O, Höfler G E, Coman C C, Chen E I, Grillot P, Gardner N F, Chui H C, Huang J W 1999 Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 2365

    [38]

    Gu G, Garbuzov D Z, Burrows P E, Vendakesh S, Forrest S R, Thompson M E 1997 Opt. Lett. 22 396

    [39]

    Wu C C, Wu C I, Sturm J C, Kahn A 1997 Appl. Phys. Lett. 70 1348

    [40]

    Chen S M, Kwok H S 2010 Opt. Exp. 18 37

    [41]

    Lee Y J, Kim S H, Huh J, Kim G H, Lee Y H, Cho S H, Kim Y C, Do Y R 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 3779

    [42]

    Kitamura M, Iwamoto S, Arakawa Y 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 151119

    [43]

    Jeong 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 47 4566

    [44]

    Hsu S Y, Lee M C, Lee K L, Wei P K 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 013303

    [45]

    Jeon S, Kang J W, Park H D, Kim J J, Youn J R, Shim J, Jeong J H, Choi D G, Kim K D, Altun A O, Kim S H, Lee Y H 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 223307

    [46]

    Cheng Y H, Wu J L, Cheng C H, Syao K C, Lee C M 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 091102

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    Slootsky M, Forrest S R 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 163302

    [48]

    Tsutsui T, Yahiro M, Yokogawa H, Kawano K, Yokoyama M 2001 Adv. Mater. 13 1149

    [49]

    Köhnen A, Gather M C, Riegel N, Zacharias P, Meerholz K 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 113501

    [50]

    Peng H J, Ho Y L, Yu X J, Kwok H S 2004 J. Appl. Phys. 96 1649

    [51]

    Gruhlke R W, Holl, W R, Hall D G 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 2838

    [52]

    Wedge S, Barnes W L 2004 Opt. Exp. 12 3673

    [53]

    Matterson B, Lupton J F, Safonov A F, Salt M G 2001 Adv. Mater. 13 123

    [54]

    Giannattasio A, Wedge S, Barnes W L 2003 J. Mod. Optic. 53 10

    [55]

    Koo W H, Jeong S M, Araoka F, Ishikawa K, Nishimura S, Toyooka T, Takezoe H 2010 Nature Photon. 6 222

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    Kim K S, Zhao Y, Jang H, Lee S Y, Kim J M, Kim K S, Ahn J H, Kim P, Choi J Y , Hong B H 2009 Nature 45 7706

    [57]

    Wei M K, Lin C W, Yang C C, Kiang Y W, Lee J H, Lin H Y 2010 Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11 1527

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    Lin H, Liu S, Zhang X S, Liu B L, Ren X C 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 959 ( in Chinese) [林 瀚、刘 守、张向苏、刘宝林、任雪畅 2009 物理学报 58 959]

    [60]

    Zhang B, Wang Z 2007 Acta Phys. Sin. 56 1404 ( in Chinese) [张 波、王 智 2007 物理学报 56 1404]

    [61]

    Jeong S M, Ha N Y, Takezoe H, Nishimura S, Suzaki G 2008 J. Appl. Phys. 103 113101

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    Fujita M, Ueno T, Noda S, Noda S, Ohhata H A, Tsuji T 2003 Electron. Lett. 39 212

    [63]

    Do Y R, Kim Y C, Song Y W , Lee Y H 2004 J. Appl. Phys. 96 7629

    [64]

    Liu C, Kamaev V , Vardeny Z V 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 143501

    [65]

    Do Y R, Kim Y C, Song Y W, Cho C O, Jeon H, Lee Y J, Kim S H , Lee Y H 2003 Adv. Mater. 15 1214

    [66]

    Lee Y J, Kim S H, Huh J, Kim G H, Lee Y H, Cho S H, Kim Y C , Do Y R 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 3779

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    Kim Y C, Cho S H,Lee Y J, Lee H Y , Do Y R 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 173502

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    Ishihara K, Fujita M, Matsubara I, Asano T, Noda S, Ohata H, Hirasawa A, Nakada H , Shimoji N 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 111114

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    Ji W Y, Zhang L T, Zhang T Y, Liu G Q, Xie W F, Liu S Y, Zhang H Y, Zhang L Y, Li B 2009 Opt. Lett. 34 2703

    [70]

    Martin D B, Charlton, Lidzey D G, Chalcraft A, Noutsos K, Smith E, Pate N 2010 Opt. Photon. (SPIE), 2nd August, SanDiego USA

    [71]

    Takada N, Tsutsui T, Saito S 1993 Appl. Phys. Lett. 63 2032

    [72]

    Bulovic V, Khalfin V B, Garbuzov D Z Burrows P E, Forrest S R 1998 Phys. Rev. B 58 3730

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    Xiong Z H, Shi H Z, Fan Y L, Zhang S T, Zhan Y Q, He J, Zhong G Y, Xu S H, Liu Y, Wang X J, Wang Z J, Ding X M, Huang W, Hou X Y 2003 Acta Phys. Sin. 52 1222 (in Chinese)[熊祖洪、史华忠、樊永良、张松涛、詹义强、何 钧、钟高余、徐少辉、柳 毅、王晓军、王子君、丁训民、黄 维、侯晓远 2003 物理学报 52 1222]

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    Zhang X B, Cao J, Wei F X, Jiang X Y, Zhang Z L, Zhu W Q, Xu S H 2006 Acta Phys. Sin. 55 119 ( in Chinese) [张晓波、曹 进、委福祥、蒋雪茵、张志林、朱文清、许少鸿 2006 物理学报 55 119]

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Publishing process
  • Received Date:  26 May 2010
  • Accepted Date:  05 August 2010
  • Published Online:  05 February 2011

Comprehensive Survey for the Frontier Disciplines

  • 1. Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics & Information Displays (KLOEID) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts & Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210046, China

Abstract: Organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology shows tremendous commercial applications in communication, information, display, and lighting. It has been one of the most attractive projects in optoelectronic information field over the last decade. However, the internal efficiency is quite different from the external efficiency, and to some extent, a low external efficiency restrictes the development and application of OLEDs. The light out-coupling has been improved by a number of different techniques through the modification of device architecture. In this paper we present various light out-coupling techniques that have been implemented to enhance the external efficiency of OLEDs. Various OLED device modification techniques, e.g., micro-lens array, photonic crystal structure, nano-patterned and nanoporous films, and microcavity technique, have been reviewed and discussed. Finally, some perspectives on light out-coupling techniques are proposed.

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