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Preliminary analyses on characteristics of sea surface temperatures in Kuroshio and its extension and relations to atmospheric circulations

Wang Shan-Shan Guan Yu-Ping Li Zhi-Jin Chao Yi Huang Jian-Ping

Preliminary analyses on characteristics of sea surface temperatures in Kuroshio and its extension and relations to atmospheric circulations

Wang Shan-Shan, Guan Yu-Ping, Li Zhi-Jin, Chao Yi, Huang Jian-Ping
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  • A sea surface temperature (SST) based index, denoted as KI, is designed to characterize the holistic feature of Kuroshio east of the Tokara-kaikyo and its extension on the purpose of predict its SST trend. The KI is calculated on the base of the Hadley Center's monthly SSTs during the period 1941-2009. The wavelet analysis showed that the KI displays inter-annual and inter-decadal oscillations, dominated by quasi-triennial, quasi 7-yr and 20-yr time scales. In addition, the KI is shown to be phase-locking to seasonal cycles. It is found that there are significant temporally-lag correlations between the KI and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index as well as between the KI and the ENSO index. A set of composition analyses using the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses indicate that when the KI shows a positive anomaly, the SST becomes abnormally warm in the equatorial eastern. Pacific, the Hadley circulation is intensified, and consequently the transportation of the westerly momentum is enhanced. The enhanced Hadley circulation and transportation of the westerly momentum give rise to the deepened Aleutian low pressure, then cool the Kuroshio extension and the north Pacific basin and cause the KE extend east. The above " ENSO-PDO-Kuroshio" process need some response time, that is to say, we can forecast the SST variation on the Kuroshio on the basis of the ENSO and PDO, which is very significant to predict the climate in China.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2007CB411801) and the JIFRESSE/UCLA, USA.
    [1]

    Yasuda I 2003 J. Oceanogr. 59 389

    [2]

    Sekine Y, Miyamoto S 2002 J. Oceanogr. 58 611

    [3]

    Qiu B, Chen S M 2011 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 41 503

    [4]

    Yasuda T, Kitamura Y 2003 J. Oceanogr. 59 279

    [5]

    Kwon Y O, Alexander M A, Nicholas A B, Frankignoul C, Nakamura H, Qiu B, Thompson L 2010 J. Climate 23 3249

    [6]

    Wang S W, Zhao Z C 1980 Acta Oceanol. Sin. 2 27 (in Chinese) [王绍武, 赵宗慈 1980 海洋学报 2 27]

    [7]

    Ni D H, Sun Z B, Chen H S, Zhu W J 2004 J. Nanjing Inst. Meteo. 27 310 (in Chinese) [倪东鸿, 孙照渤, 陈海山, 朱伟军 2004 南京气象学院学报 27 310]

    [8]

    Li Y F, Ding Y H 2002 Climatic Environ. Res. 7 88 (in Chinese) [李跃凤, 丁一汇 2002 气候与环境研究 7 88]

    [9]

    Weng X C, Zhang Q L, Yang Y L, Yan T Z 1996 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 27 237 (in Chinese) [翁学传, 张启龙, 杨玉玲, 颜廷壮 1996 海洋与湖沼 27 237]

    [10]

    Zhang Q L, Weng X C, Cheng M H 1999 Plateau Meteor. 4 575 (in Chinese) [张启龙, 翁学传, 程明华 1999高原气象 4 575]

    [11]

    Zhao F M, Zhu X J, Li F, Wang Z Q, Gu J Y, Wang M L 2007 Meteor. Environ. Sci. 30 (Z1) 28 (in Chinese) [赵斐苗, 朱鑫君, 李飞, 王志强, 谷继永, 王美兰 2007气象与环境科学 30 (增刊) 28]

    [12]

    Kelly K A, Dong S 2004 Geophys. Monogr. 147 347

    [13]

    Dawe J T, Thompson L 2007 J. Climate 20 2092

    [14]

    Chelton D B, Schlax M G 1996 Science 272 234

    [15]

    Ceballos L I, Lorenzo E D, Hoyos C D, Schneider N, Taguchi B 2009 J. Climate 22 5163

    [16]

    Qiu B, Chen S 2005 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35 2090

    [17]

    Dawe J T, Thompson L 2007 J. Climate 20 2092

    [18]

    Trenberth K E, Branstator G W, Karoly D, Kumar A, Lau N C, Ropelewski C 1998 J. Geophys. Res. 103(C7) 291

    [19]

    Liu Z, Alexander M A 2007 Rev. Geophys. 45 RG2005

    [20]

    Sun X P, Wang Y P, Yuan Q K, Xu H D 1991 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 22 524 (in Chinese) [孙湘平, 王元培, 袁启科, 徐洪达 1991 海洋与湖沼 22 524]

    [21]

    Kawai H 1969 Deep-Sea Research 16 109

    [22]

    Kawabe M 1995 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25 3103

    [23]

    Feng M, Mitsudera H, Yoshikawa Y 2000 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30 2257

    [24]

    Qiu B, Miao W F 2000 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30 2124

    [25]

    Guan B X 1964 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 6 229 (in Chinese) [管秉贤 1964 海洋与湖沼 6 229]

    [26]

    Lin K, Tang Y X, Guo B H 1995 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 26 247 (in Chinese) [林葵, 汤毓祥, 郭炳火 1995海洋与湖沼 26 247]

    [27]

    Chen H X, Yuan Y L, Hua F 2006 Chin. Sci. Bull. 51 730 ( in Chinese) [陈红霞, 袁业立, 华锋 2006 科学通报 51 730]

    [28]

    Jia Y L, Liu Q Y, Liu W, Lin X P 2004 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 35 507 (in Chinese) [贾英来, 刘秦玉, 刘伟, 林霄沛 2004 海洋与湖沼 35 507]

    [29]

    Guan B X 1979 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 10 299 (in Chinese) [管秉贤 1979 海洋与湖沼 10 299]

    [30]

    Ichikawa H, Beardsley R C 1993 Deep Sea Research Part I- Oceanographic Research Papers 40 583

    [31]

    Imawaki S, Uchida H, Ichikawa H, Fukasawa M, Umatani S, Asuka Group 2001 Geophys. Res. Lett. 28 17

    [32]

    Kawabe 1996 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26 2449

    [33]

    Wyrtki K, Magaard L, Hagar J 1976 J. Geophys. Res. 81 2641

    [34]

    Qiu B 2002 J. Oceanogr. 58 57

    [35]

    Da Silva A, Young C, Levitus S 1994 Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994 (Vol.1) (Washington: US Gov. Printing Office) p83

    [36]

    Miyazawa Y, Guo X Y, Yamagata T 2004 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34 2203

    [37]

    Qiu B 2000 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30 1486

    [38]

    Saji N H, Goswami B N, Vinayachandran P N, Yamagata T 1999 Nature 401 360

    [39]

    Miller A J, Cayan D R, Bamett T P, Graham N E, Oberhuber J M 1994 J. Oceanogr. 7 21

    [40]

    An S I, Wang B 2000 J. Climate 13 2044

    [41]

    Zhang Q L, Hou Y J, Qi Q H, Zheng D M, Cheng M H 2009 Advances in Marine Science 26 126 (in Chinese) [张启龙, 侯一筠, 齐庆华, 郑冬梅, 程明华 2009 海洋科学进展 26 126]

    [42]

    Gu D J, Wang D X, Yuan J N 2004 J. Trop. Ocea. 23 30 (in Chinese) [谷德军, 王东晓, 袁金南 2004 热带海洋学报 23 30]

    [43]

    Zhao Z G 2000 Summer Drought and Environmental Field in China (Beijing: Meteorological Press) 101-103 (in Chinese) [赵振国 2000 中国夏季早涝及环境场 (北京: 北京气象出版社) 第101-103页]

    [44]

    Li Y K 1989 Sci. Meteor. Sin. 9 263 (in Chinese) [李永康 1989 气象科学 9 263]

    [45]

    Liu Z, Alexander M A 2007 Rev. Geophys. 45 RG2005

    [46]

    Bjerkness J 1966 Tellus 18 820

    [47]

    Bjerkness J 1969 Mon. Wea. Rev. 97 163

    [48]

    Wang S W 1987 Beitr. Phys. Atmosph. 60 478

    [49]

    Gong D Y, Wang S W 1998 Acta Oceanol. Sin. 20 44 (in Chinese) [龚道溢, 王绍武 1998 海洋学报 2044]

    [50]

    Zhou B T, Wang H J 2007 Chin. Sci. Bull. 52 2194 (in Chinese) [周波涛, 王会军 2007 科学通报 52 2194]

    [51]

    Guan B, Nigam S 2008 J. Climate 21 2790

  • [1]

    Yasuda I 2003 J. Oceanogr. 59 389

    [2]

    Sekine Y, Miyamoto S 2002 J. Oceanogr. 58 611

    [3]

    Qiu B, Chen S M 2011 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 41 503

    [4]

    Yasuda T, Kitamura Y 2003 J. Oceanogr. 59 279

    [5]

    Kwon Y O, Alexander M A, Nicholas A B, Frankignoul C, Nakamura H, Qiu B, Thompson L 2010 J. Climate 23 3249

    [6]

    Wang S W, Zhao Z C 1980 Acta Oceanol. Sin. 2 27 (in Chinese) [王绍武, 赵宗慈 1980 海洋学报 2 27]

    [7]

    Ni D H, Sun Z B, Chen H S, Zhu W J 2004 J. Nanjing Inst. Meteo. 27 310 (in Chinese) [倪东鸿, 孙照渤, 陈海山, 朱伟军 2004 南京气象学院学报 27 310]

    [8]

    Li Y F, Ding Y H 2002 Climatic Environ. Res. 7 88 (in Chinese) [李跃凤, 丁一汇 2002 气候与环境研究 7 88]

    [9]

    Weng X C, Zhang Q L, Yang Y L, Yan T Z 1996 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 27 237 (in Chinese) [翁学传, 张启龙, 杨玉玲, 颜廷壮 1996 海洋与湖沼 27 237]

    [10]

    Zhang Q L, Weng X C, Cheng M H 1999 Plateau Meteor. 4 575 (in Chinese) [张启龙, 翁学传, 程明华 1999高原气象 4 575]

    [11]

    Zhao F M, Zhu X J, Li F, Wang Z Q, Gu J Y, Wang M L 2007 Meteor. Environ. Sci. 30 (Z1) 28 (in Chinese) [赵斐苗, 朱鑫君, 李飞, 王志强, 谷继永, 王美兰 2007气象与环境科学 30 (增刊) 28]

    [12]

    Kelly K A, Dong S 2004 Geophys. Monogr. 147 347

    [13]

    Dawe J T, Thompson L 2007 J. Climate 20 2092

    [14]

    Chelton D B, Schlax M G 1996 Science 272 234

    [15]

    Ceballos L I, Lorenzo E D, Hoyos C D, Schneider N, Taguchi B 2009 J. Climate 22 5163

    [16]

    Qiu B, Chen S 2005 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35 2090

    [17]

    Dawe J T, Thompson L 2007 J. Climate 20 2092

    [18]

    Trenberth K E, Branstator G W, Karoly D, Kumar A, Lau N C, Ropelewski C 1998 J. Geophys. Res. 103(C7) 291

    [19]

    Liu Z, Alexander M A 2007 Rev. Geophys. 45 RG2005

    [20]

    Sun X P, Wang Y P, Yuan Q K, Xu H D 1991 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 22 524 (in Chinese) [孙湘平, 王元培, 袁启科, 徐洪达 1991 海洋与湖沼 22 524]

    [21]

    Kawai H 1969 Deep-Sea Research 16 109

    [22]

    Kawabe M 1995 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25 3103

    [23]

    Feng M, Mitsudera H, Yoshikawa Y 2000 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30 2257

    [24]

    Qiu B, Miao W F 2000 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30 2124

    [25]

    Guan B X 1964 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 6 229 (in Chinese) [管秉贤 1964 海洋与湖沼 6 229]

    [26]

    Lin K, Tang Y X, Guo B H 1995 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 26 247 (in Chinese) [林葵, 汤毓祥, 郭炳火 1995海洋与湖沼 26 247]

    [27]

    Chen H X, Yuan Y L, Hua F 2006 Chin. Sci. Bull. 51 730 ( in Chinese) [陈红霞, 袁业立, 华锋 2006 科学通报 51 730]

    [28]

    Jia Y L, Liu Q Y, Liu W, Lin X P 2004 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 35 507 (in Chinese) [贾英来, 刘秦玉, 刘伟, 林霄沛 2004 海洋与湖沼 35 507]

    [29]

    Guan B X 1979 Oceanol. Limnol. Sin. 10 299 (in Chinese) [管秉贤 1979 海洋与湖沼 10 299]

    [30]

    Ichikawa H, Beardsley R C 1993 Deep Sea Research Part I- Oceanographic Research Papers 40 583

    [31]

    Imawaki S, Uchida H, Ichikawa H, Fukasawa M, Umatani S, Asuka Group 2001 Geophys. Res. Lett. 28 17

    [32]

    Kawabe 1996 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26 2449

    [33]

    Wyrtki K, Magaard L, Hagar J 1976 J. Geophys. Res. 81 2641

    [34]

    Qiu B 2002 J. Oceanogr. 58 57

    [35]

    Da Silva A, Young C, Levitus S 1994 Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994 (Vol.1) (Washington: US Gov. Printing Office) p83

    [36]

    Miyazawa Y, Guo X Y, Yamagata T 2004 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34 2203

    [37]

    Qiu B 2000 J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30 1486

    [38]

    Saji N H, Goswami B N, Vinayachandran P N, Yamagata T 1999 Nature 401 360

    [39]

    Miller A J, Cayan D R, Bamett T P, Graham N E, Oberhuber J M 1994 J. Oceanogr. 7 21

    [40]

    An S I, Wang B 2000 J. Climate 13 2044

    [41]

    Zhang Q L, Hou Y J, Qi Q H, Zheng D M, Cheng M H 2009 Advances in Marine Science 26 126 (in Chinese) [张启龙, 侯一筠, 齐庆华, 郑冬梅, 程明华 2009 海洋科学进展 26 126]

    [42]

    Gu D J, Wang D X, Yuan J N 2004 J. Trop. Ocea. 23 30 (in Chinese) [谷德军, 王东晓, 袁金南 2004 热带海洋学报 23 30]

    [43]

    Zhao Z G 2000 Summer Drought and Environmental Field in China (Beijing: Meteorological Press) 101-103 (in Chinese) [赵振国 2000 中国夏季早涝及环境场 (北京: 北京气象出版社) 第101-103页]

    [44]

    Li Y K 1989 Sci. Meteor. Sin. 9 263 (in Chinese) [李永康 1989 气象科学 9 263]

    [45]

    Liu Z, Alexander M A 2007 Rev. Geophys. 45 RG2005

    [46]

    Bjerkness J 1966 Tellus 18 820

    [47]

    Bjerkness J 1969 Mon. Wea. Rev. 97 163

    [48]

    Wang S W 1987 Beitr. Phys. Atmosph. 60 478

    [49]

    Gong D Y, Wang S W 1998 Acta Oceanol. Sin. 20 44 (in Chinese) [龚道溢, 王绍武 1998 海洋学报 2044]

    [50]

    Zhou B T, Wang H J 2007 Chin. Sci. Bull. 52 2194 (in Chinese) [周波涛, 王会军 2007 科学通报 52 2194]

    [51]

    Guan B, Nigam S 2008 J. Climate 21 2790

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Publishing process
  • Received Date:  20 July 2011
  • Accepted Date:  15 February 2012
  • Published Online:  05 August 2012

Preliminary analyses on characteristics of sea surface temperatures in Kuroshio and its extension and relations to atmospheric circulations

  • 1. College of Atmospheric Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China;
  • 2. State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China;
  • 3. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA91109, USA
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2007CB411801) and the JIFRESSE/UCLA, USA.

Abstract: A sea surface temperature (SST) based index, denoted as KI, is designed to characterize the holistic feature of Kuroshio east of the Tokara-kaikyo and its extension on the purpose of predict its SST trend. The KI is calculated on the base of the Hadley Center's monthly SSTs during the period 1941-2009. The wavelet analysis showed that the KI displays inter-annual and inter-decadal oscillations, dominated by quasi-triennial, quasi 7-yr and 20-yr time scales. In addition, the KI is shown to be phase-locking to seasonal cycles. It is found that there are significant temporally-lag correlations between the KI and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index as well as between the KI and the ENSO index. A set of composition analyses using the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses indicate that when the KI shows a positive anomaly, the SST becomes abnormally warm in the equatorial eastern. Pacific, the Hadley circulation is intensified, and consequently the transportation of the westerly momentum is enhanced. The enhanced Hadley circulation and transportation of the westerly momentum give rise to the deepened Aleutian low pressure, then cool the Kuroshio extension and the north Pacific basin and cause the KE extend east. The above " ENSO-PDO-Kuroshio" process need some response time, that is to say, we can forecast the SST variation on the Kuroshio on the basis of the ENSO and PDO, which is very significant to predict the climate in China.

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