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Energy balance analysis over Loess Plateau and the consequences for carbon dioxide flux

Liang Jie-Ning Zhang Lei Zhang Wu Shi Jin-Sen

Energy balance analysis over Loess Plateau and the consequences for carbon dioxide flux

Liang Jie-Ning, Zhang Lei, Zhang Wu, Shi Jin-Sen
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  • This paper examines the surface energy imbalance status over the semi-arid areas of the Loess Plateau, using the data collected by eddy covariance (EC) and boundary layer meteorological measurement systems at the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL). The energy balance ratio is about 0.80 during the daytime in all seasons, while that is only about 0.20 in the night. For the observation time with no local circulation, the energy balance ratio is improved to more than 85% in the daytime. Even in the night of spring, summer or autumn, the energy balance ratio is also improved to 70%. However, the ratio in nighttime of winter is only 29.4%. After taking into consideration all the energy budget items, the surface energy is still not closed, which means that the eddy covariance system underestimated the turbulent heat flux. And the observation error changes with seasons, with maximum in winter and minimum in spring. The errors of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux may impact CO2 flux through the WPL correction, and cause the uncertainty of long term net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and the NEE throughout the year can be overestimated by 41.2%.
    • Funds: Project supported by the state Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2012CB955302), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41075104).
    [1]

    Wang J M, Wang W Z, Liu S M, Ma M G, Li X 2009 Adv. Earth Sci. 24 705 (in Chinese) [王介民, 王维真, 刘绍民, 马明国, 李新 2009 地球科学进展 24 705]

    [2]

    Li H Q, Guo W D, Sun G D, Zhang Y C 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 019201 (in Chinese) [李红祺, 郭维栋, 孙国栋, 张耀存 2011 物理学报 60 019201]

    [3]

    Ma J Y, Liang H, Luo Y, Li S K 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 069601 (in Chinese) [马金玉, 梁宏, 罗勇, 李世奎 2011 物理学报 60 069601]

    [4]

    Wang S, Zhang Q 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 059203 (in Chinese) [王胜, 张强 2011 物理学报 60 059203]

    [5]

    Mahrt L 1998 J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 15 416

    [6]

    Verma S B, Baldocchi D D, Anderson D E, Matt D R, Clement R J 1986 Bound-Layer Meteor. 36 71

    [7]

    Li Z Q, Yu G R, Wen X F, Zhang L M, Ren C Y, Fu Y L 2004 Sci. China Ser. D-Earth Sci. 34 46 (in Chinese) [李正泉, 于贵瑞, 温学发, 张雷明, 任传友, 伏玉玲 2004 中国科学 D 辑 地球科学 34 46]

    [8]

    Wilson K B, Hanson P J, Baldocchi D D 2000 Agric For Meteor. 102 83

    [9]

    Schmid H P, Grimmond C S B, Cropley F, Offerle B, Su H B 2000 Agric For Meteor. 103 357

    [10]

    McCaughey J H 1985 Bound-Layer Meteor. 31 89

    [11]

    Moore C J 1986 Bound-Layer Meteor. 37 17

    [12]

    Aubinet M, Grelle A, Ibrom A, Rannik Ü, Moncrieff J, Foken T, Kowalski A S, Martin P H, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Clement R, Elbers J, Granier A, Grünwald T, Morgenstern K, Pilegaard K, Rebmann C, Snijders W, Valentini R, Vesala T 2000 Adv. Ecol. Res. 30 114

    [13]

    Stannard D I, Blanford J H, Kustas W P, Nichols W D, Amer S A, Schmugge T J, Weltz M A 1994 Water Resour Res. 30 1227

    [14]

    Oncley S P, Foken T, Vogt R, Kohsiek W, DeBruin H A R, Bernhofer C, Christen A, Gorsel E, Grantz D, Feigenwinter C, Lehner I, Liebethal C, Liu H P, Mauder M, Pitacco A, Ribeiro L, Weidinger T 2007 Bound-Layer Meteor. 123 1

    [15]

    Foken T 2000 Ecol. Appl. 18 1351

    [16]

    Sakai R K, Fitzjarrald D R, Moore K E 2001 J. Appl. Meteor. 40 2178

    [17]

    Wilson K, Goldstein A, Falge E, Aubinet M, Baldocchi D 2002 Agric For Meteorol. 113 223

    [18]

    Steinfeld G, Letzel M O, Raasch S, Kanda M, Inagaki A 2007 Bound-Layer Meteor. 123 77

    [19]

    Huang J P, Lee X H, Patton E G 2008 Bound-Layer Meteor. 127 273

    [20]

    Wang W G 2010 Theor. Appl. Climatol. 99 125

    [21]

    Mauder M, Desjardins R L, Pattey E, Worth D 2010 Bound-Layer Meteor. 136 175

    [22]

    Liu X M, Hu F, Jiang J H, Zhen C M 2008 Chinese J. Atmos. Sci. 32 1411 (in Chinese) [刘熙明, 胡非, 姜金华, 甄灿明 2008 大气科学 32 1411]

    [23]

    Wang C L, Zhou G Y, Wang X, Zhou C Y, Yu G R 2007 J. Trop. Meteor. 23 643 (in Chinese) [王春林, 周国逸, 王旭, 周传艳, 于贵瑞 2007 热带气象学报 23 643]

    [24]

    Wang C G, Sun J N, Hu F, Jiang W M 2007 J. Nanjing University 43 270 (in Chinese) [王成刚, 孙鉴泞, 胡非, 蒋维楣 2007 南京大学学报 (自然科学版) 43 270]

    [25]

    Yang X G, Zhang Q, Wang R Y, Ma P L, Yang Q G, Liu H Y 2004 Plateau Meteor. 23 828 (in Chinese) [杨兴国, 张强, 王润元, 马鹏里, 杨启国, 刘宏宜 2004 高原气象 23 828]

    [26]

    Ma Y M, Yao T D, Wang J M, Hu Z Y, Ishikawa H, Ma W Q, Su Z B 2006 Adv. Earth Sci. 21 1215 (in Chinese) [马耀明, 姚檀栋, 王介民, 胡泽勇, 石川裕彦, 马伟强, Menenti M, 苏中波 2006 地球科学进展 21 1215

    [27]

    Wang J M, Wang W Z, Ao Y H, Sun F L, Wang S G 2007 Adv. Earth Sci. 22 791 (in Chinese) [王介民, 王维真, 奥银焕, 孙方林, 王树果 2007 地球科学进展 22 791]

    [28]

    Zhou D G, Huang R H 2010 Sci. China Ser. D-Earth Sci. 40 1068 (in Chinese) [周德刚, 黄荣辉 2010 中国科学D辑: 地球科学 40 1068]

    [29]

    Leuning R, Cleugh H A, Zegelin S J, Hughes D 2005 Agric For Meteorol 129 151

    [30]

    Liu H P, Randerson J T, Lindfors J, Massman W J, Foken T 2006 Bound-Layer Meteor. 120 65

    [31]

    Zuo J Q, Wang J M, Huang J P, Li W J, Wang G Y, Ren H L 2010 Plateau Meteor. 29 840 (in Chinese) [左金清, 王介民, 黄建平, 李维京, 王国印, 任宏利 2010 高原气象 29 840]

    [32]

    Zhang Q, Li H Y 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 5889 (in Chinese) [张强, 李宏宇 2010 物理学报 59 5889]

    [33]

    Li H Y, Zhang Q, Wang C L, Yang F L, Zhao J H 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 159201 (in Chinese) [李宏宇, 张强, 王春玲, 阳伏林, 赵建华 2012 物理学报 61 159201]

    [34]

    Sun J, Esbebseb S K, Mahrt L 1995 Adv. Atmos Sci. 52 3162

    [35]

    Liu H Z, Dong W J, Fu C B, Shi L Q 2004 Climatic Environ. Res. 9 378 (in Chinese) [刘辉志, 董文杰, 符淙斌, 石立庆 2004 气候与环境研究 9 378

    [36]

    Wang H, Hu Z Y, Ma W Q, Li D L 2008 Chinese J Atmos. Sci. 32 1458 (in Chinese) [王慧, 胡泽勇, 马伟强, 李栋梁 2008 大气科学 32 1458]

    [37]

    Kidston J, Brümmer C, Black T A, Morgenstern K, Nesic Z, McCaughey J H, Barr A G 2010 Bound.-Layer Meteor. 136 193

    [38]

    Gao Z 2005 Bound.-Layer Meteor. 114 165

    [39]

    Wang J, Zhang L, Wang T J, Bao J, Cao X J, Zhang B D, Zhou Z Y 2012 J. Arid Meteor. 30 169 (in Chinese) [王瑾, 张镭, 王腾蛟, 鲍婧, 曹贤洁, 张北斗, 周衷玉 2012 干旱气象 30 169]

    [40]

    Chen J Y, Fan S H, Zhao C F, Xiao X, Cai X H, Liu H Z 2006 Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 30 423 (in Chinese) [陈家宜, 范邵华, 赵传峰, 肖雪, 蔡旭辉, 刘辉志 2006 大气科学 30 423]

    [41]

    Zhu Z L, Sun X M, Zhang R H 2003 Adv. Atmos Sci. 20 285

    [42]

    Kochendorfer J, Meyers T P, Frank J, Massman W J, Heuer M W 2012 Bound.-Layer Meteor. 145 383

    [43]

    Perez P J, Castellvi F, Ibañez M, Rosell J I 1999 Agric For Meteorol. 97 141

    [44]

    Cava D, Katul G G 2009 Bound.-Layer Meteor. 130 307

    [45]

    Lenschow D H, Sun J 2007 Bound.-Layer Meteor. 125 63

    [46]

    Liang J N, Zhang L, Bao J, Zhao S Q, Huang J P, Zhang W 2013 Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 37 (in Chinese) (in press) [梁捷宁, 张镭, 鲍婧, 赵世强, 黄建平, 张武 2013 大气科学 37 (待刊)]

    [47]

    Griffis T J, Black T A, Morgenstern K, Barr A G, Nesic Z, Drewitt G B, Gaumont-Guay D, McCaughey J H 2003 Agric. For Meteorol. 117 53

  • [1]

    Wang J M, Wang W Z, Liu S M, Ma M G, Li X 2009 Adv. Earth Sci. 24 705 (in Chinese) [王介民, 王维真, 刘绍民, 马明国, 李新 2009 地球科学进展 24 705]

    [2]

    Li H Q, Guo W D, Sun G D, Zhang Y C 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 019201 (in Chinese) [李红祺, 郭维栋, 孙国栋, 张耀存 2011 物理学报 60 019201]

    [3]

    Ma J Y, Liang H, Luo Y, Li S K 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 069601 (in Chinese) [马金玉, 梁宏, 罗勇, 李世奎 2011 物理学报 60 069601]

    [4]

    Wang S, Zhang Q 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 059203 (in Chinese) [王胜, 张强 2011 物理学报 60 059203]

    [5]

    Mahrt L 1998 J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 15 416

    [6]

    Verma S B, Baldocchi D D, Anderson D E, Matt D R, Clement R J 1986 Bound-Layer Meteor. 36 71

    [7]

    Li Z Q, Yu G R, Wen X F, Zhang L M, Ren C Y, Fu Y L 2004 Sci. China Ser. D-Earth Sci. 34 46 (in Chinese) [李正泉, 于贵瑞, 温学发, 张雷明, 任传友, 伏玉玲 2004 中国科学 D 辑 地球科学 34 46]

    [8]

    Wilson K B, Hanson P J, Baldocchi D D 2000 Agric For Meteor. 102 83

    [9]

    Schmid H P, Grimmond C S B, Cropley F, Offerle B, Su H B 2000 Agric For Meteor. 103 357

    [10]

    McCaughey J H 1985 Bound-Layer Meteor. 31 89

    [11]

    Moore C J 1986 Bound-Layer Meteor. 37 17

    [12]

    Aubinet M, Grelle A, Ibrom A, Rannik Ü, Moncrieff J, Foken T, Kowalski A S, Martin P H, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Clement R, Elbers J, Granier A, Grünwald T, Morgenstern K, Pilegaard K, Rebmann C, Snijders W, Valentini R, Vesala T 2000 Adv. Ecol. Res. 30 114

    [13]

    Stannard D I, Blanford J H, Kustas W P, Nichols W D, Amer S A, Schmugge T J, Weltz M A 1994 Water Resour Res. 30 1227

    [14]

    Oncley S P, Foken T, Vogt R, Kohsiek W, DeBruin H A R, Bernhofer C, Christen A, Gorsel E, Grantz D, Feigenwinter C, Lehner I, Liebethal C, Liu H P, Mauder M, Pitacco A, Ribeiro L, Weidinger T 2007 Bound-Layer Meteor. 123 1

    [15]

    Foken T 2000 Ecol. Appl. 18 1351

    [16]

    Sakai R K, Fitzjarrald D R, Moore K E 2001 J. Appl. Meteor. 40 2178

    [17]

    Wilson K, Goldstein A, Falge E, Aubinet M, Baldocchi D 2002 Agric For Meteorol. 113 223

    [18]

    Steinfeld G, Letzel M O, Raasch S, Kanda M, Inagaki A 2007 Bound-Layer Meteor. 123 77

    [19]

    Huang J P, Lee X H, Patton E G 2008 Bound-Layer Meteor. 127 273

    [20]

    Wang W G 2010 Theor. Appl. Climatol. 99 125

    [21]

    Mauder M, Desjardins R L, Pattey E, Worth D 2010 Bound-Layer Meteor. 136 175

    [22]

    Liu X M, Hu F, Jiang J H, Zhen C M 2008 Chinese J. Atmos. Sci. 32 1411 (in Chinese) [刘熙明, 胡非, 姜金华, 甄灿明 2008 大气科学 32 1411]

    [23]

    Wang C L, Zhou G Y, Wang X, Zhou C Y, Yu G R 2007 J. Trop. Meteor. 23 643 (in Chinese) [王春林, 周国逸, 王旭, 周传艳, 于贵瑞 2007 热带气象学报 23 643]

    [24]

    Wang C G, Sun J N, Hu F, Jiang W M 2007 J. Nanjing University 43 270 (in Chinese) [王成刚, 孙鉴泞, 胡非, 蒋维楣 2007 南京大学学报 (自然科学版) 43 270]

    [25]

    Yang X G, Zhang Q, Wang R Y, Ma P L, Yang Q G, Liu H Y 2004 Plateau Meteor. 23 828 (in Chinese) [杨兴国, 张强, 王润元, 马鹏里, 杨启国, 刘宏宜 2004 高原气象 23 828]

    [26]

    Ma Y M, Yao T D, Wang J M, Hu Z Y, Ishikawa H, Ma W Q, Su Z B 2006 Adv. Earth Sci. 21 1215 (in Chinese) [马耀明, 姚檀栋, 王介民, 胡泽勇, 石川裕彦, 马伟强, Menenti M, 苏中波 2006 地球科学进展 21 1215

    [27]

    Wang J M, Wang W Z, Ao Y H, Sun F L, Wang S G 2007 Adv. Earth Sci. 22 791 (in Chinese) [王介民, 王维真, 奥银焕, 孙方林, 王树果 2007 地球科学进展 22 791]

    [28]

    Zhou D G, Huang R H 2010 Sci. China Ser. D-Earth Sci. 40 1068 (in Chinese) [周德刚, 黄荣辉 2010 中国科学D辑: 地球科学 40 1068]

    [29]

    Leuning R, Cleugh H A, Zegelin S J, Hughes D 2005 Agric For Meteorol 129 151

    [30]

    Liu H P, Randerson J T, Lindfors J, Massman W J, Foken T 2006 Bound-Layer Meteor. 120 65

    [31]

    Zuo J Q, Wang J M, Huang J P, Li W J, Wang G Y, Ren H L 2010 Plateau Meteor. 29 840 (in Chinese) [左金清, 王介民, 黄建平, 李维京, 王国印, 任宏利 2010 高原气象 29 840]

    [32]

    Zhang Q, Li H Y 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 5889 (in Chinese) [张强, 李宏宇 2010 物理学报 59 5889]

    [33]

    Li H Y, Zhang Q, Wang C L, Yang F L, Zhao J H 2012 Acta Phys. Sin. 61 159201 (in Chinese) [李宏宇, 张强, 王春玲, 阳伏林, 赵建华 2012 物理学报 61 159201]

    [34]

    Sun J, Esbebseb S K, Mahrt L 1995 Adv. Atmos Sci. 52 3162

    [35]

    Liu H Z, Dong W J, Fu C B, Shi L Q 2004 Climatic Environ. Res. 9 378 (in Chinese) [刘辉志, 董文杰, 符淙斌, 石立庆 2004 气候与环境研究 9 378

    [36]

    Wang H, Hu Z Y, Ma W Q, Li D L 2008 Chinese J Atmos. Sci. 32 1458 (in Chinese) [王慧, 胡泽勇, 马伟强, 李栋梁 2008 大气科学 32 1458]

    [37]

    Kidston J, Brümmer C, Black T A, Morgenstern K, Nesic Z, McCaughey J H, Barr A G 2010 Bound.-Layer Meteor. 136 193

    [38]

    Gao Z 2005 Bound.-Layer Meteor. 114 165

    [39]

    Wang J, Zhang L, Wang T J, Bao J, Cao X J, Zhang B D, Zhou Z Y 2012 J. Arid Meteor. 30 169 (in Chinese) [王瑾, 张镭, 王腾蛟, 鲍婧, 曹贤洁, 张北斗, 周衷玉 2012 干旱气象 30 169]

    [40]

    Chen J Y, Fan S H, Zhao C F, Xiao X, Cai X H, Liu H Z 2006 Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 30 423 (in Chinese) [陈家宜, 范邵华, 赵传峰, 肖雪, 蔡旭辉, 刘辉志 2006 大气科学 30 423]

    [41]

    Zhu Z L, Sun X M, Zhang R H 2003 Adv. Atmos Sci. 20 285

    [42]

    Kochendorfer J, Meyers T P, Frank J, Massman W J, Heuer M W 2012 Bound.-Layer Meteor. 145 383

    [43]

    Perez P J, Castellvi F, Ibañez M, Rosell J I 1999 Agric For Meteorol. 97 141

    [44]

    Cava D, Katul G G 2009 Bound.-Layer Meteor. 130 307

    [45]

    Lenschow D H, Sun J 2007 Bound.-Layer Meteor. 125 63

    [46]

    Liang J N, Zhang L, Bao J, Zhao S Q, Huang J P, Zhang W 2013 Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. 37 (in Chinese) (in press) [梁捷宁, 张镭, 鲍婧, 赵世强, 黄建平, 张武 2013 大气科学 37 (待刊)]

    [47]

    Griffis T J, Black T A, Morgenstern K, Barr A G, Nesic Z, Drewitt G B, Gaumont-Guay D, McCaughey J H 2003 Agric. For Meteorol. 117 53

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  • Received Date:  18 November 2012
  • Accepted Date:  12 December 2012
  • Published Online:  05 May 2013

Energy balance analysis over Loess Plateau and the consequences for carbon dioxide flux

  • 1. Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the state Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2012CB955302), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41075104).

Abstract: This paper examines the surface energy imbalance status over the semi-arid areas of the Loess Plateau, using the data collected by eddy covariance (EC) and boundary layer meteorological measurement systems at the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL). The energy balance ratio is about 0.80 during the daytime in all seasons, while that is only about 0.20 in the night. For the observation time with no local circulation, the energy balance ratio is improved to more than 85% in the daytime. Even in the night of spring, summer or autumn, the energy balance ratio is also improved to 70%. However, the ratio in nighttime of winter is only 29.4%. After taking into consideration all the energy budget items, the surface energy is still not closed, which means that the eddy covariance system underestimated the turbulent heat flux. And the observation error changes with seasons, with maximum in winter and minimum in spring. The errors of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux may impact CO2 flux through the WPL correction, and cause the uncertainty of long term net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and the NEE throughout the year can be overestimated by 41.2%.

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