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Proximity-effect-induced superconductivity by granular Pb film on the surface of Bi2Te3 topological insulator

Ding Yue Shen Jie Pang Yuan Liu Guang-Tong Fan Jie Ji Zhong-Qing Yang Chang-Li Lü Li

Proximity-effect-induced superconductivity by granular Pb film on the surface of Bi2Te3 topological insulator

Ding Yue, Shen Jie, Pang Yuan, Liu Guang-Tong, Fan Jie, Ji Zhong-Qing, Yang Chang-Li, Lü Li
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  • The appearance of topological insulators provides us with a chance of finding topological superconductors and Majorana fermions. To pursue these findings one might need to induce large areas of proximity superconductivity on the surface of Bi2Te3 by depositing granular and discrete Pb film. In this experiment, a superconducting state over a distance of 9.5 rm is observed below 0.25 K on a Bi2Te3 crystal whose surface is deposited with Pb grains with a thickness of less than 20 nm and separated at a distance of 20-30 nm.
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2009CB929101, 2011CB921702), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91221203, 11174340, 11174357), and the Main Direction Program of Knowledge Innovation of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    [1]

    Meissner H 1960 Phys. Rev. 117 672

    [2]

    Pannetier B, Courtois H 2000 J. Low Temp. Phys. 118 599

    [3]

    Golubov A A, Kupriyanov M Y, Il’ichev E 2004 Rev. Mod. Phys. 76 411

    [4]

    Nguyen C, Werking J, Kroemer H, Hu E L 1990 Appl. Phys. Lett. 57 87

    [5]

    Heersche H B, Jarillo-Herrero P, Oostinga J B, Vandersypen L M K, Morpurgo A F 2007 Nature 446 56

    [6]

    Wang J, Shi C T, Tian M L, Zhang Q, Kumar N, Jain J K, Mallouk T E, Chan M H W 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 247003

    [7]

    Wang J, Singh M, Tian M L, Kumar N, Liu B Z, Shi C T, Jain J K, Samarth N, Mallouk T E, Chan M H W 2010 Nat. Phys. 6 389

    [8]

    Moore J E 2010 Nature 464 194

    [9]

    Qi X L, Zhang S C 2011 Rev. Mod. Phys. 83 1057

    [10]

    Hasan M Z, Kane C L 2010 Rev. Mod. Phys. 82 3045

    [11]

    Zhang H J, Liu C X, Qi X L, Dai X, Fang Z, Zhang S C 2009 Nat. Phys. 5 438

    [12]

    Xia Y, Qian D, Hsieh D, Wray L, Pal A, Lin H, Bansil A, Grauer D, Hor Y S, Cava R J, Hasan M Z 2009 Nat. Phys. 5 398

    [13]

    Chen Y L, Analytis J G, Chu J H, Liu Z K, Mo S K, Qi X L, Zhang H J, Lu D H, Dai X, Fang Z, Zhang S C, Fisher I R, Hussain Z, Shen Z X 2009 Science 325 178

    [14]

    Fu L and Kane C L 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 096407

    [15]

    Fu L and Kane C L 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 216403

    [16]

    Tanaka Y, Yokoyama T, Nagaosa N 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 107002

    [17]

    Law K T, Lee P A, Ng T K 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 237001

    [18]

    Ou Y X, Singh M, Wang J 2012 Sci. China-Phys. Mech. Astron. 55 2226

    [19]

    Kasumov A Y, Kononenko O V, Matveev V N, Borsenko T B, Tulin V A, Vdovin E E, Khodos I I 1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 3029

    [20]

    Sacépé B, Oostinga J B, Li J, Ubaldini A, Couto N J G, Giannini E, Morpurgo A F 2011 Nat. Commun. 2 575

    [21]

    Zhang D, Wang J, DaSilva A M, Lee J S, Gutierrez H R, Chan M H W, Jain J, Samarth N 2011 Phys. Rev. B 84 165120

    [22]

    Wang J, Chang C Z, Li H D, He K, Zhang D, Singh M, Ma X C, Samarth N, Xie M H, Xue Q K, Chan M H W 2012 Phys. Rev. B 85 045415

    [23]

    Veldhorst M, Snelder M, Hoek M, Gang T, Guduru V K, Wang X L, Zeitler U, Wiel W G V D, Golubov A A, Hilgenkamp H 2012 Nat. Mat. 11 417

    [24]

    Williams J R, Bestwick A J, Gallagher P, Hong S S, Cui Y, Bleich A S, Analytis J G, Fisher I R, Goldhaber-Gordon D 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 056803

    [25]

    Qu F M, Yang F, Shen J, Ding Y, Chen J, Ji Z Q, Liu G T, Fan J, Jing X N, Yang C L, Lu L 2012 Sci. Rep. 2 339

    [26]

    He H T, Li B K, Liu H C, Guo X, Wang Z Y, Xie M H, Wang J N 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 032105

    [27]

    Tinkham M 1996 Introduction to Superconductivity (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.) p131

    [28]

    De Gennes P G 1964 Rev. Mod. Phys. 36 225

  • [1]

    Meissner H 1960 Phys. Rev. 117 672

    [2]

    Pannetier B, Courtois H 2000 J. Low Temp. Phys. 118 599

    [3]

    Golubov A A, Kupriyanov M Y, Il’ichev E 2004 Rev. Mod. Phys. 76 411

    [4]

    Nguyen C, Werking J, Kroemer H, Hu E L 1990 Appl. Phys. Lett. 57 87

    [5]

    Heersche H B, Jarillo-Herrero P, Oostinga J B, Vandersypen L M K, Morpurgo A F 2007 Nature 446 56

    [6]

    Wang J, Shi C T, Tian M L, Zhang Q, Kumar N, Jain J K, Mallouk T E, Chan M H W 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 247003

    [7]

    Wang J, Singh M, Tian M L, Kumar N, Liu B Z, Shi C T, Jain J K, Samarth N, Mallouk T E, Chan M H W 2010 Nat. Phys. 6 389

    [8]

    Moore J E 2010 Nature 464 194

    [9]

    Qi X L, Zhang S C 2011 Rev. Mod. Phys. 83 1057

    [10]

    Hasan M Z, Kane C L 2010 Rev. Mod. Phys. 82 3045

    [11]

    Zhang H J, Liu C X, Qi X L, Dai X, Fang Z, Zhang S C 2009 Nat. Phys. 5 438

    [12]

    Xia Y, Qian D, Hsieh D, Wray L, Pal A, Lin H, Bansil A, Grauer D, Hor Y S, Cava R J, Hasan M Z 2009 Nat. Phys. 5 398

    [13]

    Chen Y L, Analytis J G, Chu J H, Liu Z K, Mo S K, Qi X L, Zhang H J, Lu D H, Dai X, Fang Z, Zhang S C, Fisher I R, Hussain Z, Shen Z X 2009 Science 325 178

    [14]

    Fu L and Kane C L 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 096407

    [15]

    Fu L and Kane C L 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 216403

    [16]

    Tanaka Y, Yokoyama T, Nagaosa N 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 107002

    [17]

    Law K T, Lee P A, Ng T K 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 237001

    [18]

    Ou Y X, Singh M, Wang J 2012 Sci. China-Phys. Mech. Astron. 55 2226

    [19]

    Kasumov A Y, Kononenko O V, Matveev V N, Borsenko T B, Tulin V A, Vdovin E E, Khodos I I 1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 3029

    [20]

    Sacépé B, Oostinga J B, Li J, Ubaldini A, Couto N J G, Giannini E, Morpurgo A F 2011 Nat. Commun. 2 575

    [21]

    Zhang D, Wang J, DaSilva A M, Lee J S, Gutierrez H R, Chan M H W, Jain J, Samarth N 2011 Phys. Rev. B 84 165120

    [22]

    Wang J, Chang C Z, Li H D, He K, Zhang D, Singh M, Ma X C, Samarth N, Xie M H, Xue Q K, Chan M H W 2012 Phys. Rev. B 85 045415

    [23]

    Veldhorst M, Snelder M, Hoek M, Gang T, Guduru V K, Wang X L, Zeitler U, Wiel W G V D, Golubov A A, Hilgenkamp H 2012 Nat. Mat. 11 417

    [24]

    Williams J R, Bestwick A J, Gallagher P, Hong S S, Cui Y, Bleich A S, Analytis J G, Fisher I R, Goldhaber-Gordon D 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 056803

    [25]

    Qu F M, Yang F, Shen J, Ding Y, Chen J, Ji Z Q, Liu G T, Fan J, Jing X N, Yang C L, Lu L 2012 Sci. Rep. 2 339

    [26]

    He H T, Li B K, Liu H C, Guo X, Wang Z Y, Xie M H, Wang J N 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 032105

    [27]

    Tinkham M 1996 Introduction to Superconductivity (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.) p131

    [28]

    De Gennes P G 1964 Rev. Mod. Phys. 36 225

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  • Received Date:  23 April 2013
  • Accepted Date:  09 May 2013
  • Published Online:  20 August 2013

Proximity-effect-induced superconductivity by granular Pb film on the surface of Bi2Te3 topological insulator

  • 1. Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Acadeny of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2009CB929101, 2011CB921702), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91221203, 11174340, 11174357), and the Main Direction Program of Knowledge Innovation of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Abstract: The appearance of topological insulators provides us with a chance of finding topological superconductors and Majorana fermions. To pursue these findings one might need to induce large areas of proximity superconductivity on the surface of Bi2Te3 by depositing granular and discrete Pb film. In this experiment, a superconducting state over a distance of 9.5 rm is observed below 0.25 K on a Bi2Te3 crystal whose surface is deposited with Pb grains with a thickness of less than 20 nm and separated at a distance of 20-30 nm.

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