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Density functional study on the adsorption characteristics of O, O2, OH, and OOH of B-, P-doped, and B, P codoped graphenes

Sun Jian-Ping Zhou Ke-Liang Liang Xiao-Dong

Density functional study on the adsorption characteristics of O, O2, OH, and OOH of B-, P-doped, and B, P codoped graphenes

Sun Jian-Ping, Zhou Ke-Liang, Liang Xiao-Dong
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  • Over past years, the excessive use of fossil fuel has posed serious problems such as greenhouse effect and environmental pollution, which threaten human life. Regarded as an ideal substitution for traditional internal combustion engine, low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) converts chemical energy through electrode reaction directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low pollution. However, the main problem behind the industrialization of PEMFC, is that oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) occurring on the cathode needs precious metal platinum (Pt) as catalyst, which has a limited reserve and is costly. Owing to high activity and stability, the graphenes doped with non-metal B and P, have proven to be excellent alternatives to Pt experimentally. However, the relevant theoretical work is scarce.Adsorptions of the ORR intermediates, i.e., O, O2, OH, and OOH, of doped graphenes are essential for the cathode reaction, which also bring some difficulties to the next step reaction. Therefore, in this paper, based on density functional theory, the adsorption characteristics of O, O2, OH, and OOH of B-doped, P-doped and B, P-codoped graphenes are studied using first-principles calculation code VASP first. By analyzing the adsorption energies, bond lengths, densities of states and charge transfers, the influences of the different dopants on the intermediates are evaluated. Then, the ORR steps are discussed, and the free energy change of each step is further given. The results show that for B-doped and P-doped graphenes, the adsorption energies of various intermediates exhibit similar linear relationships. The adsorption energy of OOH of P-doped graphene (3.26 eV) is much larger than that in B-doped grapheme (0.73 eV). The large adsorption energy of P-doped graphene is beneficial to the fracture reaction of OO bond in OOH, while the small adsorption energy of B-doped graphene can promote the reaction of OH converting into water. Owing to the synergistic effect, the graphene codoped with B and P possesses better catalyzing ability than single B-and P-doped ones. The results are helpful for understanding the excellent performances of codoped graphenes.
      Corresponding author: Sun Jian-Ping, sunjp@ncepu.edu.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 12MS26) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61372050).
    [1]

    Shao A F, Wang Z B, Chu Y Y, Jiang Z Z, Yin G P, Liu Y 2010 Fuel Cells 10 472

    [2]

    Nagashree K L, Raviraj N H, Ahmed M F 2010 Electrochim. Acta 55 2629

    [3]

    Gasteiger H A, Markovic N M 2009 Science 324 48

    [4]

    Gong K P, Du F, Xia Z H, Durstock M, Dai L M 2009 Science 323 760

    [5]

    Liu X, Li L, Meng C G, Han Y 2012 J. Phys. Chem. C 116 2710

    [6]

    Neergat M, Shukla A K, Gandhi K S 2001 J. Appl. Electrochem. 31 373

    [7]

    Yu X W, Ye S Y 2007 J. Power Sources 172 145

    [8]

    Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos S V, Grigorieva I V, Firsov A A 2004 Science 306 666

    [9]

    Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, Jiang D, Katsnelson M I, Grigorieva I V, Dubonos S V, Firsov A A 2005 Nature 438 197

    [10]

    Lee C G, Wei X D, Kysar J W, Home J 2008 Science 321 385

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    Sun J P, Miao Y M, Cao X C 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 036301 (in Chinese) [孙建平, 缪应蒙, 曹相春 2013 物理学报 62 036301]

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    Huang L Q, Zhou L Y, Yu W, Yang D, Zhang J, Li C 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 038103 (in Chinese) [黄林泉, 周玲玉, 于为, 杨栋, 张坚, 李灿 2015 物理学报 64 038103]

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    Yang X X, Kong X T, Dai Q 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 106801 (in Chinese) [杨晓霞, 孔祥天, 戴庆 2015 物理学报 64 106801]

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    Zhao J, Zhang G Y, Shi D X 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 057701

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    Wu H Q, Linghu C Y, L H M, Qian H 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 098106

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    Yang L J, Jiang S J, Zhao Y, Zhu L, Chen S, Wang X Z, Wu Q, Ma J, Ma Y W, Hu Z 2011 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50 7132

    [17]

    Qu L T, Liu Y, Baek J B, Dai L M 2010 ACS Nano 4 1321

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    Ma G X, Zhao J H, Zheng J F, Zhu Z P 2012 New Carbon Mater. 27 258

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    Yang Z, Yao Z, Li G F, Fang G Y, Nie H G, Liu Z, Zhou X M, Chen X A, Huang S M 2012 ACS Nano 6 205

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    Tang L H, Wang Y, Li Y M, Feng H B, Lu J, Li J H 2009 Adv. Funct. Mater. 19 2782

    [21]

    Sun X J, Zhang Y W, Song P, Pan J, Zhuang L, Xu W L, Xing W 2013 ACS Catal. 3 1726

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    Yao Z, Nie H G, Yang Z, Zhou X M, Liu Z, Huang S M 2012 Chem. Commun. 48 1027

    [23]

    Sheng Z H, Gao H L, Bao W J, Wang F B, Xia X H 2012 J. Mater. Chem. 22 390

    [24]

    Chen Y H, Tian Y Y, Fang X Z, Liu J G, Yan C W 2014 Electrochim. Acta 143 291

    [25]

    Li R, Wei Z D, Gou X L, Xu W 2013 RSC Adv. 3 9978

    [26]

    Zhang C Z, Mahmood N, Yin H, Liu F, Hou Y L 2013 Adv. Mater. 25 4932

    [27]

    Ozaki J I, Kimura N, Anahara T, Oya A 2007 Carbon 45 1847

    [28]

    Zhu J L, He C Y, Li Y Y, Kang S A, Shen P K 2013 J. Mater. Chem. A 1 14700

    [29]

    Zheng Y, Jiao Y, Ge L, Jaroniec M, Qiao S Z 2013 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52 3110

    [30]

    Choi C H, Park S H, Woo S I 2012 J. Mater. Chem. 22 12107

    [31]

    Duan X G, Indrawirawan S, Sun H Q, Wang S B 2015 Catal. Today 249 184

    [32]

    Kong X K, Chen Q W, Sun Z Y 2013 Chem. Phys. Chem. 14 514

    [33]

    Zhang X L, Lu Z S, Fu Z M, Tang Y N, Ma D W, Yang Z X 2015 J. Power Sources 276 222

    [34]

    Fan X F, Zheng W T, Kuo J L 2013 RSC Adv. 3 5498

    [35]

    Norskov J K, Rossmeisl J, Logadottir A, Lindqvist L 2004 J. Phys. Chem. B 108 17886

    [36]

    Li M T, Zhang L P, Xu Q, Niu J B, Xia Z H 2014 J. Catal. 314 66

    [37]

    Lim D H, Wilcox J 2012 J. Phys. Chem. C 116 3653

    [38]

    Atkins P W 1998 Physical Chemistry (6th Ed.) (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp485, 925-927, 942

    [39]

    Zhang H Q, Liang Y M, Zhou J X 2014 Acta Chim. Sin. 72 367

  • [1]

    Shao A F, Wang Z B, Chu Y Y, Jiang Z Z, Yin G P, Liu Y 2010 Fuel Cells 10 472

    [2]

    Nagashree K L, Raviraj N H, Ahmed M F 2010 Electrochim. Acta 55 2629

    [3]

    Gasteiger H A, Markovic N M 2009 Science 324 48

    [4]

    Gong K P, Du F, Xia Z H, Durstock M, Dai L M 2009 Science 323 760

    [5]

    Liu X, Li L, Meng C G, Han Y 2012 J. Phys. Chem. C 116 2710

    [6]

    Neergat M, Shukla A K, Gandhi K S 2001 J. Appl. Electrochem. 31 373

    [7]

    Yu X W, Ye S Y 2007 J. Power Sources 172 145

    [8]

    Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos S V, Grigorieva I V, Firsov A A 2004 Science 306 666

    [9]

    Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, Jiang D, Katsnelson M I, Grigorieva I V, Dubonos S V, Firsov A A 2005 Nature 438 197

    [10]

    Lee C G, Wei X D, Kysar J W, Home J 2008 Science 321 385

    [11]

    Sun J P, Miao Y M, Cao X C 2013 Acta Phys. Sin. 62 036301 (in Chinese) [孙建平, 缪应蒙, 曹相春 2013 物理学报 62 036301]

    [12]

    Huang L Q, Zhou L Y, Yu W, Yang D, Zhang J, Li C 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 038103 (in Chinese) [黄林泉, 周玲玉, 于为, 杨栋, 张坚, 李灿 2015 物理学报 64 038103]

    [13]

    Yang X X, Kong X T, Dai Q 2015 Acta Phys. Sin. 64 106801 (in Chinese) [杨晓霞, 孔祥天, 戴庆 2015 物理学报 64 106801]

    [14]

    Zhao J, Zhang G Y, Shi D X 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 057701

    [15]

    Wu H Q, Linghu C Y, L H M, Qian H 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 098106

    [16]

    Yang L J, Jiang S J, Zhao Y, Zhu L, Chen S, Wang X Z, Wu Q, Ma J, Ma Y W, Hu Z 2011 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50 7132

    [17]

    Qu L T, Liu Y, Baek J B, Dai L M 2010 ACS Nano 4 1321

    [18]

    Ma G X, Zhao J H, Zheng J F, Zhu Z P 2012 New Carbon Mater. 27 258

    [19]

    Yang Z, Yao Z, Li G F, Fang G Y, Nie H G, Liu Z, Zhou X M, Chen X A, Huang S M 2012 ACS Nano 6 205

    [20]

    Tang L H, Wang Y, Li Y M, Feng H B, Lu J, Li J H 2009 Adv. Funct. Mater. 19 2782

    [21]

    Sun X J, Zhang Y W, Song P, Pan J, Zhuang L, Xu W L, Xing W 2013 ACS Catal. 3 1726

    [22]

    Yao Z, Nie H G, Yang Z, Zhou X M, Liu Z, Huang S M 2012 Chem. Commun. 48 1027

    [23]

    Sheng Z H, Gao H L, Bao W J, Wang F B, Xia X H 2012 J. Mater. Chem. 22 390

    [24]

    Chen Y H, Tian Y Y, Fang X Z, Liu J G, Yan C W 2014 Electrochim. Acta 143 291

    [25]

    Li R, Wei Z D, Gou X L, Xu W 2013 RSC Adv. 3 9978

    [26]

    Zhang C Z, Mahmood N, Yin H, Liu F, Hou Y L 2013 Adv. Mater. 25 4932

    [27]

    Ozaki J I, Kimura N, Anahara T, Oya A 2007 Carbon 45 1847

    [28]

    Zhu J L, He C Y, Li Y Y, Kang S A, Shen P K 2013 J. Mater. Chem. A 1 14700

    [29]

    Zheng Y, Jiao Y, Ge L, Jaroniec M, Qiao S Z 2013 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52 3110

    [30]

    Choi C H, Park S H, Woo S I 2012 J. Mater. Chem. 22 12107

    [31]

    Duan X G, Indrawirawan S, Sun H Q, Wang S B 2015 Catal. Today 249 184

    [32]

    Kong X K, Chen Q W, Sun Z Y 2013 Chem. Phys. Chem. 14 514

    [33]

    Zhang X L, Lu Z S, Fu Z M, Tang Y N, Ma D W, Yang Z X 2015 J. Power Sources 276 222

    [34]

    Fan X F, Zheng W T, Kuo J L 2013 RSC Adv. 3 5498

    [35]

    Norskov J K, Rossmeisl J, Logadottir A, Lindqvist L 2004 J. Phys. Chem. B 108 17886

    [36]

    Li M T, Zhang L P, Xu Q, Niu J B, Xia Z H 2014 J. Catal. 314 66

    [37]

    Lim D H, Wilcox J 2012 J. Phys. Chem. C 116 3653

    [38]

    Atkins P W 1998 Physical Chemistry (6th Ed.) (Oxford: Oxford University Press) pp485, 925-927, 942

    [39]

    Zhang H Q, Liang Y M, Zhou J X 2014 Acta Chim. Sin. 72 367

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  • Received Date:  30 June 2015
  • Accepted Date:  22 July 2015
  • Published Online:  05 January 2016

Density functional study on the adsorption characteristics of O, O2, OH, and OOH of B-, P-doped, and B, P codoped graphenes

    Corresponding author: Sun Jian-Ping, sunjp@ncepu.edu.cn
  • 1. School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 12MS26) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61372050).

Abstract: Over past years, the excessive use of fossil fuel has posed serious problems such as greenhouse effect and environmental pollution, which threaten human life. Regarded as an ideal substitution for traditional internal combustion engine, low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) converts chemical energy through electrode reaction directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low pollution. However, the main problem behind the industrialization of PEMFC, is that oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) occurring on the cathode needs precious metal platinum (Pt) as catalyst, which has a limited reserve and is costly. Owing to high activity and stability, the graphenes doped with non-metal B and P, have proven to be excellent alternatives to Pt experimentally. However, the relevant theoretical work is scarce.Adsorptions of the ORR intermediates, i.e., O, O2, OH, and OOH, of doped graphenes are essential for the cathode reaction, which also bring some difficulties to the next step reaction. Therefore, in this paper, based on density functional theory, the adsorption characteristics of O, O2, OH, and OOH of B-doped, P-doped and B, P-codoped graphenes are studied using first-principles calculation code VASP first. By analyzing the adsorption energies, bond lengths, densities of states and charge transfers, the influences of the different dopants on the intermediates are evaluated. Then, the ORR steps are discussed, and the free energy change of each step is further given. The results show that for B-doped and P-doped graphenes, the adsorption energies of various intermediates exhibit similar linear relationships. The adsorption energy of OOH of P-doped graphene (3.26 eV) is much larger than that in B-doped grapheme (0.73 eV). The large adsorption energy of P-doped graphene is beneficial to the fracture reaction of OO bond in OOH, while the small adsorption energy of B-doped graphene can promote the reaction of OH converting into water. Owing to the synergistic effect, the graphene codoped with B and P possesses better catalyzing ability than single B-and P-doped ones. The results are helpful for understanding the excellent performances of codoped graphenes.

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