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Hardening of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels under the irradiation of high-energy heavy-ion

Ding Zhao-Nan Yang Yi-Tao Song Yin Zhang Li-Qing Gou Jie Zhang Chong-Hong Luo Guang-Nan

Hardening of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels under the irradiation of high-energy heavy-ion

Ding Zhao-Nan, Yang Yi-Tao, Song Yin, Zhang Li-Qing, Gou Jie, Zhang Chong-Hong, Luo Guang-Nan
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  • In order to study the irradiation responses of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels which are candidates for fusion reactors, a reduced activation steel is irradiated at a terminal of HIRFL (heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou) with 63 MeV 14N ions and 336 MeV 56Fe ions at -50 ℃. The energies of the incident N/Fe ions are varied from 0.22 MeV/u to 6.17 MeV/u by using an energy degrader at the terminal, so that a plateau region of an atomic displacement damage (0.05-0.2 dpa) is obtained from the near surface to a depth of 24 μm in the specimens. Nanoindentation technique is used to investigate the nano-hardness changes of the samples before and after irradiation. The constant stiffness measurement is used to obtain the depth profile of hardness. The Nix-Gao model taking account of the indentation size effect (ISE) is used to fit the measured hardness and thus a hardness value excluding ISE is obtained. Consequently, the soft substrate effect for lower energy ion irradiation is effectively avoided. It is observed that there seems to be a power function relationship between the hardness and damage for the RAFM steel. The hardness initially increases significantly with the increase of irradiation damage, then increases slowly when the damage reaches to about 0.2 dpa. Positron annihilation is performed to investigate the defect evolution in the material. The positron annihilation lifetime spectra show that the long-lifetime proportion of the RAFM steel increases significantly after being irradiated. This means vacancy clusters are produced by the irradiation, resulting in the change of mechanics property. Even at low irradiation dose, point defects with high density are generated in the steel specimens, and subsequently aggregate into defect clusters, thereby suppressing the dislocation slip.The defect concentration in the material increases continuously with the increase of irradiation damage, which leads to the obvious irradiation hardening phenomenon. When the damage is higher than 0.1 dpa, the increment of mean lifetime gradually decreases due to the existence of a large number of vacancies and dislocations, and it eventually tends to be saturated, which explains why the irradiation hardening increment rate decreases with the increase of irradiation damage in the material.
      Corresponding author: Zhang Chong-Hong, c.h.zhang@impcas.ac.cn
    • Funds: Project supported by the Joint Funds of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1532262) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program, China (Grant No. 2011GB108003).
    [1]

    Zinkle S J, Busby J T 2009 Mater. Today 12 12

    [2]

    Ehrlich K 2001 Fusion Eng. Des. 56 71

    [3]

    Abromeit C 1994 J. Nucl. Mater. 216 78

    [4]

    Kohyama A, Katoh Y, Ando M, Jimbo K 2000 Fusion Eng. Des. 51 789

    [5]

    Serruys Y, Ruault M O, Trocellier P, Miro S, Barbu A, Boulanger L, Pellegrino S 2008 C. R. Phys. 9 437

    [6]

    Kiener D, Minor A M, Anderoglu O, Wang Y, Maloy S A, Hosemann P 2012 J. Mater. Res. 27 2724

    [7]

    Hosemann P, Kiener D, Wang Y, Maloy S A 2012 J. Nucl. Mater. 425 136

    [8]

    Nagy P M, Aranyi D, Horvath P, Petö G, Kálmán E 2008 Surf. Interface Anal. 40 875

    [9]

    Zhang C H, Yang Y T, Song Y, Chen J, Zhang L Q, Jang J, Kimura A 2014 J. Nucl. Mater. 455 61

    [10]

    Ziegler J F, Ziegler M D, Biersack J P 2010 Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. Sect. B 268 1818

    [11]

    Murakami S, Miyazaki A, Mizuno M 2000 J. Eng. Mater. Tech. 122 60

    [12]

    Yamamoto T, Odette G R, Kishimoto H, Rensman J 2006 J. Nucl. Mater. 356 27

    [13]

    Kim S H, Kwak S Y, Suzuki T 2005 Environ. Sci. Technol. 39 1764

    [14]

    Dupasquier A, Mills Jr A P 1995 Positron Spectroscopy of Solids (Amsterdam: IOS)

    [15]

    Mourino M, Löbl H, Paulin R 1979 Phys. Lett. A 71 106

    [16]

    Taylor C N, Shimada M, Merrill B J, Drigert M W, Akers D W, Hatano Y 2014 Phys. Scr. 2014 014055

    [17]

    Pharr G M, Herbert E G, Gao Y 2010 Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 40 271

    [18]

    Kasada R, Takayama Y, Yabuuchi K, Kimura A 2011 Fusion Eng. Des. 86 2658

    [19]

    Nix W D, Gao H 1998 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 46 411

    [20]

    Huang H F, Li D H, Li J J, Liu R D, Lei G H, He S X, Huang Q, Yan L 2014 Mater. Trans. 55 1243

    [21]

    Heintze C, Bergner F, Hernández-Mayoral M 2011 J. Nucl. Mater. 417 980

    [22]

    Aruga T, Takamura S, Nakata K, Ito Y 1995 Appl. Surf. Sci. 85 229

    [23]

    Hirata K, Kobayashi Y, Hishita S, Zhao X, Itoh Y, Ohdaira T, Suzuki R, Ujihira Y 1997 Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 121 267

    [24]

    Tsuchida H, Iwai T, Awano M, Oshima N, Suzuki R, Yasuda K, Batchuluun C, Itoh A 2013 J. Nucl. Mater. 442 S856

    [25]

    Schäfer H E 1987 Phys. Status Solidi A 102 47

    [26]

    Liu F, Xu Y, Zhou H, Li X C, Song Y, Zhang C H, Li Q C, He C Q, Luo G N 2015 Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 351 23

    [27]

    Chen C L, Richter A, Kogler R, Talut G 2011 J. Nucl. Mater. 412 350

  • [1]

    Zinkle S J, Busby J T 2009 Mater. Today 12 12

    [2]

    Ehrlich K 2001 Fusion Eng. Des. 56 71

    [3]

    Abromeit C 1994 J. Nucl. Mater. 216 78

    [4]

    Kohyama A, Katoh Y, Ando M, Jimbo K 2000 Fusion Eng. Des. 51 789

    [5]

    Serruys Y, Ruault M O, Trocellier P, Miro S, Barbu A, Boulanger L, Pellegrino S 2008 C. R. Phys. 9 437

    [6]

    Kiener D, Minor A M, Anderoglu O, Wang Y, Maloy S A, Hosemann P 2012 J. Mater. Res. 27 2724

    [7]

    Hosemann P, Kiener D, Wang Y, Maloy S A 2012 J. Nucl. Mater. 425 136

    [8]

    Nagy P M, Aranyi D, Horvath P, Petö G, Kálmán E 2008 Surf. Interface Anal. 40 875

    [9]

    Zhang C H, Yang Y T, Song Y, Chen J, Zhang L Q, Jang J, Kimura A 2014 J. Nucl. Mater. 455 61

    [10]

    Ziegler J F, Ziegler M D, Biersack J P 2010 Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. Sect. B 268 1818

    [11]

    Murakami S, Miyazaki A, Mizuno M 2000 J. Eng. Mater. Tech. 122 60

    [12]

    Yamamoto T, Odette G R, Kishimoto H, Rensman J 2006 J. Nucl. Mater. 356 27

    [13]

    Kim S H, Kwak S Y, Suzuki T 2005 Environ. Sci. Technol. 39 1764

    [14]

    Dupasquier A, Mills Jr A P 1995 Positron Spectroscopy of Solids (Amsterdam: IOS)

    [15]

    Mourino M, Löbl H, Paulin R 1979 Phys. Lett. A 71 106

    [16]

    Taylor C N, Shimada M, Merrill B J, Drigert M W, Akers D W, Hatano Y 2014 Phys. Scr. 2014 014055

    [17]

    Pharr G M, Herbert E G, Gao Y 2010 Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 40 271

    [18]

    Kasada R, Takayama Y, Yabuuchi K, Kimura A 2011 Fusion Eng. Des. 86 2658

    [19]

    Nix W D, Gao H 1998 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 46 411

    [20]

    Huang H F, Li D H, Li J J, Liu R D, Lei G H, He S X, Huang Q, Yan L 2014 Mater. Trans. 55 1243

    [21]

    Heintze C, Bergner F, Hernández-Mayoral M 2011 J. Nucl. Mater. 417 980

    [22]

    Aruga T, Takamura S, Nakata K, Ito Y 1995 Appl. Surf. Sci. 85 229

    [23]

    Hirata K, Kobayashi Y, Hishita S, Zhao X, Itoh Y, Ohdaira T, Suzuki R, Ujihira Y 1997 Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 121 267

    [24]

    Tsuchida H, Iwai T, Awano M, Oshima N, Suzuki R, Yasuda K, Batchuluun C, Itoh A 2013 J. Nucl. Mater. 442 S856

    [25]

    Schäfer H E 1987 Phys. Status Solidi A 102 47

    [26]

    Liu F, Xu Y, Zhou H, Li X C, Song Y, Zhang C H, Li Q C, He C Q, Luo G N 2015 Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 351 23

    [27]

    Chen C L, Richter A, Kogler R, Talut G 2011 J. Nucl. Mater. 412 350

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  • Received Date:  28 November 2016
  • Accepted Date:  13 March 2017
  • Published Online:  05 June 2017

Hardening of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels under the irradiation of high-energy heavy-ion

    Corresponding author: Zhang Chong-Hong, c.h.zhang@impcas.ac.cn
  • 1. Institution of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
  • 2. Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the Joint Funds of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1532262) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program, China (Grant No. 2011GB108003).

Abstract: In order to study the irradiation responses of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels which are candidates for fusion reactors, a reduced activation steel is irradiated at a terminal of HIRFL (heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou) with 63 MeV 14N ions and 336 MeV 56Fe ions at -50 ℃. The energies of the incident N/Fe ions are varied from 0.22 MeV/u to 6.17 MeV/u by using an energy degrader at the terminal, so that a plateau region of an atomic displacement damage (0.05-0.2 dpa) is obtained from the near surface to a depth of 24 μm in the specimens. Nanoindentation technique is used to investigate the nano-hardness changes of the samples before and after irradiation. The constant stiffness measurement is used to obtain the depth profile of hardness. The Nix-Gao model taking account of the indentation size effect (ISE) is used to fit the measured hardness and thus a hardness value excluding ISE is obtained. Consequently, the soft substrate effect for lower energy ion irradiation is effectively avoided. It is observed that there seems to be a power function relationship between the hardness and damage for the RAFM steel. The hardness initially increases significantly with the increase of irradiation damage, then increases slowly when the damage reaches to about 0.2 dpa. Positron annihilation is performed to investigate the defect evolution in the material. The positron annihilation lifetime spectra show that the long-lifetime proportion of the RAFM steel increases significantly after being irradiated. This means vacancy clusters are produced by the irradiation, resulting in the change of mechanics property. Even at low irradiation dose, point defects with high density are generated in the steel specimens, and subsequently aggregate into defect clusters, thereby suppressing the dislocation slip.The defect concentration in the material increases continuously with the increase of irradiation damage, which leads to the obvious irradiation hardening phenomenon. When the damage is higher than 0.1 dpa, the increment of mean lifetime gradually decreases due to the existence of a large number of vacancies and dislocations, and it eventually tends to be saturated, which explains why the irradiation hardening increment rate decreases with the increase of irradiation damage in the material.

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