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Delay division multiplexing orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical networks using low-sampling-rate analog-to-digital converter

Bai Guang-Fu Jiang Yang Hu Lin Tian Jing Zi Yue-Jiao

Delay division multiplexing orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical networks using low-sampling-rate analog-to-digital converter

Bai Guang-Fu, Jiang Yang, Hu Lin, Tian Jing, Zi Yue-Jiao
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  • In traditional orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical networks (OFDMA PON) or time-division multiplexing access (TDMA) based OFDM PONs, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with a high sampling rate are required to demodulate high-speed aggregated OFDM data in order to receive a small portion of the downstream data at optical network users (ONUs). Meanwhile, OFDM signal has a higher peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) than the single carrier signal, which can result in the nonlinear effect. The resulting nonlinearity reduces the received signal performance. To enhance practicability of the present PONs, according to the sub-Nyquist sampling theory, we propose and detail a delay-division-multiplexing (DDM) scheme to enable a FDMA PON with low-sampling-rate ADCs. Based on pre-allocated relative time delays among the ONUs and discrete Fourier transform spread (DFT-S) technique, pre-processed signals sent from an optical line terminal (OLT) can be detected as different downstream signals following spectral aliasing caused by ADCs operating at a sub-Nyquist sampling rate. In the proposed scheme, as the signal distortion introduced by the propagation, aliasing and time shifted sampling is pre-compensated, the DFT and inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) are unnecessary for de-mapping and picking out the signal at ONUs. Therefore, the proposed DDM scheme greatly enhances cost efficiency and enables a reduction in computational complexity. Meanwhile, DFT-S FDMA signal has low PAPR, which relieves the nonlinear effect in signal E/O conversion and transmission. As a result, the proposed scheme benefits the power budget of the OLT and power consumption of the ONUs. In experiment, we demonstrate that each ONU with an ADC operating at 1/2-1/32 of the Nyquist sampling rate is able to receive 1/2-1/32 of the downstream data, with an insignificant performance penalty. Furthermore, the details of the matrices that include channel response, aliasing and time delay are first analyzed. In addition, training symbol is very important for estimating the channel response, and how to derive and design training symbols is the first study to outline the details of this issue. The effects of fiber dispersion and the sampling instant of an ADC on signal performance are also studied. The results show that the signal performance has some degree of tolerance to sampling instant deviation and the power penalty is less than 0.5 dB to achieve a forward error correction limit of 10-3 after 25 km fiber transmission. The theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme can simplify the ONU and reduce the cost of the PON.
      Corresponding author: Bai Guang-Fu, baiguangfu123@163.com
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11264006, 61465002, 61650403), the Guizhou Provincial Foundation for Returned Scholars, China (Grant No. 2016-23), and the Key Science and Technology Program of Guizhou Province, China (Grant No. 2013-3125).
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    Castells M, Fernandez-Ardevol M, Qiu J L, Sey A 2007 Mobile Communication and Society:A global Perspective (Boston:MIT) pp1-75

    [2]

    Pea R D, Mills M I, Hoffert E, Rosen J H, Dauber K 2014 US Patent 8 645 832

    [3]

    Su C R, Chen J J, Chang K L 2012 International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing Banff, September 17-19, 2012 p343

    [4]

    Kim S M, Han D H, Lee Y S, Renshaw P F 2012 Comput. Hum. Behav. 28 1954

    [5]

    Luo Y, Zhou X, Effenberger F, Yan X, Peng G, Qian Y, Ma Y 2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 587

    [6]

    Bhatia K S, Kamal T S, Kaler R S 2012 Comput. Electr. Eng. 38 1573

    [7]

    Koonen T 2006 Proc. IEEE 94 911

    [8]

    Cvijetic N 2012 J. Lightwave Technol. 30 384

    [9]

    Schindler P C, Schmogrow R M, Dreschmann M, Meyer J, Hillerkuss D, Tomkos I, Leuthold J 2013 Optical Fiber Communication Conference California, March 19-23, 2013 p1

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    Iannone P P, Reichmann K C, 2010 European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication Turin, September 19-23, 2010 p1

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    Kim S Y, Kani J I, Suzuki K I, Otaka A 2014 IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 26 2469

    [12]

    Cheng L, Wen H, Zheng X, Zhang H Y, Zhou B K 2011 Opt. Express 19 19129

    [13]

    Wei C C, Liu H C, Lin C T 2015 Optical Fiber Communication Conference Los Angeles, March 20-24, 2015 p1

    [14]

    Wei C C, Liu H C, Lin C T, Chi S 2016 J. Lightwave Technol. 34 2381

    [15]

    Bai G F, Lin C T, Lin C H, Ho C H, Wei C C, Jiang Y, Chi S, Hu L 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference Anaheim, Los Angeles, March 2-24, 2016 Th3C.6

    [16]

    Wong I C, Oghenekome O, Wes M C 2016 IEEE Trans. Commun. 8 2161

    [17]

    Yang Q, He Z X, Yang Z, Yu S H, Yi X W, Shieh W 2012 Opt. Express 20 2379

    [18]

    Tang Y, William S, Krongold B S 2010 IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 22 1250

    [19]

    Harashima H, Miyakawa H 1972 IEEE Trans. Commun. 20 774

    [20]

    Lin C H, Lin C T, Wei C C, Chi S, Fang R 2017 Optical Fiber Communication Conference Los Angeles, March 19-23, 2017 W1K.2

    [21]

    Wei C C, Cheng H L, Chen H Y, Chen Y C, Chu H H, Chang K C 2015 J. Lightwave Technol. 33 3069

    [22]

    Dardari D, Tralli V, Vaccari A 2000 IEEE Trans. Commun. 48 1755

  • [1]

    Castells M, Fernandez-Ardevol M, Qiu J L, Sey A 2007 Mobile Communication and Society:A global Perspective (Boston:MIT) pp1-75

    [2]

    Pea R D, Mills M I, Hoffert E, Rosen J H, Dauber K 2014 US Patent 8 645 832

    [3]

    Su C R, Chen J J, Chang K L 2012 International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing Banff, September 17-19, 2012 p343

    [4]

    Kim S M, Han D H, Lee Y S, Renshaw P F 2012 Comput. Hum. Behav. 28 1954

    [5]

    Luo Y, Zhou X, Effenberger F, Yan X, Peng G, Qian Y, Ma Y 2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 587

    [6]

    Bhatia K S, Kamal T S, Kaler R S 2012 Comput. Electr. Eng. 38 1573

    [7]

    Koonen T 2006 Proc. IEEE 94 911

    [8]

    Cvijetic N 2012 J. Lightwave Technol. 30 384

    [9]

    Schindler P C, Schmogrow R M, Dreschmann M, Meyer J, Hillerkuss D, Tomkos I, Leuthold J 2013 Optical Fiber Communication Conference California, March 19-23, 2013 p1

    [10]

    Iannone P P, Reichmann K C, 2010 European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication Turin, September 19-23, 2010 p1

    [11]

    Kim S Y, Kani J I, Suzuki K I, Otaka A 2014 IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 26 2469

    [12]

    Cheng L, Wen H, Zheng X, Zhang H Y, Zhou B K 2011 Opt. Express 19 19129

    [13]

    Wei C C, Liu H C, Lin C T 2015 Optical Fiber Communication Conference Los Angeles, March 20-24, 2015 p1

    [14]

    Wei C C, Liu H C, Lin C T, Chi S 2016 J. Lightwave Technol. 34 2381

    [15]

    Bai G F, Lin C T, Lin C H, Ho C H, Wei C C, Jiang Y, Chi S, Hu L 2016 Optical Fiber Communication Conference Anaheim, Los Angeles, March 2-24, 2016 Th3C.6

    [16]

    Wong I C, Oghenekome O, Wes M C 2016 IEEE Trans. Commun. 8 2161

    [17]

    Yang Q, He Z X, Yang Z, Yu S H, Yi X W, Shieh W 2012 Opt. Express 20 2379

    [18]

    Tang Y, William S, Krongold B S 2010 IEEE Photon. Tech. L. 22 1250

    [19]

    Harashima H, Miyakawa H 1972 IEEE Trans. Commun. 20 774

    [20]

    Lin C H, Lin C T, Wei C C, Chi S, Fang R 2017 Optical Fiber Communication Conference Los Angeles, March 19-23, 2017 W1K.2

    [21]

    Wei C C, Cheng H L, Chen H Y, Chen Y C, Chu H H, Chang K C 2015 J. Lightwave Technol. 33 3069

    [22]

    Dardari D, Tralli V, Vaccari A 2000 IEEE Trans. Commun. 48 1755

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Publishing process
  • Received Date:  19 April 2017
  • Accepted Date:  15 July 2017
  • Published Online:  05 October 2017

Delay division multiplexing orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical networks using low-sampling-rate analog-to-digital converter

    Corresponding author: Bai Guang-Fu, baiguangfu123@163.com
  • 1. College of Big Data and Information Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China;
  • 2. College of Physics, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China}
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11264006, 61465002, 61650403), the Guizhou Provincial Foundation for Returned Scholars, China (Grant No. 2016-23), and the Key Science and Technology Program of Guizhou Province, China (Grant No. 2013-3125).

Abstract: In traditional orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical networks (OFDMA PON) or time-division multiplexing access (TDMA) based OFDM PONs, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with a high sampling rate are required to demodulate high-speed aggregated OFDM data in order to receive a small portion of the downstream data at optical network users (ONUs). Meanwhile, OFDM signal has a higher peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) than the single carrier signal, which can result in the nonlinear effect. The resulting nonlinearity reduces the received signal performance. To enhance practicability of the present PONs, according to the sub-Nyquist sampling theory, we propose and detail a delay-division-multiplexing (DDM) scheme to enable a FDMA PON with low-sampling-rate ADCs. Based on pre-allocated relative time delays among the ONUs and discrete Fourier transform spread (DFT-S) technique, pre-processed signals sent from an optical line terminal (OLT) can be detected as different downstream signals following spectral aliasing caused by ADCs operating at a sub-Nyquist sampling rate. In the proposed scheme, as the signal distortion introduced by the propagation, aliasing and time shifted sampling is pre-compensated, the DFT and inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) are unnecessary for de-mapping and picking out the signal at ONUs. Therefore, the proposed DDM scheme greatly enhances cost efficiency and enables a reduction in computational complexity. Meanwhile, DFT-S FDMA signal has low PAPR, which relieves the nonlinear effect in signal E/O conversion and transmission. As a result, the proposed scheme benefits the power budget of the OLT and power consumption of the ONUs. In experiment, we demonstrate that each ONU with an ADC operating at 1/2-1/32 of the Nyquist sampling rate is able to receive 1/2-1/32 of the downstream data, with an insignificant performance penalty. Furthermore, the details of the matrices that include channel response, aliasing and time delay are first analyzed. In addition, training symbol is very important for estimating the channel response, and how to derive and design training symbols is the first study to outline the details of this issue. The effects of fiber dispersion and the sampling instant of an ADC on signal performance are also studied. The results show that the signal performance has some degree of tolerance to sampling instant deviation and the power penalty is less than 0.5 dB to achieve a forward error correction limit of 10-3 after 25 km fiber transmission. The theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme can simplify the ONU and reduce the cost of the PON.

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