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Rotating characteristics of glow discharge filament on liquid electrode surface

Li Xue-Chen Geng Jin-Ling Jia Peng-Ying Wu Kai-Yue Jia Bo-Yu Kang Peng-Cheng

Rotating characteristics of glow discharge filament on liquid electrode surface

Li Xue-Chen, Geng Jin-Ling, Jia Peng-Ying, Wu Kai-Yue, Jia Bo-Yu, Kang Peng-Cheng
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  • Atmospheric pressure glow discharge above liquid electrode has extensive application potentials in biomedicine, chemical degradation,environmental protection,etc.In this paper,such a kind of discharge excited by a direct current voltage is generated through using a metal rod above water surface.Results show that the discharge has a ring shape on the water surface when the current is low.With increasing the discharge current,its diameter first increases,and then decreases after reaching a maximum,and finally slightly increases.In this process,the discharge transits from a conical shape to a column.Fast photography indicates that the conical discharge actually originates from the rotation of a discharge filament,which can be attributed to the effect of electronegative particles generated in the discharge channel. These electronegative particles,mainly including NO,NO2,NO3,O,O3 and OH,can increase electron attachment coefficient β,resulting in extinguishment of the original discharge channel.Due to a similar field value and a normal β coefficient,the breakdown conditions can be satisfied in a region adjacent to the original channel.Therefore,the discharge will move into the new region.Further investigation indicates that both the conical discharge and the column discharge are in a normal glow regime.By optical emission spectroscopy,it is found that the vibrational temperature,the rotational temperature and the intensity ratio of I391.4/I337.1 increase with increasing the current.Electron mobility decreases in the conical discharge due to voltage decreasing with the current.Hence,electrons have an increased possibility with which they are attracted by the electronegative particles to form negative ions.Consequently,with increasing the discharge current,more negative ions will be accumulated not only near the conical center,but also in the vicinity of the discharge channel.Obviously,there is repulsive force between the negative ions in the two regions.The repulsive force increases with increasing the discharge current,which leads to the ring diameter increasing with the current.Besides the negative ions,gas temperature plays another important role in the discharge.It increases with current increasing,leading to the decrease of gas density in the discharge channel.Hence,electrons have a reduced probability with which they are attached by electronegative particles.This factor will lead to a reduced force between less negative ions in the two regions.Consequently,after reaching its maximum,the ring diameter decreases with current increasing.If the current is high enough,the discharge channel will have a sufficiently high temperature and an adequately lower gas density, resulting in an increased electron energy as well as an increased α(the first Townsend ionization coefficient).Therefore, the discharge will be self-sustained in the original region,other than move into an adjacent region.Consequently,the column discharge appears with the current increasing to some extent.In the column discharge,more negative ions will be accumulated above the water surface with increasing the current.These negative ions extend along the water surface,which contributes to the slight diameter increase of the luminous column.These experimental results are of great significance for theoretically studying liquid anode discharge.
      Corresponding author: Li Xue-Chen, plasmalab@126.com
    • Funds: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11575050, 10805013), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei province, China (Grant Nos. A2015201199, A2015201092, A2016201042), One Hundred Talent Project of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. SLRC2017021), the 333 Talents Project of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2016005005), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. LJRC001), and the Midwest Universities Comprehensive Strength Promotion Project.
    [1]

    Bruggeman P, Leys C 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 053001

    [2]

    Bruggeman P, Ribezl E, Maslani A, Degroote J, Malesevic A, Rego R, Vierendeels J, Leys C 2008 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 17 025012

    [3]

    Bobkova E S, Krasnov D S, Sungurova A V, Rybkin V V, Choi H S 2016 Korean J. Chem. Eng. 33 1620

    [4]

    Webb M R, Hieftje G M 2009 Anal. Chem. 81 862

    [5]

    Shimizu T, Iwafuchi Y, Morfill G E, Sato T 2011 J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 24 421

    [6]

    Jacobs T, Carbone E, Morent R, Geyter N D, Reniersb F, Leys C 2010 Surf. Interface Anal. 42 1316

    [7]

    Shirai N, Uchida S, Tochikubo F 2014 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53 046202

    [8]

    Shekhar R, Karunasagar D, Manjusha R, Arunachalam J 2009 Anal. Chem. 81 8157

    [9]

    Shen J, Sun Q, Zhang Z L, Cheng C, Lan Y, Zhang H, Xu Z M, Zhao Y, Xia W D, Chu P K 2015 Plasma Process. Polym. 12 252

    [10]

    Takai E, Kitano K, Kuwabara J, Shiraki K 2012 Plasma Process. Polym. 9 77

    [11]

    Gils C A J, Hofmann S, Boekema B K H L, Brandenburg R, Bruggeman P J 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 175203

    [12]

    Cho Y I, Wright K C, Kim H S, Cho D J, Rabinovich A, Fridman A 2015 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86 013501

    [13]

    Shutov D A, Ol’khova E O, Kostyleva A N, Bobkova E S 2014 High Energy Chem. 48 343

    [14]

    Cho Y I, Wright K C, Kim H S, Cho D J, Rabinovich A, Fridman A 2015 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86 013501

    [15]

    Lu X P, Laroussi M 2003 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 661

    [16]

    Andre P, Aubreton J, Barinov Y, Elchinger M F, Fauchais P, Faure1 G, Kaplan V, Lefort A, Rat V, Shkol’nik S 2002 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35 1846

    [17]

    Rowland S M, Lin F C 2006 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 3067

    [18]

    Lu Y, Xu S F, Zhong X X, Ostrikov K, Cvelbar U, Mariotti D 2013 Europhys. Lett. 102 15002

    [19]

    Liu J J, Hu X 2013 Plasma Sci. Technol. 15 768

    [20]

    Li X C, Zhang P P, Jia P Y, Chu J D, Chen J Y 2017 Sci. Report 7 2672

    [21]

    Zheng P C, Wang X M, Wang J M, Yu B, Liu H D, Zhang B, Yang R 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 126

    [22]

    Miao S Y, Ren C S, Wang D Z, Zhang Y T, Qi B, Wang Y N 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 126

    [23]

    Wilson A, Staack D, Farouk T, Gutsol A, Fridman A, Farouk B 2008 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 17 045001

    [24]

    Raizer Y P 1991 Gas Discharge Physics (Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg) p131

    [25]

    Staack D, Farouk B, Gutsol A, Fridman A 2005 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14 700

    [26]

    Shuaibov A K, Chuchman M P, Mesarosh L P 2014 Tech. Phys. 59 847

    [27]

    Li X C, Yuan N, Jia P Y, Chen J Y 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 093504

    [28]

    Laux C O, Spence T G, Kruger C H, Zare R N 2003 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 12 125

    [29]

    Bruggeman P, Schram D, Kong M, Leys C 2009 Plasma Process. Polym. 6 751

  • [1]

    Bruggeman P, Leys C 2009 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 053001

    [2]

    Bruggeman P, Ribezl E, Maslani A, Degroote J, Malesevic A, Rego R, Vierendeels J, Leys C 2008 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 17 025012

    [3]

    Bobkova E S, Krasnov D S, Sungurova A V, Rybkin V V, Choi H S 2016 Korean J. Chem. Eng. 33 1620

    [4]

    Webb M R, Hieftje G M 2009 Anal. Chem. 81 862

    [5]

    Shimizu T, Iwafuchi Y, Morfill G E, Sato T 2011 J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 24 421

    [6]

    Jacobs T, Carbone E, Morent R, Geyter N D, Reniersb F, Leys C 2010 Surf. Interface Anal. 42 1316

    [7]

    Shirai N, Uchida S, Tochikubo F 2014 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53 046202

    [8]

    Shekhar R, Karunasagar D, Manjusha R, Arunachalam J 2009 Anal. Chem. 81 8157

    [9]

    Shen J, Sun Q, Zhang Z L, Cheng C, Lan Y, Zhang H, Xu Z M, Zhao Y, Xia W D, Chu P K 2015 Plasma Process. Polym. 12 252

    [10]

    Takai E, Kitano K, Kuwabara J, Shiraki K 2012 Plasma Process. Polym. 9 77

    [11]

    Gils C A J, Hofmann S, Boekema B K H L, Brandenburg R, Bruggeman P J 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 175203

    [12]

    Cho Y I, Wright K C, Kim H S, Cho D J, Rabinovich A, Fridman A 2015 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86 013501

    [13]

    Shutov D A, Ol’khova E O, Kostyleva A N, Bobkova E S 2014 High Energy Chem. 48 343

    [14]

    Cho Y I, Wright K C, Kim H S, Cho D J, Rabinovich A, Fridman A 2015 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86 013501

    [15]

    Lu X P, Laroussi M 2003 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 661

    [16]

    Andre P, Aubreton J, Barinov Y, Elchinger M F, Fauchais P, Faure1 G, Kaplan V, Lefort A, Rat V, Shkol’nik S 2002 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35 1846

    [17]

    Rowland S M, Lin F C 2006 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 3067

    [18]

    Lu Y, Xu S F, Zhong X X, Ostrikov K, Cvelbar U, Mariotti D 2013 Europhys. Lett. 102 15002

    [19]

    Liu J J, Hu X 2013 Plasma Sci. Technol. 15 768

    [20]

    Li X C, Zhang P P, Jia P Y, Chu J D, Chen J Y 2017 Sci. Report 7 2672

    [21]

    Zheng P C, Wang X M, Wang J M, Yu B, Liu H D, Zhang B, Yang R 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 126

    [22]

    Miao S Y, Ren C S, Wang D Z, Zhang Y T, Qi B, Wang Y N 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 126

    [23]

    Wilson A, Staack D, Farouk T, Gutsol A, Fridman A, Farouk B 2008 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 17 045001

    [24]

    Raizer Y P 1991 Gas Discharge Physics (Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg) p131

    [25]

    Staack D, Farouk B, Gutsol A, Fridman A 2005 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14 700

    [26]

    Shuaibov A K, Chuchman M P, Mesarosh L P 2014 Tech. Phys. 59 847

    [27]

    Li X C, Yuan N, Jia P Y, Chen J Y 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 093504

    [28]

    Laux C O, Spence T G, Kruger C H, Zare R N 2003 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 12 125

    [29]

    Bruggeman P, Schram D, Kong M, Leys C 2009 Plasma Process. Polym. 6 751

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  • Received Date:  11 October 2017
  • Accepted Date:  23 January 2018
  • Published Online:  05 April 2018

Rotating characteristics of glow discharge filament on liquid electrode surface

    Corresponding author: Li Xue-Chen, plasmalab@126.com
  • 1. College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China
Fund Project:  Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11575050, 10805013), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei province, China (Grant Nos. A2015201199, A2015201092, A2016201042), One Hundred Talent Project of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. SLRC2017021), the 333 Talents Project of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2016005005), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. LJRC001), and the Midwest Universities Comprehensive Strength Promotion Project.

Abstract: Atmospheric pressure glow discharge above liquid electrode has extensive application potentials in biomedicine, chemical degradation,environmental protection,etc.In this paper,such a kind of discharge excited by a direct current voltage is generated through using a metal rod above water surface.Results show that the discharge has a ring shape on the water surface when the current is low.With increasing the discharge current,its diameter first increases,and then decreases after reaching a maximum,and finally slightly increases.In this process,the discharge transits from a conical shape to a column.Fast photography indicates that the conical discharge actually originates from the rotation of a discharge filament,which can be attributed to the effect of electronegative particles generated in the discharge channel. These electronegative particles,mainly including NO,NO2,NO3,O,O3 and OH,can increase electron attachment coefficient β,resulting in extinguishment of the original discharge channel.Due to a similar field value and a normal β coefficient,the breakdown conditions can be satisfied in a region adjacent to the original channel.Therefore,the discharge will move into the new region.Further investigation indicates that both the conical discharge and the column discharge are in a normal glow regime.By optical emission spectroscopy,it is found that the vibrational temperature,the rotational temperature and the intensity ratio of I391.4/I337.1 increase with increasing the current.Electron mobility decreases in the conical discharge due to voltage decreasing with the current.Hence,electrons have an increased possibility with which they are attracted by the electronegative particles to form negative ions.Consequently,with increasing the discharge current,more negative ions will be accumulated not only near the conical center,but also in the vicinity of the discharge channel.Obviously,there is repulsive force between the negative ions in the two regions.The repulsive force increases with increasing the discharge current,which leads to the ring diameter increasing with the current.Besides the negative ions,gas temperature plays another important role in the discharge.It increases with current increasing,leading to the decrease of gas density in the discharge channel.Hence,electrons have a reduced probability with which they are attached by electronegative particles.This factor will lead to a reduced force between less negative ions in the two regions.Consequently,after reaching its maximum,the ring diameter decreases with current increasing.If the current is high enough,the discharge channel will have a sufficiently high temperature and an adequately lower gas density, resulting in an increased electron energy as well as an increased α(the first Townsend ionization coefficient).Therefore, the discharge will be self-sustained in the original region,other than move into an adjacent region.Consequently,the column discharge appears with the current increasing to some extent.In the column discharge,more negative ions will be accumulated above the water surface with increasing the current.These negative ions extend along the water surface,which contributes to the slight diameter increase of the luminous column.These experimental results are of great significance for theoretically studying liquid anode discharge.

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