Vol. 51, No. 12 (2002)
2002, 51 (12): 2667-2670. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2667
A variant of the evolutionary minority game is proposed. Agents' strategies given by probabilities p can be changed by imitation. Numerical results show that the agents evolve into a state in which they selfsegregate into opposite groups characterized by extreme behaviours. The evolution by imitation can considerably enhance the system's coordination.
2002, 51 (12): 2671-2675. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2671
We report an application of fuzzy relations in fuzzy set theory to the calculation of the similarity between colors, and apply it to the color image retrieval, where only a membership function is used as a measure of the similarity between the characteristic color vectors of a query image and of the images in the database. A match between two colors is defined as the α-cut fuzzy relation.In the comparison process, screening with decreasing by orders for comparisons and a method of regional color vector comparison are developed, which effectively reduce the color correlation in the red-green-blue (RGB) space and save from massive unnecessary calculations. Our theoretical and experimental results show clearly the advantages of our approach in both accuracy and speed of the color image retrieval.
2002, 51 (12): 2683-2689. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2683
The stabilities of the equilibrium state in relativistic Birkhoff autonomous systems, relativistic Birkhoff semiautonomous systems and relativistic Birkhoff nonautonomous systems are studied .The equilibrium state equations are given. The disturbance equation and the first approximate equation are established. The stability criteria for the equilibrium state are obtained. The relationship between the stabilities of the equilibrium state in relativistic Birkhoff systems and classical Birkhoff systems is discussed. Several examples are presented to illustrate the results.
2002, 51 (12): 2690-2693. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2690
Using the centre operator and the initial mechanical momentum operator, four kinds of raising and lowering operators of a Landau system (planar charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field) were derived and corresponding selection rules and conserved quantum number were discussed.
2002, 51 (12): 2694-2701. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2694
By means of GCMD method, a double crisis of sinusoidally forced oscillators is studied. A double crisis vertex in a two-parameter plane is determined, at which two curves of boundary crisis and two curves of interior crisis meet and four distinct crises coincide. Physically, small parameter perturbation (noise) about such a vertex induces drastic changes in the dynamical behaviour.
2002, 51 (12): 2702-2706. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2702
Based on a coupled map lattice model, we present an approach of unilateral coupling to implement the synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos. Our numerical simulations show that the two spatiotemporal systems can accurately become synchronized by appropriately selecting the coupling strength and the equilibrium coefficient. We calculate the largest conditional Lyapunov exponent，so as to give the minimum coupling strength that can achieve the synchronization，and the functional relationship between the minimum coupling strength and the system parameters. The simulation results also indicate that this method is robust against noise.
2002, 51 (12): 2707-2712. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2707
This paper presents a predictive variable structure control method for the control and synchronization of chaotic nonlinear dynamic systems based on a unified frame for both the control and the synchronization. Two controllers are designed. One is the predictive controller for nominal model, and the other is a variable structure controller for system perturbation. The tracking control of reference signal is realized, and the method has the merit of robustness of variable structure control. The effectiveness of the proposed method are proved by numerical simulations.
2002, 51 (12): 2713-2718. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2713
Using the improved Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic model with open boundary conditions,we present the fundamental diagrams of traffic flow under different parameters by numerical simulation.It turns out that the traffic flow of the improved Nagel-Schrec-kenberg model is greater than that of the Nagel-Schreckenberg model,then we analyse the characters and critical points of the transition from free flow phase to maximum current phase and the transition from jamming phase to free flow phase.
2002, 51 (12): 2719-2729. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2719
Based on the three general strange attractors generated by the Lorenz equation, the Rssler equation and the Hénon map, the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm is analyzed. For a finite time series, the sampling number, delay time, embedding dimension and the length of scaling region affect the precision of evaluating the correlation dimension D—2 and the 2nd-order Kolmogorov entropy K—2 by G-P algorithm. In the analysis of the trend of a correlation integral, the impression for a continuous dynamical system is different from that of a discrete dynamical system in delay time and embedding dimension. The criterion of delay time chosen by mutual information is unnecessary for calculating the correlation dimension D—2. The applicable conditions for G-P algorithm is also indicated.
Pressure difference between inside and outside of a drop and its critical radius in dropwise condensation
2002, 51 (12): 2730-2732. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2730
It was proved using the thermodynamic method that the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a liquid drop sitting on a solid surface follows the classical Laplace equation, and this was further validated using the mechanics method. Such a pressure difference depends only on the surface tension of the liquid and the radius of the drop but is independent of the liquidsolid contact angle.Similarly, the critical radius of a drop in dropwise condensation is also independent of the contact angle and can be calculated using the classical Kalvin equation.
ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
Theoretical calculation of the fine-structure and term energy of the excited states 1s~2 nd(n=3,4,5 of lithium-like systems
2002, 51 (12): 2733-2739. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2733
The fullcore plus correlation (FCPC) and the minimiziation of the expectation value of the Hamiltonian method is extended to calculate the nonreltivistic energies and the wave functions of 1s~2 nd(n=3,4,5) states for the lithium like systems from Z=11 to 20. The mass-polarization and the relativistic correction including the kinetic-energy correction, the Darwin term, the electron-electron contact term, and the orbitorbit interaction are calculated perturbatively as the first-order correction. The contribution from quantum electrodynamics (QED) is also included by using the effective nuclear charge formula. The excited energies, finestructure, and the termenergy are given and compared with other theoretical calculation and experimental results. It is shown that the correlative wave in the FCPC method embodies very well the strong correlation effect between the 1s~2 core and the valence electron.
2002, 51 (12): 2740-2744. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2740
Ab initio calculations of the rate coefficients for dielectronic recombination from Felike Au53+ to Galike Au48+ ions are performed based on Cowan's quasirelativistic multiconfiguration HartreeFockRelativistic code and distorted wave approaches. A large number of single excited states and doublyexcited states are included in the present calculation. Because of the extensive distribution of autoionization state energy levels and complicated cascade effects, the dielectronic recombination rate coefficients at higher Z are different from those at lower Z's. The results indicate that the error between our work and other theories is less then 10% in the diagnosed electron temperature and density. It is feasible to simulate the average ionized state and charge state distributions in a well characterized highly ionized Au plasma.
CLASSICAL AREA OF PHENOMENOLOGY
Three stage polarization mode dispersion compensator capable of compensating second order polarization mode dispersion
2002, 51 (12): 2745-2749. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2745
The impacts of polarization\|dependent dispersion on systems are investigated brefly, based on which we propose a threestage higherorder polarization mode dispersion(PMD) compensation scheme. Theoretical analysis shows that it is capable of compensating polarization\|dependent dispersion and principal states of polarization rotation rate at the same time. The two possible operating points of this compensator are proposed. Numerical results show that the maximum tolerable PMD value after threestage compensation has been improved by 17% per bitslot than that using twostage compensator.
2002, 51 (12): 2750-2755. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2750
Output characteristics of a tunable fiber ring laser are studied both by theoretical modeling and by experimentation. Dependencies of laser output power on lasing wavelength, pump power, erbiumdoped fiber (EDF) length, output coupling ratio, and intracavity loss are demonstrated by using a simple theoretical model. It is shown that a wide tunable range over 130nm (i.e.1500—1630nm) can be obtained through parameter optimization. As a result, the laser with a tunable range up to 100nm, high output power, and high signaltonoise ratio in most of the tunable range has been achieved in experimentation. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical modeling results.
Study on passive Q switched Nd∶YVO—4 laser with GaAs asa passive Q switched component and output coupler
2002, 51 (12): 2756-2760. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2756
Passive Q switched operation of a laser diodepumped laser is studied with a saturable absorber GaAs as a passive Q switched component and F-P output coupler. The Q switched pulse duration is 47ns, pulse repetition rate is 1183 kHz, pulse average power is 430mW, beam quality M 2 is equal to 1 13 and the laser threshold of passive Q switching is 1700mW. We performed numerical calculations of coupled wave equations for the case of GaAs playing the role as mentioned above, discussed the passive Q switched mechanism and the dependence of pulse duration, pulse repetition rate and average power on the pumping rate and laser cavity length, which was in good agreement with the experimental results. A brief and effective technique is provided for compact Q switched solidstate laser having multiple functions.
The dynamic conversion from self-defocusing to self-focusing and the phase conjugate bright spatial soliton*
2002, 51 (12): 2761-2766. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2761
We have further studied experimentally and theoretically the process of conversion from self-defocusing to self-focusing in LiNbO—3:Fe crystals, which was reported in Acta Phys.Sin.[STHZ]50[STBZ] 483. Based on our experimental result, we have proposed a new type of theoretical model of phase conjugate resonant cavity, analyzed the role of the cavity in the process of conversion from self-defocusing to selffocusing. We have also proposed a new type of bright spatial soliton, i.e.,the phase conjugate bright spatial soliton, and indicated that the bright spatial soliton is a mode in the phase conjugate resonate cavity.
2002, 51 (12): 2767-2771. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2767
Brillouin amplifier was numerically simulated by using the theoretic model of transient stimulated Brillouin scattering. Wehave oblained the depleted pump energy extract efficiency, Stokes seed amplification factor, seed beam pulse\|width compression ratio and pump beam pulse\|width compression ratio versus the ratio of seed to pump energy. Experiment was done so as to verify the theory. The theoretical calculation was in good agreement with experimental results.
Modulation on dynamical evolution of Gaussian beam in an unbiased serial photorefractive crystal circuit*
2002, 51 (12): 2772-2777. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2772
Based on the theory of one\|dimensional separate spatial soliton pair formed in an unbiased serial photorefractive(PR) crystal circuit consis-ting of two PR crystals connected by electrodes, the mutual dependences of the two solitons are investigated. When a dark soliton beam and a Gaussian beam are incident on the two PR crystals, respectively, the effects of changing the peak intensity of the dark soliton on the propagating property of the Gaussian beam are discussed by numerical calculations. The result shows that the dynamical evolution of Gaussian beam in one crystal can be modulated by changing the intensity of the dark soliton in the other in the circuit. By this way one can determine whether the Gaussian beam could evolve into a solitary wave or ont.
PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES
2002, 51 (12): 2778-2785. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2778
The atmospheric pressure discharge in an air gap between two dielectric barrier electrodes has been studied experimentally and the development of an electron avalanche in such an air gap was simulated numerically. The results show that, while it is possible to obtain glow discharge in an air gap not longer than 2 mm, the streamer discharge could only be obtained in an air gap longer than 5 mm if no methods could be used to lower the electric field when discharging. The "iontrapping mechanism", which was said to be responsible for the atmospheric pressure glow discharge, was not verified in the experiments.
CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES
2002, 51 (12): 2786-2792. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2786
In this paper, two forms of surface energy of the biaxial nematic liquid crystal are derived. One is related to the deviation of surface directors with respect to the easy axes０,０ and０in the surface. The other is related to the surface order parameter matrix Q. The relations between the two forms are derived. In the former one, four independent coefficients are involved while in the latter one, only two independent coefficients are involved. In order to inspect the physical meaning of these coefficients, a simple model of molecular interaction between liquid crystal and boundary plate is proposed. In the model, the biaxial orientation of molecules along０and 0 is assumed to arise from two perpendicular mean fields along 0,０competing with each other. In three geometric features of Freedericksz transition where and rotate around 0， [WTHX][AKb^][WTBZ] and [WTHX][AKc^D][WTBZ] around [WTHX][AKa^D][WTBZ]0,[WTHX][AKc^D][WTBZ] and [WTHX][AKa^D][WTBZ] around [WTHX][AKb^][WTBZ]０ respectively, possible experimental measurements of surface anchoring coefficients [WTBX]Wa,Wb[WTBZ] and [WTBX]Wc[WTBZ] involved in the distortions are explored.
Influence of metal ions on the morphology and phase composition of titanium dioxide in TiO-2 muscovite nanocomposites*
2002, 51 (12): 2793-2797. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2793
ＳｏｍｅｓａｍｐｌｅｓｏｆＴｉＯ2 ｍｕｓｃｏｖｉｔｅｎａｎｏｃｏｍｐｏｓｉｔｅｕｎｄｏｐｅｄａｎｄｄｏｐｅｄｗｉｔｈｍｅｔａｌｉｏｎｓｗｅｒｅｐｒｅｐａｒｅｄｂｙｃｈｅｍｉｃａｌｌｉｑｕｉｄｐｈａｓａ ｄｅｐｏｓｉｔｉｏｎ .ＴｈｅｍｏｒｐｈｏｌｏｇｙａｎｄｐｈａｓｅｃｏｍｐｏｓｉｔｉｏｎｏｆＴｉＯ2 ｆｉｌｍｗｅｒｅｓｔｕｄｉｅｄｂｙｓｃａｎｎｉｎｇｅｌｅｃｔｒｏｎｍｉｃｒｏｓｃｏｐｙａｎｄｘ ｒａｙｄｉｆｆｒａｃｔｉｏｎ.ＴｈｅｒｅｓｕｌｔｓｓｈｏｗｅｄｔｈａｔｔｈｅｇｒａｉｎｓｉｚｅｏｆｔｈｅＴｉＯ2 ｐａｒｔｉｃｌｅｓｒａｎｇｅｓｆｒｏｍ 1 5ｔｏ 50ｎｍ .Ｂｅｓｉｄｅｓｃｉｒｃｕｌａｒｇｒａｉｎｓ,ｔｈｅｒｅｗｅｒｅｓｏｍｅｅｕｈｅｄｒａｌｒｕｔｉｌｅｇｒａｉｎｓｉｎｔｈｅｓａｍｐｌｅｓｄｏｐｅｄｗｉｔｈＺｎ2 +ａｎｄＭｎ2 +ｉｏｎｓ.ＲｕｔｉｌｅａｎｄａｎａｔａｓｅｗｅｒｅｆｏｕｎｄｉｎｔｈｅＴｉＯ2 ｆｉｌｍ .ＴｈｅｉｎｆｌｕｅｎｃｅｏｆｄｏｐｅｄｍｅｔａｌｉｏｎｓｏｎｔｈｅｐｈａｓｅｃｏｍｐｏｓｉｔｉｏｎｏｆＴｉＯ2 ｆｉｌｍｗａｓｄｅｔｅｒｍｉｎｅｄｂｙｒａｄｉｕｓ,ｃｈａｒｇｅａｎｄｌｉｇａｎｄｏｆｍｅｔａｌｉｏｎｓ
2002, 51 (12): 2798-2803. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2798
Ｍｏｌｅｃｕｌａｒｄｙｎａｍｉｃｓｓｉｍｕｌａｔｉｏｎｓｈａｖｅｂｅｅｎａｐｐｌｉｅｄｔｏｔｈｅｉｎｖｅｓｔｉｇａｔｉｏｎｏｆｔｈｅｄｅｐｏｓｉｔｉｏｎｏｆｌｏｗ ｅｎｅｒｇｙＰｔ3 8,Ｐｔ1 41 ,ａｎｄＰｔ2 6 6ｃｌｕｓｔｅｒｓｏｎＰｔ(0 0 1 )ｓｕｒｆａｃｅ .Ｔｈｅｅｖｏｌｕｔｉｏｎｐｒｏｃｅｓｓｏｆｃｌｕｓｔｅｒｄｅｐｏｓｉｔｉｏｎｗｉｔｈａｔｏｍｉｃａｖｅｒａｇｅｋｉｎｅｔｉｃｅｎｅｒｇｉｅｓ (Ｅａ)ｏｆ0 .1 ,1 .0ａｎｄ 1 0ｅＶａｎｄｔｈｅｅｆｆｅｃｔｓｏｎｔｈｅｓｕｂｓｔｒａｔｅｓｕｒｆａｃｅｍｏｒｐｈｏｌｏｇｙｈａｖｅｂｅｅｎａｎａｌｙｚｅｄ.ＳｉｍｕｌａｔｉｏｎｒｅｓｕｌｔｓｓｈｏｗｔｈａｔＥａｉｓａｎｉｍｐｏｒｔａｎｔｐａｒａｍｅｔｅｒｔｏｄｅｓｃｒｉｂｅｂｅｈａｖｉｏｕｒｓｏｆｔｈｅｃｌｕｓｔｅｓ.ＣｌｕｓｔｅｒｓｗｉｔｈｌｏｗＥａｃａｎｎｏｔｄａｍａｇｅｔｈｅｓｕｒｆａｃｅｌａｔｔｉｃｅｓｅｒｉｏｕｓｌｙａｎｄｔｈｅｃｌｕｓｔｅｒｓｃａｎｂｅｃｏｎｓｉｄｅｒｅｄａｓａｄｅｐｏｓｉｔｉｏｎｃｌｕｓｔｅｒ.ＴｈｅｐｏｗｅｒｏｆｃｌｕｓｔｅｒｄａｍａｇｉｎｇｓｕｒｆａｃｅｌａｔｔｉｃｅｉｎｃｒｅａｓｅｓｗｉｔｈｔｈｅｉｎｃｒｅａｓｅｏｆＥａ.ＷｈｅｎＥａ=1 0ｅＶ ,ｔｈｅｃｌｕｓｔｅｒｓｃａｎｉｍｐｌａｎｔｉｎｔｏｔｈｅｓｕｂｓｔｒａｔｅ.ＴｈｅｅｆｆｅｃｔｓｏｆｌｏｗｅｎｅｒｇｅｔｉｃｃｌｕｓｔｅｒｓｏｎｓｕｂｓｔｒａｔｅｓｕｒｆａｃｅｍｏｒｐｈｏｌｏｇｙａｒｅａｌｓｏｄｅｔｅｒｍｉｎｅｄｂｙＥａ.Ｔｈｅｅｆｆｅｃｔｓｏｆｃｌｕｓｔｅｒｓｗｉｔｈｍｏｒｅａｔｏｍｓ,ｈｏｗｅｖｅｒ,ａｒｅｓｔｒｏｎｇｅｒｔｈａｎｔｈａｔｗｉｔｈｆｅｗｅｒａｔｏｍｓ.Ｔｈｅｍｅｃｈａ ｎｉｓｍｓｏｆｔｈｅｉｎｔｅｒａｃｔｉｏｎｓｂｅｔｗｅｅｎｌｏｗ ｅｎｅｒｇｙｃｌｕｓｔｅｒｓａｎｄｓｕｂｓｔｒａｔｅｓｕｒｆａｃｅａｒｅａｌｓｏｄｉｓｃｕｓｓｅｄｉｎｔｈｉｓｐａｐｅｒ
CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES
2002, 51 (12): 2804-2811. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2804
Ｗｅｐｒｅｓｅｎｔａｔｈｅｏｒｅｔｉｃａｌｃａｌｃｕｌａｔｉｏｎｏｎｔｈｅａｔｏｍｉｃａｎｄｅｌｅｃｔｒｏｎｉｃｓｔｒｕｃｔｕｒｅｏｆα ＳｉＣａｎｄｉｔｓｎｏｎ ｐｏｌａｒ(1 0 1 0 )ｓｕｒｆａｃｅｕｓｉｎｇｔｈｅｆｕｌｌ ｐｏｔｅｎｔｉａｌ ｌｉｎｅａｒ ａｕｇｍｅｎｔｅｄ ｐｌａｎｅ ｗａｖｅ (ＦＰＬＡＰＷ)ａｐｐｒｏａｃｈ.Ｔｈｅｃａｌｃｕｌａｔｅｄｌａｔｔｉｃｅｃｏｎｓｔａｎｔｓａｎｄｂｕｌｋｍｏｄｕｌｕｓｏｆα ＳｉＣｃｒｙｓｔａｌａｒｅｉｎｅｘｃｅｌｌｅｎｔａｇｒｅｅｍｅｎｔｗｉｔｈｅｘｐｅｒｉｍｅｎｔａｌｄａｔａ .Ｔｈｅａｔｏｍｉｃａｎｄｅｌｅｃｔｒｏｎｉｃｓｔｒｕｃｔｕｒｅｏｆα ＳｉＣ (1 0 1 0 )ｓｕｒｆａｃｅｈａｖｅｂｅｅｎｃａｌｃｕｌａｔｅｄｂｙｅｍｐｌｏｙｉｎｇｓｌａｂａｎｄｓｕｐｅｒｃｅｌｌｍｏｄｅｌｓ.Ｉｔｉｓｆｏｕｎｄｔｈａｔｔｈｅｓｕｒｆａｃｅｉｓｃｈａｒａｃｔｅｒｉｚｅｄｂｙａｔｏｐ ｌａｙｅｒｂｏｎｄ ｌｅｎｇｔｈ ｃｏｎｔｒａｃｔｉｎｇｒｏｔａｔｉｏｎｒｅｌａｘａｔｉｏｎｉｎｗｈｉｃｈｂｏｔｈＳｉａｎｄＣａｔｏｍｓｈａｖｅｔｈｅｔｅｎｄｅｎｃｙｔｏｍｏｖｅｄｏｗｎｔｏｗａｒｄｔｈｅｂｕｌｋｔｏｆｏｒｍｐｌａｎａｒｃｏｎｆｉｇｕ ｒａｔｉｏｎｗｉｔｈｔｈｅｉｒｎｅｉｇｈｂｏｕｒｓａｎｄＳｉｍｏｖｅｓｆｕｒｔｈｅｒｔｏｗａｒｄｔｈｅｂｕｌｋｔｈａｎＣｄｏｅｓ.Ｆｕｒｔｈｅｒｍｏｒｅ ,ｓｕｒｆａｃｅｒｅｌａｘａｔｉｏｎｉｎｄｕｃｅｓｔｈｅｔｒａｎｓｆｏｒｍａｔｉｏｎｆｒｏｍｓｅｍｉ ｍｅｔａｌｌｉｃｔｏｓｅｍｉｃｏｎｄｕｃｔｉｎｇｃｈａｒａｃｔｅｒｉｚａｔｉｏn
2002, 51 (12): 2812-2817. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2812
Ｗｅｒｅｐｏｒｔｔｈｅｐａｒｔｉｃｕｌａｒｓａｍｐｌｅｐｒｅｐａｒａｔｉｏｎｍｅｔｈｏｄａｎｄｔｈｅｅｘｐｅｒｉｍｅｎｔａｌｒｅｓｕｌｔｓｏｆｔｈｅｌｏｗ ｔｅｍｐｅｒａｔｕｒｅｒｅｓｉｓｔａｎｃｅａｎｄｓｐｅ ｃｉｆｉｃｈｅａｔｏｆｈｅａｖｙｅｌｅｃｔｒｏｎｍｅｔａｌｓＣｅＣｕ6 -ｘＺｎｘ(ｘ=0 .0 5,0 .1 0 ,0 .1 5,0 .2 0 ,0 . 3 0 ) .ＴｈｅｐｈｙｓｉｃａｌｏｒｉｇｉｎｆｏｒｔｈｅｅｆｆｅｃｔｏｆｔｈｅＺｎｃｏｎｔｅｎｔｏｎｔｈｅｌｏｗ ｔｅｍｐｅｒａｔｕｒｅｐｒｏｐｅｒｔｉｅｓｏｆＣｅＣｕ6 -ｘＺｎｘａｒｅｓｔｕｄｉｅｄ.ＷｅｆｉｎｄｔｈａｔｂｏｔｈｔｈｅｃｏｅｆｆｉｃｉｅｎｔｃｏｆＫｏｎｄｏｓｃａｔｔｅｒｉｎｇｔｅｒｍａｎｄｔｈｅＴｍａｘｃｏｒｒｅｓｐｏｎｄｉｎｇｔｏｔｈｅｍａｘｉｍａｌｒｅｓｉｓｔａｎｃｅｄｅｃｒｅａｓｅｓｗｉｔｈｉｎｃｒｅａｓｉｎｇＺｎｃｏｎｔｅｎｔ.ＷｈｉｌｅｔｈｅＤｅｂｙｅｔｅｍｐｅｒａｔｕｒｅｏｆＣｅＣｕ6 -ｘＺｎｘｓｌｉｇｈｔｌｙｇｏｕｐｗｉｔｈｉｎｃｒｅａｓｉｎｇＺｎｃｏｎｔｅｎt.
2002, 51 (12): 2818-2822. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2818
Ｉｎｔｈｉｓｐａｐｅｒ,ｗｅｄｉｓｃｕｓｓｔｈｅｏｒｅｔｉｃａｌｌｙｔｈｅｓｏｌｉｔｏｎｐｒｏｐｅｒｔｉｅｓｏｆｌｉｇｈｔｐｕｌｓｅｔｒａｎｓｐｏｒｔａｔｉｏｎｏｒｉｇｉｎａｔｉｎｇｆｒｏｍｓｔｒｏｎｇｎｏｎｌｉｎｅａｒｉｎ ｔｅｒａｃｔｉｏｎｓｂｅｔｗｅｅｎｉｏｎｓｉｎｕｎｉｔｃｅｌｌｓｏｆｉｏｎｉｃｃｒｙｓｔａｌｓ,ａｎｄａｎａｌｙｚｅｉｎｄｅｔａｉｌｔｈｅｂｒｉｇｈｔｓｏｌｉｔｏｎｓａｎｄｄａｒｋｓｏｌｉｔｏｎｓｗｈｅｎｔｈｅｎｏｎｌｉｎｅａｒｃｏｅｆｆｉｃｉｅｎｔｇｉｓｐｏｓｉｔｉｖｅａｎｄｎｅｇａｔｉｖｅ.Ｉｔｉｓｆｏｕｎｄｔｈａｔｗｈｅｔｈｅｒｔｈｅｎｏｎｌｉｎｅａｒｃｏｅｆｆｉｃｉｅｎｔｇｉｓｐｏｓｉｔｉｖｅｏｒｎｅｇａｔｉｖｅ,ｔｈｅｂｒｉｇｈｔｓｏｌｉｔｏｎｓｃａｎｂｅｏｂｔａｉｎｅｄｏｖｅｒｔｈｅｌｏｎｇｉｔｕｄｉｎａｌｏｐｔｉｃａｌｐｈｏｎｏｎｆｒｅｑｕｅｎｃｙωＬＯ.Ｆｏｒｇ >0 ,ｄａｒｋｓｏｌｉｔｏｎｓｃａｎｂｅｆｏｒｍｅｄｕｎｄｅｒｔｈｅｔｒａｎｓｖｅｒｓｅｏｐｔｉｃａｌｐｈｏｎｏｎｆｒｅｑｕｅｎｃｙωＴＯ,ｗｈａｔｓｈｏｕｌｄｂｅｐａｙｅｄａｔｔｅｎｔｉｏｎｔｏｉｓｔｈａｔｂｅｔｗｅｅｎωＴＯａｎｄωＬＯ,ｔｈｅｌｉｇｈｔｐｕｌｓｅｃａｎｆｏｒｍａｄｖａｎｃｅｄｄａｒｋｓｏｌｉｔｏｎｓ.Ｆｏｒｇ <0 ,ｔｈｅｒｅｉｓａｓｗｉｔｃｈｉｎｇａｒｅａｆｒｏｍｔｈｅａｄｖａｎｃｅｄｂｉｇｈｔｓｏｌｉｔｏｎｔｏｒｅｔａｒｄｅｄｄａｒｋｓｏｌｉｔｏｎｎｅａｒｂｕｔｂｅｌｏｗωＴＯ.Ｗｅａｌｓｏｄｉｓｃｕｓｓｔｈｅｅｆｆｅｃｔｓｏｆｈｉｇｈｅｒｎｏｎｌｉｎｅａｒｄｉｓｐｅｒｓｉｏｎｓｏｎｔｈｅｓｏｌｉｔｏｎｓ.
ＥｆｆｅｃｔｓｏｆＢａｆｉｌｌｉｎｇｆｒａｃｔｉｏｎａｎｄＮｉｃｏｎｔｅｎｔｏｎｔｈｅｔｈｅｒｍｏｅｌｅｃｔｒｉｃｐｒｏｐｅｒｔｉｅｓｏｆｎ ｔｙｐｅＢａｙＮｉｘＣｏ4-ｘＳｂ1 2 (ｘ =0— 0.1 ,ｙ= 0— 0.4)ｗｅｒｅｉｎｖｅｓｔｉｇａｔｅｄ .ＴｈｅｒｍａｌｃｏｎｄｕｃｔｉｖｉｔｙｄｅｃｒｅａｓｅｄｗｉｔｈｉｎｃｒｅａｓｉｎｇＢａｆｉｌｌｉｎｇｆｒａｃｔｉｏｎａｎｄｔｅｍｐｅｒａｔｕｒｅ.Ｗｈｅｎｙｗａｓｆｉｘｅｄａｔ0 .3 ,ｔｈｅｔｈｅｒｍａｌｃｏｎｄｕｃｔｉｖｉｔｙｄｅｃｒｅａｓｅｄｗｉｔｈｉｎｃｒｅａｓｉｎｇＮｉｃｏｎｔｅｎｔ,ａｎｄｒｅａｃｈｅｄａｍｉｎｉｍｕｍｖａｌｕｅａｔａｂｏｕｔｘ=0 . 0 5.ＬａｔｔｉｃｅｔｈｅｒｍａｌｃｏｎｄｕｃｔｉｖｉｔｙｄｅｃｒｅａｓｅｄｗｉｔｈｉｎｃｒｅａｓｉｎｇＮｉｃｏｎｔｅｎｔ,ｍｏｎｏｔｏｎｉｃａｌｌｙ (ｙ≤ 0 .1 ) .Ｅｌｅｃｔｒｏｎｃｏｎｃｅｎｔｒａｔｉｏｎａｎｄｅｌｅｃｔｒｉ ｃａｌｃｏｎｄｕｃｔｉｖｉｔｙｉｎｃｒｅａｓｅｄｗｉｔｈｉｎｃｒｅａｓｉｎｇＢａｆｉｌｌｉｎｇｆｒａｃｔｉｏｎａｎｄＮｉｃｏｎｔｅｎｔ.ＳｅｅｂｅｃｋｃｏｅｆｆｉｃｉｅｎｔｄｅｃｒｅａｓｅｄｗｉｔｈｉｎｃｒｅａｓｉｎｇＢａｆｉｌｌ ｉｎｇｆｒａｃｔｉｏｎａｎｄＮｉｃｏｎｔｅｎｔ.ＴｈｅｍａｘｉｍｕｍＺＴｖａｌｕｅｏｆ1 .2ｗａｓｏｂｔａｉｎｅｄａｔａｂｏｕｔ90 0Ｋｆｏｒｎ ｔｙｐｅＢａ0 . 3 Ｎｉ0 . 0 5Ｃｏ3 . 95Ｓｂ1 2
Ｂａｓｅｄｏｎａｎｅｑｕｉｖａｌｅｎｔｃｉｒｃｕｉｔｆｏｒｓｉｎｇｌｅ ｅｌｅｃｔｒｏｎｔｒａｎｓｉｓｔｏｒｓ,ｔｈｅｅｌｅｃｔｒｏｓｔａｔｉｃｅｎｅｒｇｙｏｎｔｈｅｃｈａｒｇｅｓｉｓｄｅｄｕｃｅｄ .ＴｈｅｔｒａｎｓｉｓｔｏｒｃａｎｂｅｅｉｔｈｅｒａｔＣｏｕｌｏｍｂｂｌｏｃｋａｄｅｏｒｃｏｎｄｕｃｔｉｎｇｕｎｄｅｒｖａｒｉｏｕｓｇａｔｅｖｏｌｔａｇｅｓａｎｄｂｉａｓｖｏｌｔａｇｅｓａｌｏｎｇｔｈｅｓｉｎｇｌｅ ｅｌｅｃｔｒｏｎｔｒａｎｓｉｓｔｏｒ.Ｉｔｓｓｔａｂｉｌｉｔｙｄｉａｇｒａｍｓａｒｅｇｉｖｅｎａｎｄｄｉｓｃｕｓｓｅｄ.
2002, 51 (12): 2836-2841. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2836
Ｂａｓｅｄｏｎｔｈｅｃｏｎｃｅｐｔｏｆｆｒｅｅｖｏｌｕｍｅｉｎｇｒａｉｎｂｏｕｎｄａｒｙ ,ａｕｎｉｆｉｅｄｍｏｄｅｌｆｏｒ1 ｆｎｏｉｓｅａｎｄ 1 ｆ2 ｎｏｉｓｅｉｎｍｅｔａｌｆｉｌｍｉｓｐｒｏ ｐｏｓｅｄ.Ｉｔｉｓｓｈｏｗｎｆｒｏｍｔｈｅｍｏｄｅｌｔｈａｔｔｈｅｎｏｉｓｅｉｎｔｈｅｍｅｔａｌｆｉｌｍｗｉｔｈｐｅｒｆｅｃｔｐｏｌｙｃｒｙｓｔａｌｌｉｎｅｓｔｒｕｃｔｕｒｅａｐｐｅａｒｓｔｏｂｅ 1 ｆｔｙｐｅ,ｗｈｉｌｅ 1 ｆ2 ｃｏｍｐｏｎｅｎｔｉｓｉｎｔｒｏｄｕｃｅｄｗｈｅｎｔｈｅｆｉｌｍｉｓｓｕｂｊｅｃｔｅｄｔｏａｃｅｒｔａｉｎｅｌｅｔｒｏｍｉｇｒａｔｉｏｎｓｔｒｅｓｓａｎｄｔｈｅｖｏｉｄｓｔｈｕｓｉｎｄｕｃｅｄ.Ｉｔｉｓｏｂｓｅｒｖｅｄｉｎｔｈｅｅｌｅｃｔｒｏｍｉｇｒａｔｉｏｎｓｔｒｅｓｓｔｅｓｔｃｏｎｄｕｃｔｅｄｂｙｐｒｅｓｅｎｔａｕｔｈｏｒｓｔｈａｔγｉｓ1 0ｏｒｓｏｆｏｒｔｈｅｍｅａｓｕｒｅｄ 1 ｆγ ｎｏｉｓｅｉｎｔｈｅｍｅｔａｌｆｉｌｍｉｎｔｈｅｉｎｉｔｉａｌｓｔａｇｅｓｏｆｔｈｅｔｅｓｔ,ｂｕｔγａｂｒｕｐｔｌｙｉｎｃｒｅａｓｅｄｔｏｏｖｅｒ1 6ａｓｓｏｏｎａｓｔｈｅｖｏｉｄｓａｒｅｆｏｒｍｅｄ .Ｔｈｉｓａｇｒｅｅｓｗｉｔｈｔｈｅｐｒｅｄｉｃｔｉｏｎｏｆｔｈｅｄｅｖｅｌｏｐｅｄｍｏｄｅｌ.
2002, 51 (12): 2842-2845. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2842
ＳｕｐｅｒｃｏｎｄｕｃｔｉｎｇＭｇＢ2 ｔｈｉｎｆｉｌｍｓｗｅｒｅｆａｂｒｉｃａｔｅｄｂｙａｔｗｏ ｓｔｅｐｍｅｔｈｏｄ.Ｂｏｒｏｎｔｈｉｎｆｉｌｍｓｗｅｒｅｄｅｐｏｓｉｔｅｄｂｙｐｕｌｓｅｄｌａｓｅｒ ｄｅｐｏｓｉｔｉｏｎｆｏｌｌｏｗｅｄｂｙａｎｅｘ ｓｉｔｕａｎｎｅａｌｉｎｇｐｒｏｃｅｓｓ.Ｓｃａｎｎｉｎｇｅｌｅｃｔｒｏｎｍｉｃｒｏｓｃｏｐｙ ,ｘ ｒａｙｄｉｆｆｒａｃｔｉｏｎ ,ｒｅｓｉｓｔａｎｃｅａｎｄｍａｇｎｅｔｉｃｍｅａｓｕｒｅｍｅｎｔｓｗｅｒｅｃａｒｒｉｅｄｏｕｔｔｏｓｔｕｄｙｔｈｅｅｆｆｅｃｔｏｆｔｈｅｄｅｐｏｓｉｔｉｏｎｔｅｍｐｅｒａｔｕｒｅｏｆＢｆｉｌｍｓｏｎｔｈｅｓｕｐｅｒｃｏｎｄｕｃｔｉｖｉｔｙｏｆＭｇＢ2 ｔｈｉｎｆｉｌｍｓ.ＴｈｅＴｏｎｓｅｔｃ ａｎｄＪｃｏｆｔｈｅＭｇＢ2 ｔｈｉｎｆｉｌｍｓｉｎｃｒｅａｓｅｗｉｔｈｔｈｅｄｅｃｒｅａｓｅｏｆｔｈｅｄｅｐｏｓｉｔｉｏｎｔｅｍｐｅｒａｔｕｒｅ.ＴｈｅＭｇＢ2 ｔｈｉｎｆｉｌｍｓｐｒｅ ｐａｒｅｄａｔ3 0 0℃ａｐｐｅａｒｔｏｈａｖｅａＴｏｎｓｅｔｃ ｏｆ3 9 5ＫａｎｄａＪｃｏｆ1 . 3× 1 0 7Ａ·ｃｍ-2 ａｔ1 5Ｋｉｎｚｅｒｏｆｉｅｌｄ .
2002, 51 (12): 2846-2848. doi: 10.7498/aps.51.2846
Ｍａｇｎｅｔｉｚａｔｉｏｎｉｓｃａｌｃｕｌａｔｅｄａｔ4 2Ｋｕｎｄｅｒａｈｉｇｈｍａｇｎｅｔｉｃｆｉｅｌｄｕｓｉｎｇｑｕａｎｔｕｍｔｈｅｏｒｙｗｈｅｎｔｈｅｍａｇｎｅｔｉｃｆｉｅｌｄｉｓａｐｐｌｉｅｄ ｐａｒａｌｌｅｌｔｏ[0 0 1 ],[1 0 0 ],[1 1 0 ]ａｎｄ [1 1 1 ]ｄｉｒｅｃｔｉｏｎｓ.Ａｓｔｒｏｎｇａｎｉｓｏｔｒｏｐｙｏｆｍａｇｎｅｔｉｚａｔｉｏｎｉｓｏｂｓｅｒｖｅｄ .Ａｔｌｏｗｔｅｍｐｅｒａｔｕｒｅ,ｔｈｅｍａｇｎｅｔｉｚａｔｉｏｎｉｓａｌｉｎｅａｒｆｕｎｃｔｉｏｎｏｆｔｈｅｍａｇｎｅｔｉｃｆｉｅｌｄａｐｐｌｉｅｄｗｈｅｎｔｈｅｆｉｅｌｄｉｓｗｅａｋ